Plains of abraham

Grade 7C History Timeline (2017-2018) - 1713 to 1855

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    Grade 7C History Timeline (2017-2018) - 1713 to 1855

  • Treaty of Utrecht signed

    Treaty of Utrecht signed
    The Treaty of Utrecht was signed on this date in Utrecht in the Netherlands. It basically marked the end of the War of the Spanish Succession between France and Spain. Through this treaty, France gave up Acadia but gained the Caribbean Islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe. Acadia now basically was a British colony, with the exception of Ile Royale (present day Cape Breton Island). New France now was surrounded by the British.
  • Announcement of the Expulsion of the Acadians

    Announcement of the Expulsion of the Acadians
    On this date, the British announced to the Acadians that they were to be expelled from their land. They had previously signed an oath declaring them to be British subjects, but didn't have to bear arms in the case of war. As tensions increased between the French and British, the British wanted the Acadians to sign a new oath, declaring that they would fight against the French in the event of war. The Acadians refused and thus were ordered expelled from their lands.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    This painting is a depiction of General Wolfe dying in the battle. The French and British fought this battle on the Plains of Abraham just outside of Quebec. The British used a strategy of the "Thin Red Line" and defeated a disorganized French force in a very quick battle. Both the British commander (Wolfe) and the French commander (Montcalm) died as a result of the battle. With the victory, the British now had control of Quebec.
  • Treaty of Paris, 1763

    Treaty of Paris, 1763
    The French, British, and Spanish signed the Treaty of Paris on this date, concluding the Seven Years' War and giving control of New France to the British. Britain also got control of Ile-Royale (Cape Breton Island) from France, and Florida from Spain. France retained fishing rights in Newfoundland and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
  • Royal Proclamation of 1763

    Royal Proclamation of 1763
    Now that Britain had control of New France, it needed to have some rules on how to govern this territory. Some of the key parts of this law included: smaller boundaries for Quebec, more First Nations territory, English civil law replacing French civil law, abolishment of the seigneurial system, those involved in the fur trade would now need a license.
  • The Quebec Act, 1774

    The Quebec Act, 1774
    The Quebec Act of 1774 replaced the Royal Proclamation of 1763. It established French rights, many of which had been lost by the Royal Proclamation. The British realized that they needed to be allies with the French in case of an attack from America.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    The American Revolutionary War, also called the War of Independence, began in 1775 as a result of the anger of some British North Americans to the Quebec Act and new taxes imposed by the British. Representatives from the Thirteen Colonies met in Philadelphia on this date and declared the United States of America to be an independent nation. The American Revolution continued until 1783. Many Loyalists (loyal to Britain) left during this time to start a new life in the north (present-day Canada).
  • Birchtown established by Black Loyalists

    Birchtown established by Black Loyalists
    On this date, Black Loyalists founded the community of Birchtown, near present-day Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Unfortunately, many Blacks were not treated very well by the White Loyalists, and over time became disheartened and eventually many went to Africa in hope of a better life.
  • Treaty of Paris, 1783

    Treaty of Paris, 1783
    This treaty officially ended the American Revolutionary War, also known as the War of Independence between the Patriots and British. The United States officially gained significant territory as a result of this treaty. All land now owned by the British in North America was called British North America.
  • Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Arctic Ocean

    Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Arctic Ocean
    After a 40 day journey by canoe, Alexander Mackenzie reached the mouth of the "big river" (also called the Deh-cho River). He thought he reached the Pacific Ocean, which was his original goal, so as to find a route across the Rocky Mountains for the fur trade. He was disappointed to find an unexplored and frozen ocean not navigable by ships. However, this expedition led to future exploration, and Mackenzie found an overland route to the Pacific Ocean four years later.
  • Constitutional Act, 1791

    Constitutional Act, 1791
    Due to the influx of the Loyalists, the British government passed the Constitutional Act. The Act made some changes to the Quebec Act of 1774, but the British didn't want to give the Loyalists too much power. It divided Quebec into two parts (Upper and Lower Canada), each Canada would have a lieutenant-governor, legislative council, and legislative assembly. Landowners in Lower Canada could have land under the seigneurial or freehold system, but only under the freehold system in Upper Canada.
  • Tecumseh helps Brock in winning Battle of Detroit in War of 1812

    Tecumseh helps Brock in winning Battle of Detroit in War of 1812
    Tecumseh uses bluff and deception techniques to cause General Hull to surrender at the Battle of Detroit, even though the American forces substantially outnumbered the British forces. This was a good example of how the First Nations and Brock worked together to defeat a common foe (Americans).
  • Isaac Brock dies in the Battle of Queenston Heights

