French Revolution

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    Deficit Spending

    Deficit SpendingDuring the rule of Louis XIV, France's government was plunged into deep debt due to the deficit spending of their king. Louis the XIV spent huge amounts of money to build enormous palaces for himself. From this point foward, France had trouble trying to pay off it's large amounts of debt. In addition, the Seven Years War, and the American Revolution made the debt larger.
  • Economic Reform

    Economic Reform
    By 1788, a bad harvest in France sent food prices soaring, and left many people starving. Riots were also becoming very common, so something had to be done. Louis the XVI chose Jacques Necker, a financial expert, to advise him in reforming the government. Necker wanted the king to reduce court spending and tax the First and Second Estates, but when the nobles and clergy heard about this they forced the king to dismiss Necter, ending the chance of a peaceful reform.
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    Louis XVI Calls the Estates-General

    Estates-GeneralIn 1789 Louis XVI called the Estates-General for the first time in 175 years. Instead of voting "normally" where each estate had one vote, the Third Estate wanted all three estates to meet in one group, and votes to be counted "by head". After many weeks with no progress being made, the Third Estate declared that they were now the National Assembley, and when they found their meeting hall locked, they took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing to continue to meet until they made a just constitution.
  • Parisians Storm the Bastille

    Parisians Storm the Bastille
    On July 14, 1789, rumors spread that royal troops were going to take over Paris. Parisians gathered outside the Bastille demanding weapons and gunpowder that they thought was stored there. When the commander of the Bastille refused to open the gates, the mob killed the commander and five guards. They also released prisoners who were held there, and tore down parts of the Bastille, but found no weapons. This protest was a "wake-up call" to Louis XVI, because it challenged the regime.
  • Declaration of Rights of Man

    Declaration of Rights of Man
    In late August of 1789, The National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. This document anounced that all men are "born and remain free and equal in rights". It also said that men had the rights to "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression". In addition it proclaimed freedom of religion and called for taxes to be taken according of the person's ability to pay them.
  • Special Privilege Ends

    Special Privilege Ends
    On August 4, 1789, nobles in the National Assembly voted to put an end to their privileges. Along with giving up old manorial dues, exclusive hunting rights, and special legal statuses, they also gave up their exeption from taxes. In this way, the National Assembly created equality for all male citizens before the law.
  • Women's March

    Women's March
    Around six thousand women marched from Paris to Versailles demanding to see the king on October 5, 1789. They were angry with the king and queen for continuing to live lavished lifestyles while many starved. When the women came to Versaille, they tore through the building and demanded the king to return to Paris with them. Eventually, the king agreed and returned to Paris where he, and his family, became prisoners to the people of France.
  • Church is Placed Under State Control

    Church is Placed Under State Control
    In 1790, the National Assembly put the French Catholic Church under state control. Because of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the bishops and priests were now elected, salaried officials. This constituion also got rid of convents and monasteries. Many people were angry about this change, and it caused more tension between the revolutionaries in Paris, and pesantry in the provinces.
  • The Constitution of 1791

    The Constitution of 1791
    Instead of the old absolute monarchy that ruled France for many years, The Constituion of 1791 set up a limited monarch with a new Legislative Assembly which made laws, collected taxes, and decided on issues of war and peace. Also, tax-paying males citizens voted for, and elected the lawmakers. Old provinces were replaced with 83 departments of nearly equal size, old provincial courts were abolished, male citizens were given equal rights, and laws were reformed under this new constituion.
  • Threats from Abroad

    Threats from Abroad
    After Louis XVI's failed escape, the king of Prussia and the emperor of Austria issued the Declaration of Pilnitz. This declaration said that the two monarchs would intervene in order to protect the monarchy of France. Some believe that the declaration was only a bluff, but to the revolutionaries, it was serious, and they prepared for war.
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    Civil War

    Civil WarParisians stormed the royal palace and slaughtered the kings guards, but the royal family escaped to the Legislative Assembly before the mob arrived. A month later, citizens attacked prisons holding nobles and priests and killed around 1,200 prisioners. Then radicals backed by Paris crowds took control of the Assembly. They wanted a new Legislative body called the National Convention, and every male citizen to have the right to vote.
  • Monarchy is Abolished

    Monarchy is Abolished
    In September of 1792, the National Convention met and voted to abolish the French monachy and make the French Republic. Deputies of the Convention wrote a new constitution for France, while the Jacobins took lands of nobles and did away with titles of nobility in order to "erase all traces of the old order". During this time, the Republic convicted Louis XVI with one vote, and sentenced him to death. In October his wife was executed as well.
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    Spread of Nationalism

    La MarseillaiseA strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country, otherwise known as Nationalism spread through France. Civic festivals which celebrated the nation and revolution were celebrated by French people. The song "La Marseillaise" urged people to march against the "bloody banner of tyranny", and was marched to by troops. Themes of the revolution became popular in dances and songs. Later, state schools replaced religious ones, systems helped old soldiers and war widows who were poor, and...
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    Spread of Nationalism cont.

    slavery was abolished in France's Caribbean colonies.
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    Robespierre and the Reign of Terror cont.

    executions of the time.
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    Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

    GuillotineRobespierre supported the idea of general will as the source of law. He thought that France could have a "republic of virture" through the use of terror. He believed that liberty couldn't be secure without criminals losing their heads. During this time the guillotine was invented, but when too many people lost their heads, the members of the Convention feared for their lives. They arrested Robespierre on July 27, 1794, and executed him the next day along with other radicals. This event slowed...
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    Third Stage of The Revolution

    Napoleon Bonaparte was turned to by polititions who wanted to advance their goals, but instead Napoleon became the ruler of France.
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    Third Stage of the Revolution

    Napoleon BonaparteA five-man directory and two-house legislature elected by male citizens of property was set up by the Constitution of 1795. From 1795-1799 the Directory held power. The Directory was weak but dictatorial and made peace with Prussia and Spain. The leaders were corrupt and did not solve pressing problems. The Directory surpressed hungry sans-culottes when they rioted over bread prices. In 1797, the majority of seats in the legislature were won by supporters of a constitutional monarchy. ...