Plains of abraham

Grade 7B History Timeline - 1713 to 1855

  • Treaty of Utrecht signed

    Treaty of Utrecht signed
    The Treaty of Utrecht was signed on this date in Utrecht in the Netherlands. It basically marked the end of the War of the Spanish Succession between France and Spain. Through this treaty, France gave up Acadia but gained the Caribbean Islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe. Acadia now basically was a British colony, with the exception of Ile Royale (present day Cape Breton Island). New France now was surrounded by the British.
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    Grade 7B History Timeline - 1713 to 1855

  • Announcement of the Expulsion of the Acadians

    Announcement of the Expulsion of the Acadians
    The Acadians react as Winslow reads the order of expulsion to them in the Parish Church at Grand-Pre.
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    The Seven Years War was a world war that lasted from 1756 to 1763. It started in Europe on this date between Britain and France. It soon spread around the world including North America. Battles such as the Plains of Abraham were part of this war. It ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    This painting is a depiction of General Wolfe dying in the battle. The French and British fought this battle on the Plains of Abraham just outside of Quebec. The British used a strategy of the "Thin Red Line" and defeated a disorganized French force in a very quick battle. Both the British commander (Wolfe) and the French commander (Montcalm) died as a result of the battle. With the victory, the British now controlled New France.
  • Royal Proclamation of 1763

    Royal Proclamation of 1763
    Now that Britain had control of New France, it needed to have some rules on how to govern this territory. Some of the key parts of this law included: smaller boundaries for Quebec, more First Nations territory, English civil law replacing French civil law, abolishment of the seigneurial system, those involved in the fur trade would now need a license.
  • The Quebec Act, 1774

    The Quebec Act, 1774
    The Quebec Act of 1774 replaced the Royal Proclamation of 1763. It established French rights, many of which had been lost by the Royal Proclamation. The British realized that they needed to be allies with the French in case of an attack from America.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    The American Revolution, also known as the War of Independence, broke out in 1775 as a result of the anger of the British North Americans to the Quebec Act and the new taxes imposed by the British. Representatives from the Thirteen Colonies met in Philadelphia on this date and declared the United States of America to be an independent nation.
  • Birchtown established by Black Loyalists

    Birchtown established by Black Loyalists
    On this date, Black Loyalists founded the community of Birchtown, near present-day Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Unfortunately, many Blacks were not treated well by the white Loyalists, and over time became disheartened and eventually went to Africa in hope of a better life.
  • Treaty of Paris, 1783

    Treaty of Paris, 1783
    This treaty officially ended the American Revolutionary War, also known as the War of Independence between the Patriots and British. The United States gained significant territory as a result of this treaty.
  • North West Company established

    North West Company established
    The North West Company was a fur trading company established as a competitor to the Hudson's Bay Company which had a monopoly on fur trading at the time. The two companies competed with each other for a number of years, even having wars with each other, before merging in 1821.
  • Tecumseh helps Brock in winning the Battle of Detroit in the War of 1812

    Tecumseh helps Brock in winning the Battle of Detroit in the War of 1812
    Tecumseh uses bluff and deception techniques to cause General Hull to surrender at the Battle of Detroit, even though the American forces substantially outnumbered the British forces.
  • Battle of Queenston Heights - War of 1812

    Battle of Queenston Heights - War of 1812
    The Battle of Queenston Heights was the first major battle of the War of 1812. Although the British won the battle, the victory was costly as General Isaac Brock was killed in action.
  • Isaac Brock dies during the Battle of Queenston Heights on this date

    Isaac Brock dies during the Battle of Queenston Heights on this date
    Isaac Brock had come to Canada in 1802 as a soldier. He originally thought that his life in Canada would be boring but it soon changed once the War of 1812 began. Brock was a great leader and worked with the First Nations leader Tecumseh to win the Battle of Detroit in August of 1812. The British also won the Battle of Queenston Heights in October of 1812, but Brock was killed by a sniper during this battle. A battle had been won but a leader was lost.
  • Battle of York

