War 1812

European Conflict

  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    A naval conflict between the British against a combined French and Spanish fleet that was fought off the straits of Gibraltar. The battle was a major victory for the British and established the image of an invincible British Sea Power. This started the British vs. Napoleon trade system. American ships had to choose between if they were to respect the British or the French’s wishes.
  • British Impressment of Americans

    British Impressment of Americans
    Britain began to impress American sailors in 1807. Impressment was the act of capturing and forcing men into naval service. The British claimed the right to search American merchant ships and reimpress deserters and take Americans born on British soil.
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Incident

    Chesapeake-Leopard Incident
    The American ship “Chesapeake” refused to surrender four seamen who had allegedly deserted a British ship. The “Leopard” then opened fire on the “Chesapeake”, resulting in the British impressment of 3 former Britons into the British navy. This conflict stirred a lot of American sentiment towards the British, eventually leading Jefferson to issue an embargo.
  • The Embargo Act of 1807

    The Embargo Act of 1807
    As a result of the Chesapeake-Leopard incident, Congress issued the Embargo Act of 1807 (which was signed by Thomas Jefferson on December 22, 1807). The Embargo prohibited American trade with any foreign nation, damaging the American economy. It was created to prevent future incidents, like the Chesapeake-Leopard incident, which might bring the United States to war.
  • Non-Intercourse Act

    After the Embargo Act of 1807 had backfired, in the last sixteen days of his presidency, Jefferson repealed the Embargo Act and issued the Non-Intercourse Act, which lifted all embargoes except those against the French and British.
  • Macon’s Bill No. 2

    This bill forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
  • Americans seize Spanish fort at Baton Rouge

    American settlers in West Florida seized the Spanish fort at Baton Rouge and annexed the territory. This increased Americans’ desire for Florida, which was another reason for the War of 1812.
  • War Hawks

    War Hawks
    War Hawks like John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay start expressing their desire for war in the Congress.
  • Henry Clay became Speaker of the House

    Henry Clay became Speaker of the House
    Henry Clay became Speaker of the House and filled his appointments with those that wanted war.
  • United States declares war on Britain

    United States declares war on Britain
    June 18th, Madison gave in to the pressure and approved a declaration of war against Britain.
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    U.S. Military Failures

    From 1812 to 1815, the U.S. had bad military failures, which increased opposition to the war, especially in New England.
  • Napoleon Surrenders

    Napoleon Surrenders
    Napoleon surrendered to the Allied nations in Europe, and Britain could now begin to focus on the war in America.
  • British invade Washington D.C.

    British invade Washington D.C.
    August 24, Britain entered Washington D.C. and set the White House and sever other public buildings on fire in retaliation for the American burning of the Canadian capitol at York.
  • Battle of Plattsburgh

    Battle of Plattsburgh
    September 11, Battle of Plattsburgh repelled another British invasion in northern New York.
  • Bombardment of Fort McHenry

    Bombardment of Fort McHenry
    September 13 - Fort McHenry blocked the British fleet from reaching the Baltimore harbor, forcing the British to bombard from afar. Francis Scott Key, an American lawyer aboard a British ship, wrote the "The Star-Spangled Banner."
  • Hartford Convention

    Hartford Convention
    December 15, New England Delegates held the Hartford Convention, which proposed seven amendments to the Constitution to protect New England from the growing influence of the South and the West, reassert the right of nullification, and only hinted at secession. This eventually failed because of the overshadowing victory at New Orleans.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    December, 24, Treaty of Ghent was signed, which had the U.S. give up their demands for the British to stop impressment and cede Canada. The British abandoned their call for the creation of an Indian buffer state in the Northwest. The Treaty of Ghent ended the fighting and set up long-term improvement of Anglo-American relations.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    January 8, The Battle of New Orleans was a tremendous victory for Andrew Jackson. When the British retreated they had 700 dead, 1400 wounded, and 500 prisoners. Jackson on the other hand only had 8 dead and 13 wounded.
  • Commercial Treaty

    A commercial treaty gave Americans the right to trade freely with England and the British Empire
  • Rush-Bagot Agreement

    Rush-Bagot Agreement
    Rush-Bagot Agreement was signed by Britain and America and provided for mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes.