War of 1812

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    The French Revolution

    The French Revolution left France in a state of political instability.
  • Thomas Jefferson takes oath of office

    Thomas Jefferson takes oath of office
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    Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

  • France and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Amiens

    France and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Amiens
    This treaty temporarily suspended hostilities between France and Great Britain.
  • Great Britain declared war on France

    Great Britain declared war on France
    The main goal was to overthrow Napoleon.
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    The Napoleonic Wars

    A series of battles between European coalitions and Naploen's French Empire, the exact dates of which are subject to debate.
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    Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte provided the French people with some security, but also began campaigns of conquest, turning a majority of European countries into French satellites. Coalition powers forced Napoleon to abidate and exiled him to the island of Elba. This ended his reign and restored the French monarchy under Louis XVIII.
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    Causes of the War of 1812: The Continental System

    This was a large scale embargo against British trade in response to the Orders in Council.
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    Causes of the War of 1812: The Continental System

    This French foreign policy was a large scale embargo against British trade
  • Causes of the War of 1812: The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

    Causes of the War of 1812: The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
    Three American citizens who had been impressed into the British Navy escaped while docked in Virginia. When the U.S. frigate Chesapeake refused to surrender them back to the British, the British ship Leopard fired on the U.S. frigate Chesapeake killing 4 and wounding 18 outraging many in the U.S.
  • Causes of the War of 1812: Orders in Council

    The Orders in Council were restrictive trade policies decreed by Great Britain throughout the era. This specific Orders in Council was a response to Napoleon's Continental System and forbid many from trading with France and blocked many French ports.
  • Causes of the War of 1812: The Embargo Act is signed into law

    Causes of the War of 1812: The Embargo Act is signed into law
    Many in the U.S. wanted something done in response to Great Britain and France's disregard for U.S. neutrality. The Embargo Act prohibited U.S. vessels from trading with Great Britain and France. The Act was very unpopular and Thomas Jefferson repealed it three days before leaving office.
  • Causes of the War of 1812: The Non-Intercourse Act

    This U.S. act replaced the failed Embargo Act, and allowed trade with all countries except France or Great Britain.
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    Presidency of James Madison

  • Causes of the War of 1812: the Erskine Agreement

    The British minister to the U.S. (David Erskine) told President Madison that the British had changed its position on neutral carriers. This prompted Madison to publicly announce that trade with Great Britain could commence. However, Erskine hadn't consulted with the British government and British foreign secretary George Canning rejected his statement.
  • Causes of the War of 1812: Macon's Bill 2

    This was a trade law to replace the failed Non-Intercourse Act. This bill allowed trade with Great Britain and France, but indicated that the U.S. would only trade with the nation that lifted trade restrictions first. Napoleon indicated that France would honor U.S. neutrality, which prompted President Madison to cut off trade with Great Britain. Napoleon did not follow through and this was another failed foreign policy, and another embarrasment for Madison.
  • Causes of the War of 1812: Election of the 'War Hawks'

    Causes of the War of 1812: Election of the 'War Hawks'
    During the summer of 1810 men who came to be known as 'War Hawks' (because they pushed for war against Great Britain) were elected to Congress. Men like Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Richard Mentor Johnson felt war was necessary to protect U.S. shipping and U.S. sailors from British violations of U.S. neutrality.
  • Causes of the War of 1812: Tensions between Americans and Native Americans, example-the Battle of Tippecanoe

    Causes of the War of 1812: Tensions between Americans and Native Americans, example-the Battle of Tippecanoe
    General William Henry Harrison led his army to rout the Shawnee because westerners believed the British were persuading Tecumseh’s warriors to resist American settlement. Tecumseh's brother, Tenskwatawa, known as “the Prophet,” attacked first. The battle forced Tecumseh to seek the aid of the British against the United States.
  • The War of 1812: The United States declares war on Great Britain

    The War of 1812: The United States declares war on Great Britain
  • Napoleon invades Russia

  • The War of 1812: General Hull enters Canada

    The War of 1812: General Hull enters Canada
  • The War of 1812: Fort Dearborn massacre takes place