    Battle of York
    The Battle of York was a crushing defeat for the British. In this battle, 16 American ships attacked the shoreline of Lake Ontario, easily taking control of Fort York. The British general, Roger Sheaffe retreated and negotiated the terms of the surrender. This battle showed major problems in the British defences, and also led to another attack in July of 1813, where the Americans landed and burned several buildings and boats, and even made off with a number of supplies.
  • Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade

    Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade
    On this date, Laura Secord travelled approximately 32 km on foot to warn British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams.
  • Tecumseh dies during the Battle of the Thames (Moraviantown)

    Tecumseh dies during the Battle of the Thames (Moraviantown)
    The great warrior chief and loyal ally of Britain, Tecumseh died on this date during the Battle of the Thames at Moraviantown during the War of 1812. Tecumseh was an important ally of General Isaac Brock during earlier battles in the War of 1812. His death was a great blow to the British forces.
  • Battle of Crysler's Farm

    Battle of Crysler's Farm
    The Battle of Crysler's Farm, fought on muddy ploughed fields beside the St. Lawrence River on November 11, 1813, was a crucial moment in the history of Upper Canada and marked the end of the most serious attempt to that time to invade Canada. British and Canadian commanders William Mulcaster and Joseph Morrison defeated a much larger American force of 8000, forcing them to retreat to the south side of the St. Lawrence River.
  • Battle of Washington

    Battle of Washington
    This battle occurred during the final summer of the War of 1812, when the British attempted to divert the frontiers of the American forces from Upper and Lower Canada. On this date, the British captured the city of Washington and burned numerous public buildings, including the White House. The battle was regarded as a retaliation for the Battle of York in April 1813.
  • Battle of Baltimore

    Battle of Baltimore
    The Battle of Baltimore was a sea/land battle fought between British invaders and American defenders in the War of 1812. American forces repulsed sea and land invasions off the busy port city of Baltimore, Maryland, and killed the commander of the invading British forces. The Americans retreated, but the British were not able to inflict the same damage that they had done on Washington a few weeks earlier. The "Star Spangled Banner" originated from the American defence during this battle.
  • Colonel John By Comes to Canada

    Colonel John By Comes to Canada
    Lieutenant-Colonel John By was born in Britain, but spent several years in Lower and Upper Canada building canals and improving shipping routes on the St. Lawrence River. He also designed new fortifications in Quebec City. In 1826, By was sent to Upper Canada to build a canal connecting the Ottawa River and Lake Ontario. This canal, called the Rideau Canal, is 202 km long and was a direct response to the War of 1812.
  • Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform

    Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform
    After writing his articles in his newspaper and bringing the issue of responsible government out in the open, Joseph Howe was elected to the Nova Scotia legislature in 1836. He worked with the Reformers to press for responsible government and eventually succeeded in February 1848. Nova Scotia was granted responsible government and was the first British colony in the world to achieve this.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform

    Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform
    Papineau's Ninety-Two Resolutions document contained grievances (complaints) that the Lower Canadian legislative assembly had with the British government. He wanted to make the legislative council into a body elected by the people. He also wanted the executive council to "be responsible to" the legislative assembly. Also, he wanted to abolish the seigneuries and turn them into freehold (privately owned) farms. The British did not want to grant major reform and a rebellion occurred in 1837.
  • William Lyon Mackenzie expresses anger towards government

    William Lyon Mackenzie expresses anger towards government
    Mackenzie was angry with the government system and claimed that the officials at the top had all of the power. He used his newspaper, the "Colonial Advocate" to publish articles that insulted his political enemies. His anger eventually led a rebellion in Upper Canada just north of Toronto in December, 1837.
  • John Franklin sets sail for North America from England

    John Franklin sets sail for North America from England
    On this date John Franklin and his crew set sail from England on the beginning of their Northwest Passage expedition during which they would chart the area. His ships ("Erebus" and "Terror") were state-of-the-art and included three years of canned food and a water distillation system. The boats ended up getting trapped in ice in present-day Nunavut, and it is thought that many of the crew died from lead poisoning.