Plains of abraham

Grade 7A History Timeline (2018-2019) - 1713 to 1855

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    Grade 7A History Timeline (2018-2019) - 1713 to 1855

    Here is our class's history timeline for 2018-2019!
  • Treaty of Utrecht signed

    Treaty of Utrecht signed
    The Treaty of Utrecht was signed on this date in Utrecht in the Netherlands. It basically marked the end of the War of the Spanish Succession between France and Spain. Through this treaty, France gave up Acadia but gained the Caribbean Islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe. Acadia now basically was a British colony, with the exception of Ile Royale (present day Cape Breton Island). New France now was surrounded by the British.
  • Announcement of the Expulsion of the Acadians

    Announcement of the Expulsion of the Acadians
    On this date, the British announced to the Acadians that they were to be expelled from their land. They had previously signed an oath declaring them to be British subjects, but didn't have to bear arms in the case of war. As tensions increased between the French and British, the British wanted the Acadians to sign a new oath, declaring that they would fight against the French in the event of war. The Acadians refused and thus were ordered expelled from their lands.
  • Seven Years' War

    Seven Years' War
    The Seven Years' War was a world war that lasted from 1756 to 1763. It started in Europe on this date between Britain and France. It soon spread around the world including North America. Battles such as the Plains of Abraham were part of this war. It ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris.
  • Siege of Louisbourg

    Siege of Louisbourg
    On this date, Louisbourg fell to the British, eventually paving the way for the Battle of Québec in 1759, leading to the conquest of New France by the British. The Louisbourg fortress was originally built by the French starting in 1720, and it was taken over by the British in 1745. It was then given back to the French in 1748. At the time, the Louisbourg fortress was one of the most extensive and expensive fortresses in the world.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    This painting is a depiction of General Wolfe dying in the battle. The French and British fought this battle on the Plains of Abraham just outside of Quebec. The British used a strategy of the "Thin Red Line" and defeated a disorganized French force in a very quick battle. Both the British commander (Wolfe) and the French commander (Montcalm) died as a result of the battle. With the victory, the British now had control of Quebec.
  • Battle of Ste. Foy

    Battle of Ste. Foy
    On this date, François de Lévis and his French force of 5000 engaged 3900 British troops under Colonel James Murray outside the city walls, soundly defeating them. Lévis then laid siege to the town while awaiting reinforcements from France. However, British ships arrived first. Lévis was forced to raise his siege and retreat to Montréal.
  • Treaty of Paris, 1763

    Treaty of Paris, 1763
    The French, British, and Spanish signed the Treaty of Paris on this date, concluding the Seven Years' War and giving control of New France to the British. Britain also got control of Ile-Royale (Cape Breton Island) from France, and Florida from Spain. France retained fishing rights in Newfoundland and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
  • Royal Proclamation of 1763

    Royal Proclamation of 1763
    Now that Britain had control of New France, it needed to have some rules on how to govern this territory. Some of the key parts of this law included: smaller boundaries for Quebec, more First Nations territory, English civil law replacing French civil law, abolishment of the seigneurial system, those involved in the fur trade would now need a license.
  • The Québec Act, 1774

    The Québec Act, 1774
    The Québec Act of 1774 replaced the Royal Proclamation of 1763. It established French rights, many of which had been lost by the Royal Proclamation. The British realized that they needed to be allies with the French in case of an attack from America.
  • Richard Montgomery's Invasion of Québec

    Richard Montgomery's Invasion of Québec
    A major battle was fought on this date between American forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner. The city's garrison, a group of regular troops and militia led by Quebec's provincial governor, General Guy Carleton, suffered a small number of casualties.
  • North West Company established

    North West Company established
    The North West Company was a fur trading company established as a competitor to the Hudson's Bay Company which had a monopoly on fur trading at the time. The two companies competed with each other for a number of years, even having wars with each other, before merging in 1821.
  • Constitutional Act, 1791

    Constitutional Act, 1791
    Due to the influx of the Loyalists, the British government passed the Constitutional Act. The Act made some changes to the Quebec Act of 1774, but the British didn't want to give the Loyalists too much power. It divided Quebec into two parts (Upper and Lower Canada), each Canada would have a lieutenant-governor, legislative council, and legislative assembly. Landowners in Lower Canada could have land under the seigneurial or freehold system, but only under the freehold system in Upper Canada.
  • Isaac Brock dies in Battle of Queenston Heights

    Isaac Brock dies in Battle of Queenston Heights
    Isaac Brock had come to Canada in 1802 as a soldier. He originally thought that his life in Canada would be boring but it soon changed once the War of 1812 began. Brock was a great leader and worked with the First Nations leader Tecumseh to win the Battle of Detroit in August of 1812. The British also won the Battle of Queenston Heights in October of 1812, but Brock was killed by a sniper during this battle. A battle had been won but a leader was lost.
  • Battle of York