    The War of 1812: Fort Dearborn massacre takes place
  • The War of 1812: Fort Mackinac falls; the U.S. surrenders Detroit

    The War of 1812: Fort Mackinac falls; the U.S. surrenders Detroit
  • The War of 1812: The USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere

    The War of 1812: The USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere
  • The War of 1812: Fort Mims massacre

  • Napoleon enters Moscow

    Napoleon enters Moscow
  • The War of 1812: The USS Wasp defeats the HMS Frolic

    The War of 1812: The USS Wasp defeats the HMS Frolic
  • Napoleon's shattered army exits Russia

  • The War of 1812: Great Britain proclaims a blockade of Chesapeake and Delaware bays

  • The USS Constitution defeats HMS Java

  • The War of 1812: Battle of Frenchtown

    British and Native American allies repel Kentucky troops. The United States survivors are killed on January 23rd in the Raisin River Massacre.
  • The War of 1812: Battle of York (Toronto)

    United States troops take control of Lake Ontario, and capture and burn York.
  • The War of 1812: United States captures Fort George

  • The War of 1812: HMS Shannon defeats the USS Chesapeake

    USS Chesapeake is towed to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • The War of 1812: Battle at Stoney Creek

  • The War of 1812: Fort Mims massacre

  • The War of 1812: Battle of Lake Erie

    The War of 1812: Battle of Lake Erie
    United States troops under Captain Oliver Hazard Perry defeat a British naval attack.
  • The War of 1812: Battle of Thames

    The War of 1812: Battle of Thames
    Tecumseh is killed during the battle, which is proclaimed a U.S. victory.
  • Napoleon defeated at the Battle of Leipzig

    October 16-18: This marked the beginning of the end of Napoleon’s reign.
  • The War of 1812: Battle of Chateauguay

  • The War of 1812: Battle of Talladega

  • The War of 1812: Battle at Chrysler's Farm

  • The War of 1812: The British extend the blockade to all middle and southern states

  • The War of 1812: United States troops evacuate Fort George and burn Newark on the retreat

  • The War of 1812: The British capture Fort Niagara

  • The War of 1812: Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Mississippi Territory)

    Andrew Jackson defeats the Creek Indians in a ferocious battle. Women and children are slaughtered in the massacre.
  • Napoleon abdicates the French throne

  • The War of 1812: Battle of Chippewa

  • The War of 1812: Battle of Lundy's Lane

  • The War of 1812: Peace negotiations begin in Ghent, Belgium

    The Tsar of Russia offered to negotiate a truce. The economic and military strains encoraged the United States and Great Britain into negotiations. President Madison agreed and shortly after the British foreign minister, Lord Castlereagh agreed to discuss peace terms. Negotiations took place in the city of Ghent in present-day Belgium.
  • The War of 1812: The Creeks sign a treaty at Fort Jackson in which they cede much of their land

  • The War of 1812: Battle of Fort Erie

  • The War of 1812: British burn Washington, DC

    The War of 1812: British burn Washington, DC
    Madison and other United States government officials flee.
  • The War of 1812: Battle of Plattsburgh (Lake Champlain)

    The United States secures its northern border with a huge victory over a larger British force.
  • The War of 1812: The British are bombarded at Fort McHenry

  • The War of 1812: Francis Scott Key writes "The Star-Spangled Banner"

    Key is inspired after witnessing the United States flag still waving in the aftermath of a bombardment.
  • The War of 1812: Jackson seizes the Spanish fort at Pensacola, Florida

  • The War of 1812: Diplomats sign the Treaty of Ghent

    The Treaty of Ghent formally ends the War of 1812 and restored conditions to status quo antebellum.
  • The War of 1812: Battle of New Orleans

    The War of 1812: Battle of New Orleans
    Andrew Jackson wins an impressive victory against the British, neither side having received word that the peace treaty has been signed. The Battle was won within half an hour, with around 2,000 British casualties and only 70 U.S. casualties. This victory became a huge source of national pride.
  • The War of 1812: Battle at Point Peter, Georgia

    This marks the final battle of the War of 1812.
  • The War of 1812: President Madison declares the war over.

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    Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte