American Conflicts of the Early 1800s

  • Napoleonic Wars

    -Increased tension across Europe
    -Date of Napoleon's coup d'etat
    -Britain and France attempt to cut each other off from US trade
    -Leads to War of 1812
  • William Henry Harrison

    -Appointed governer of Indiana territory by Thomas Jefferson
    -Gave natives an ultimatum-could convert themselves into settled farmers or migrate west of the Mississippi
  • The Continental System

    -Napoleon attempts to challenge Great Britain economically by cutting them off from trade
    -Great Britain/France begin seizing US merchant ships
    -Beginning of impressment
  • Tecumseh and the Growth of Prophetstown

    -Shawnee Chief
    -Expanded influence among Native Americans
    -Extremely militant against encroaching whites
    -Developed Prophetstown; became important center of Indian protection
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Incident (Impressment)

    -British navy claiming right to seize defectove British sailors or British-born American citizens
    -British ship, Leopard, opens fire on US ship, Chesapeake, due to General James Barron's refusal to allow the British to search the Chesapeake
    -Took American borns as British deserters
  • The Embargo

    -Prohibited American ships from leaving harbor for any foreign destination
    -Created minor depression; trade greatly declined
    -Revoked in 1808
    -Northeast hardest hit; most were Federalists
  • Election of 1808

    -Presidency won by James Madison
    -Non-Intercourse Act passed by Congress; reopened trade with all states but Britain and France
  • Non Intercourse Act

    -Reopened trade with all nations but Great Britain and France
  • Macon's Bill No. 2

    -Allowed Non-Intercourse Act to expire
    -Reestablished trade with France
    -Gave Great Britain an ulitmatum--forced to repeal blockade of Europe by 1811
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    -Battle provoked by Harrison
    -Drove off Indians and burned Prophetstown while Tecumseh was away
    -Placed native confederacy in disarray
  • Indian Retaliation

    -Indians raid white settlements in retribution for the brutal destruction of Prophetstown
    -Raids frequently launched across Florida border
  • War Hawks

    -Growth in power of war hawks (advocates of war)
    -Henry Clay and John Calhoun were extremely influential
    -Clay became Speaker of the House in 1811; filled offices with war enthusiasts
  • Invasion of Canada

    -Amercan forces invaded Canada through Detroit and burned the capital of York
    -Forced to retreat to Detroit and surrender
  • Declaration of War

    -James Madison approved declaration of war on Great Britain
  • British Counterattack

    -No longer preoccupied by the Napoleonic Wars across Europe; began counterattacking effectively
  • Put-In Bay

    -Oliver Hazard dispersed a British fleet at Put-In Bay
    -Made another invasion of Canada through Detroit possible
  • Battle of the Thames

    -Fought between William Harrison and the British
    -Tecumseh killed; served as a brigadier general in the British army
    -Death of Tecumseh weakened native resolve; diminished ability to maintain claims in the Northwest Territory
  • Battle of Horseshoe Bend

    -Jackson's retribution for the Indian raids over the Florida border
    -Broke the resistance of the Creeks; slaughtered women, men, and children alike
    -Tribe agreed to cede lands and move westward
  • Burning of Washington

    -British troops entered Washington and burned the White House to the ground in retaliation for the American burning of York
    -Dispersed poorly-trained American militiamen
    -Proceeded to Baltimore
  • Battle of Plattsburgh

    -US forces turned back a major British naval and land force attempting to invade
    -Occurred in New York
  • Star Spangled Banner

    -Francis Scott Key wrote the poem "The Star Spangled Banner" while watching battle from a British ship
    -Put to tune of British drinking song
    -Became the US's national anthem
  • Pensacola

    -Jackson seized Spanish fort at Pensacola, Florida
  • Hartford Convention

    -Met to discuss secession of New England from the Union
    -Proposed seven amendments to the Constitution as New England's condition to staying in the Union
    -Designed to protect New England from the growing interests of the South and West
    -Jackson won in New Orleans; crushed all Federalist hopes of secession
  • Treaty of Ghent

    -Americans gave up demand for a British renunciation of impressment
    -Great Britain gave up calls for Indian buffer state
    -Hastily drawn up; named after Dutch city where it was signed
    -No real, long-lasting effects
  • Battle of New Orleans

    -Great Britain advanced on Jackson's troops, but they were no match for Jackson's men who were deeply barricaded and hidden
    -The British had 700 dead, 1400 wounded, and 500 prisoners
    -Most significant battle of the war, even though it occurred after the war ended
  • Rush-Bagot Agreement

    -Mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes