War of 1812

  • William Henry Harrison appointed governor of Indiana Territory

    William Henry Harrison appointed governor of Indiana Territory
    Harrison had a history of easing the seizure of Native land by white settlers. He gave the Natives an ultimatum: convert to sedentary farming or give up their lands. Harrison used threats and bribery to pit tribes against one another and push favorable treaties for American settlers. The amount of white settlers in Native lands far outnumbered the Native population by the end of his tenure. By 1807 large portions of land in the Midwest were extracted from tribal leaders through threats.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

     Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805 resulted in a British naval victory. The resulting British blockade of the French was an affront to Napoleon’s policies in that it required the either the use of British ships or the oversight of British ports in any naval trade to France. The blockade prevented American merchants from having any direct economic interaction with the French. American ships were also subject to capture and impressment by the British at ports they were required to stop by
  • The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

    The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
    A naval engagement between the American USS Chesapeake and the British HMS Leopard. British captain Salusbury Humphreys hailed in the Chesapeake and presented a search warrant to American captain James Barron. The Leopard opened fire on the Americans. After one shot being fired from the Chesapeake, James Barron surrendered and the British seized four Royal Navy deserters from the ship. This provoked frustration for American political figures and led to economic warfare in the Embargo of 1807.
  • The Embargo Act

    The Embargo Act
    The Embargo Act was signed into law on December 22, 1807. The law was proposed in reaction to the Chesapeake-Leopard affair and prohibited American ships from conducting any form of foreign trade. The lack of foreign trade led to a depression throughout the nation, which especially hurt northern merchants and shipowners. The decision was controversial and represented a political liability for Democratic Republicans, leading to its eventual replacement.
  • The Non-Intercourse Act

    The Non-Intercourse Act
    The Non-Intercourse Act was passed in March 1, 1809 as a replacement to the Embargo Act. The Act opened reopened trade with all nations except for Britain and France but was allowed to expire in 1810.
  • Macon’s Bill Number 2

    Macon’s Bill Number 2
    Macon’s Bill Number 2 became law on May 14, 1810. The law conditionally reopened naval trade with Britain and France. Although Napoleon announced an end to French interference with American shipping, the British failed to take meaningful action before the outbreak of the War of 1812.
  • Henry Clay became the Speaker of the House

    Henry Clay became the Speaker of the House
    War hawk Henry Clay became the Speaker of the House in 1811. His position allowed him to fill committees with political figures like John C. Calhoun who wanted a war with Britain. He began to take control of congress and pressure President Madison into war.
  • Tecumseh

    Tecumseh
    In 1811, Native leader Tecumseh embarked on a journey to recruit Southern tribes for a Native American alliance. Tecumseh had been rousing tribes to unite against the settlers encroaching upon their lands and extorting territory from them.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
    The Battle of Tippecanoe was an assault on the Native settlement of Prophetstown by Harrison’s force of 1000 men on November 7, 1811. Although Harrison’s forces suffered heavy losses to the Native defense, the settlers prevailed and burned down Prophetstown. Although Tecumseh returned to an unorganized confederacy as a result of the incident, the remaining warriors for his cause joined him on raiding parties throughout the spring of 1812 and beyond.
  • Declaration of War

    Declaration of War
    On June 28, 1812, Madison gave into Clay’s wishes and approved a declaration of war against Britain.
  • American Forces invaded Canada

    American Forces invaded Canada
    American Forces invaded Canada through Detroit. General William Hull led about one thousand untrained, poorly equipped soldiers to Canada and occupied a small town named Sandwich. In August the American troops surrendered to a small force of some British residents, Canadians, and some Native Americans. The combined forces were led by British Major General Isaac Brock and Shawnee leader Tecumseh. The surrender cost the United States the village of Detroit and most of the Michigan Territory.
  • Battle of Fort Dearborn

    Battle of Fort Dearborn
    At the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the United States were defeated by Potawatomi Native Americans. As the American soldiers were evacuating Fort Dearborn led by General William Hull, they were attacked by Native American Forces on their way to Fort Wayne. The Native Americans burned the fort down and those who survived were taken captive, some were later ransomed.
  • Battle of Frenchtown

    Battle of Frenchtown
    Fought near the River Raisin in Michigan Territory through January 23 in 1813. The American plan was to eventually take back Fort Detroit. They started by forcing the British and their Native American allies to retreat from Frenchtown. The British and Native Americans launched a counterattack four days later killing 397 soldier and taking 547 prisoner. Dozens more were murdered by the Native Americans in massacre the next day. American soldiers were then forced to march to Fort Madden.
  • Battle of York

    Battle of York
    York was the capital of Canada. When the Americans showed up, they were opposed by a small group of Native Americans led by Indian Agent James Givin, who retreated into the woods. A company was sent to support the Native Americans but got lost in the outskirts of the town. Mre American troops bombarded the fort at York. The British eventually retreated and set fire to the wooden bridge over the River Don. 55 Americans were killed and 265 were wounded. 59 British were killed, 34 wounded.
  • Battle of Stoney Creek

    Battle of Stoney Creek
    British forces marched through the night and fighting began at about 2:00 in the morning when the British reached American encampment without being detected. The British soldiers were instructed to stay quiet but some did not listen and ended up waking the sleeping American forces. The battled followed through the dark and confusing morning. The British did win this battle but 23 died, 136 wounded, and 55 missing. Of the Americans 17 died, 28 wounded, and 100 missing.
  • Battle of the Lake Erie

    Battle of the Lake Erie
    The United States Navy defeated the British Royal Navy and captured six of its ships. Winning this battle allowed American forces to take back Detroit after the previous failed invasion of Canada. In charge of the United States Navy was Captain Oliver Hazard Perry and Captain Barclay was in charge of the British Royal Navy. Captain Barclay and his first lieutenant were killed in battle. On the American side 29 were killed and 94 wounded and on the British side 41 were killed and 94 wounded.
  • Battle of the Thames

    Battle of the Thames
    Upper Canada. The American leader was General William Harrison fighting against a combined force of British and Native Americans. The British leader was Major General Henry Procter and the Native American leader, Tecumseh, was killed in this battle. Procter and about 250 of his men fled the battlefield while the rest stayed and surrendered. Tecumseh and his followers continued to fight but once he died, Native American resistance stopped. This battle was a United States victory.
  • Battle of Horseshoe Bend

    Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    Battle of Horseshoe Bend- March 27, 1814. Andrew Jackson’s men took revenge on the tribes of the Southwest who had been attacking white settlers at the Florida border. The battle was a slaughter, ending with the ceding of most of the tribal land to the settlers and the induction of Jackson as a major general in the United States Army. The victory led to a stronger hold by Americans in the Florida Panhandle, culminating to the 1814 seizure of a Spanish fort in Pensacola.
  • British Invasion of Washington

    British Invasion of Washington
    British Invasion of Washington- August 24, 1814. British troops marched upon Washington and set fire to public buildings, including the White House. Afterwards the British advanced to Baltimore, where the American garrison at Fort McHenry sank ships in the harbor to prevent entry, slowing the British advance. The Star-Spangled Banner was conceptualized by Francis Scott Key while he was negotiating for an American prisoner’s freedom during the battle.
  • Battle of Plattsburgh

    Battle of Plattsburgh
    Battle of Plattsburgh- September 11, 1814. American forces repelled a much larger British force on the northern border of the United States.
  • The Treaty of Ghent

    The Treaty of Ghent
    The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814 to end the war of 1812. The territory of Canada’s dispute was settled in British favor while the British demand for an Indian buffer state was quelled.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    Battle of New Orleans- January 8, 1815. Andrew Jackson’s forces repulsed British attackers advancing into the South. The British commander, Sir Edward Pakenham, was killed along with 700 of his men in a decisive American victory. The battle was fought after a the Treaty of Ghent had been signed between the United States and Britain but before the news reached the combatants.
  • Rush-Bagot agreement

    Rush-Bagot agreement
    The Rush-Bagot agreement of 1817, ratified on April 28, 1818, regulated mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes, resulting in a completely unguarded frontier between the two lands.