    Battle of York
    The Battle of York was a crushing defeat for the British. In this battle, 16 American ships attacked the shoreline of Lake Ontario, easily taking control of Fort York. The British general, Roger Sheaffe retreated and negotiated the terms of the surrender. This battle showed major problems in the British defences, and also led to another attack in July of 1813, where the Americans landed and burned several buildings and boats, and even made off with a number of supplies.
  • Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade at Beaver Dams

    Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade at Beaver Dams
    On this date, Laura Secord travelled approximately 32 km on foot to warn British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams. She received help from the First Nations on her journey. With this information, the British were able to defeat the Americans.
  • Battle of Chateauguay

    Battle of Chateauguay
    The Americans were planning to invade Montréal and cut off British supply ties between Montréal and Kingston. Their goal was to hinder British war efforts in Upper Canada. However, leadership and communication were poor on the American side. Although they outnumbered the British by eight times, the British and French as well as First Nations warriors, led by Charles de Salaberry defeated the Americans at Chateauguay. They used horns in the woods to trick the Americans about their numbers.
  • Battle of Crysler's Farm

    Battle of Crysler's Farm
    The Battle of Crysler's Farm, fought on muddy ploughed fields beside the St. Lawrence River on November 11, 1813, was a crucial moment in the history of Upper Canada and marked the end of the most serious attempt to that time to invade Canada. British and Canadian commanders William Mulcaster and Joseph Morrison defeated a much larger American force of 8000, forcing them to retreat to the south side of the St. Lawrence River.
  • Battle of Lundy's Lane

    Battle of Lundy's Lane
    The Battle of Lundy's Lane was one of the bloodiest battles in the War of 1812, resulting in heavy losses for both the British and American forces. The battle ended the American offensive in the Niagara region as they retreated afterwards.
  • Battle of Washington

    Battle of Washington
    This battle occurred during the final summer of the War of 1812, when the British attempted to divert the frontiers of the American forces from Upper and Lower Canada. On this date, the British captured the city of Washington and burned numerous public buildings, including the White House. The battle was regarded as a retaliation for the Battle of York in April 1813.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    On December 24, 1814, Britain and the USA signed a treaty in Ghent, Belgium that effectively ended the War of 1812. News was slow to cross the ocean, however, and on January 8, 1815, the two sides met in one of the biggest and most decisive engagements. In the bloody Battle of New Orleans, future President Andrew Jackson and his militia fighters, frontiersmen, slaves, Indians and even pirates soundly defeated the British. The British now had to take the terms of the Treaty of Ghent seriously.
  • Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company Merger

    Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company Merger
    The Hudson's Bay Company was formed on May 2, 1670. It started as a fur trading company, but with the decline of the fur trading industry, the company began to sell other important goods. It originally owned much of Canada (Rupert's Land) but the land later became part of the new Dominion of Canada in 1870 as part of the Northwest Territories. The HBC was in competition with the North West Company from 1783 until 1821 when it merged with the North West Company, but kept the HBC name.
  • Colonel John By comes to Canada

    Colonel John By comes to Canada
    Lieutenant-Colonel John By was born in Britain, but spent several years in Lower and Upper Canada building canals and improving shipping routes on the St. Lawrence River. He also designed new fortifications in Quebec City. In 1826, By was sent to Upper Canada to build a canal connecting the Ottawa River and Lake Ontario. This canal, called the Rideau Canal, is 202 km long and was a direct response to the War of 1812.
  • Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform

    Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform
    After writing his articles in his newspaper and bringing the issue of responsible government out in the open, Joseph Howe was elected to the Nova Scotia legislature in 1836. He worked with the Reformers to press for responsible government and eventually succeeded in February 1848. Nova Scotia was granted responsible government and was the first British colony in the world to achieve this.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform

    Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform
    Papineau's Ninety-Two Resolutions document contained grievances (complaints) that the Lower Canadian legislative assembly had with the British government. He wanted to make the legislative council into a body elected by the people. He also wanted the executive council to "be responsible to" the legislative assembly. Also, he wanted to abolish the seigneuries and turn them into freehold (privately owned) farms. The British did not want to grant major reform and a rebellion occurred in 1837.
  • William Lyon Mackenzie expresses anger towards the government

    William Lyon Mackenzie expresses anger towards the government
    Mackenzie was angry with the government system and claimed that the officials at the top had all of the power. He used his newspaper, the "Colonial Advocate" to publish articles that insulted his political enemies. His anger eventually led a rebellion in Upper Canada just north of Toronto in December, 1837.
  • Reciprocity Treaty signed between British North America and the USA

    Reciprocity Treaty signed between British North America and the USA
    On this date, British North America and the United States signed the Reciprocity Treaty. This meant that tariffs would be reduced for trade between the two regions. It allowed free trade on natural products but tariffs still continued on manufactured imports into British North America from the United States. The United States eventually backed out of the treaty in 1865, and the BNA colonies were forced to find new trading options.