    Isaac Brock dies in the Battle of Queenston Heights
    Isaac Brock had come to Canada in 1802 as a soldier. He originally thought that his life in Canada would be boring but it soon changed once the War of 1812 began. Brock was a great leader and worked with the First Nations leader Tecumseh to win the Battle of Detroit in August of 1812. The British also won the Battle of Queenston Heights in October of 1812, but Brock was killed by a sniper during this battle. A battle had been won but a leader was lost.
  • Battle of York

    Battle of York
    The Battle of York was a crushing defeat for the British. In this battle, 16 American ships attacked the shoreline of Lake Ontario, easily taking control of Fort York. The British general, Roger Sheaffe retreated and negotiated the terms of the surrender. This battle showed major problems in the British defences, and also led to another attack in July of 1813, where the Americans landed and burned several buildings and boats, and even made off with a number of supplies.
  • Battle of Boston Harbour

    Battle of Boston Harbour
    On this date, the British ship HMS Shannon defeated the American ship USS Chesapeake in a short but bloody battle off Boston Harbour. The captain of the Chesapeake, James Lawrence yelled at his men, "Don't give up the ship!" during the battle, but it was all in vain. Lawrence later died of his wounds from the battle. The Shannon towed the Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour on June 6, 1813 to the delight of the Haligonians (residents of Halifax). The victory boosted the morale of the British navy.
  • Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade at Beaver Dams

    Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade at Beaver Dams
    On this date, Laura Secord travelled approximately 32 km on foot to warn British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams. With this information, the British were able to defeat the Americans.
  • Battle of the Thames (Moraviantown)

    Battle of the Thames (Moraviantown)
    The Americans defeated the British at Moraviantown on this date, raising fears that the war may end soon, with the Americans winning. The battle marked the death of the great First Nations leader Tecumseh. General Henry Procter of the British could not contain the American invaders who scattered the defenders and even caused Procter to run for his life.
  • Battle of Crysler's Farm

    Battle of Crysler's Farm
    The Battle of Crysler's Farm, fought on muddy ploughed fields beside the St. Lawrence River on November 11, 1813, was a crucial moment in the history of Upper Canada and marked the end of the most serious attempt to that time to invade Canada. British and Canadian commanders William Mulcaster and Joseph Morrison defeated a much larger American force of 8000, forcing them to retreat to the south side of the St. Lawrence River.
  • Battle of Lundy's Lane

    Battle of Lundy's Lane
    The Battle of Lundy's Lane was one of the bloodiest battles in the War of 1812, resulting in heavy losses for both the British and American forces. The battle ended the American offensive in the Niagara region as they retreated afterwards.
  • Battle of Washington

    Battle of Washington
    This battle occurred during the final summer of the War of 1812, when the British attempted to divert the frontiers of the American forces from Upper and Lower Canada. On this date, the British captured the city of Washington and burned numerous public buildings, including the White House. The battle was regarded as a retaliation for the Battle of York in April 1813.
  • Treaty of Ghent signed

    Treaty of Ghent signed
    The War of 1812 officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in Belgium on this date. The treaty took five months to negotiate. In the treaty, impressment and the naval blockade were not mentioned, even though these had been among the major reasons the USA had declared war. Boundaries between the USA and British North America went back to the way they were before the war.
  • Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform

    Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform
    After writing his articles in his newspaper and bringing the issue of responsible government out in the open, Joseph Howe was elected to the Nova Scotia legislature in 1836. He worked with the Reformers to press for responsible government and eventually succeeded in February 1848. Nova Scotia was granted responsible government and was the first British colony in the world to achieve this.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform

    Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform
    Papineau's Ninety-Two Resolutions document contained grievances (complaints) that the Lower Canadian legislative assembly had with the British government. He wanted to make the legislative council into a body elected by the people. He also wanted the executive council to "be responsible to" the legislative assembly. Also, he wanted to abolish the seigneuries and turn them into freehold (privately owned) farms. The British did not want to grant major reform and a rebellion occurred in 1837.
  • William Lyon Mackenzie expresses anger towards the government

    William Lyon Mackenzie expresses anger towards the government
    Mackenzie was angry with the government system and claimed that the officials at the top had all of the power. He used his newspaper, the "Colonial Advocate" to publish articles that insulted his political enemies. His anger eventually led a rebellion in Upper Canada just north of Toronto in December, 1837.
  • John Franklin sets sail for North America from England

    John Franklin sets sail for North America from England
    On this date John Franklin and his crew set sail from England on the beginning of their Northwest Passage expedition during which they would chart the area. His ships ("Erebus" and "Terror") were state-of-the-art and included three years of canned food and a water distillation system. The boats ended up getting trapped in ice in present-day Nunavut, and it is thought that many of the crew died from lead poisoning.