Muhammed was born in a rich family of merchants from Mecca
Muhammed fled to the city of Medina
The authorities persecuted him because of his ideas. In 622, Muhammed fled to the city of Medina. This event is called the Hijra (marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar)
Arabian tribes converted to Islam
Many Arabian tribes converted to Islam from 630 onwards and were united under the authority of Medina.
The 4 caliphs
They are Muhammed`s caliphate relatives
Jun 8, 632
Muhammed died in 632
End of the 4 caliphs. The beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, great territorial expansion in the Iberian Peninsula
Battle of Guadalete
A Muslim army crossed from north of Africa and defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete. Rodrigo died.
Muslims conquered the Berber tribes
They conquered the Berber tribes in North Africa, took over most of the Iberian Peninsula
The dependent Emirate
After the military conquest, Al Andalus became a province or emirate that was dependent on the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus
Battle of Poitiers
Muslims attacked the Frankish kingdom,where they were beaten in the Battle of Poitiers and forced to retreat south of the Pyrenees
End of the Umayyad dynasty and the beginning of the Abbasid caliphate, Al Alandalus and Egypt were in crisis and lost territories.
The independent Emirate
End of the dependent Emirate. Beginning of the independent Emirate
Abderramán I. Political independence but religious dependence from the Caliphate of Baghdad.
The Caliphate of Cordoba
End of the independent Emirate. Beginning of the Caliphate of Cordoba. Abderraman III founded it (political and religious independence). It was the golden age of Al Andalus: economic prosperity, cultural development, art...
The Taifa Kingdoms
End of the Caliphate of Cordoba and the beginning of the Taifa Kingdoms
· Al- Andalus divided into small and weak kigdoms
·Almoravids in the 11 century
·Almohads and Battle of Navas de Tolosa
The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
End of the Taifa Kingdoms. Beginning of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.Payment of taxes to Castilla (parias).
End of the Abbasid caliphate and the beginning of the Ottoman Turk,they conquered Constantinople.