Modern Turkey's Timeline of Significant Events Post WWI

  • WWI Ends

    WWI Ends
    November 11, 1918
  • Turkish Constitution of 1921 --> 1924

    The National Assembly commenced the debates for a new constitution on November 19, 1920 and it was ratified during the session of January 20, 1921. It was the first Turkish Constitution that consecrated the principle of national sovereignty.
  • Proclamation of the Republic of Turkey

    Proclamation of the Republic of Turkey
  • Turkish Constitution of 1924 --> 1960

    Replaced the Constitution of 1921 and was ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey following the proclamation of the republic on October 29, 1923. It was ratified on April 20, 1924
  • Period: to

    1st attempt to create a Multi-Party System

    The multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey started with the establishment of the opposition Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930 after President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk asked Okyar to establish the party as part of an attempted transition to multi-party democracy in Turkey. It was soon closed by the Republican People's Party government, however, when Atatürk found the party to be too influenced by Islamist-rooted reactionary elements.
  • Turkey and Iran confronted by Soviet Union

    Turkey and Iran confronted by Soviet Union
    Turkey and Iran confronted with threats to sovereignty by Soviet Union claims on Anatolian territory, greater shares in governing and policing the Turkish Straits.
  • Multi-party system created, developed, then transitioned into the Democratic Party

    Multi-party system created, developed, then transitioned into the Democratic Party
    In 1945, the first opposition party in the multi-party system in Turkey, the National Development Party, was established by industrialist Nuri Demirağ. In 1946, İnönü's government organized multi-party elections, which were won by his party. He remained as the president of the country until 1950. He is still remembered as one of the key figures of Turkey.
  • Period: to

    Cold War

  • 1947 Truman Doctrine

    1947 Truman Doctrine
    Delivered as a result of escalating Cold War concerns from Soviet interests to secure the Black Sea. Targeted at forestalling communist influence over Greece & Turkey thus commiting military assistance and economic aid.
  • Period: to

    Democrats in Power

    n the 1950 elections, the Democrat Party enjoyed a landslide victory and won the majority of seats in the National Assembly, surprising many, especially the Democrats themselves. This was because of the winner-takes-all system employed in the elections. Their leader, Adnan Menderes, became Prime Minister and Celal Bayar became president. The peaceful transition to power from the CHP to the DP marked the beginning of a competitive political system in Turkey.
  • The Eisenhower Doctrine

    The Eisenhower Doctrine
    From 1947 - 1960 both Truman and Eisenhower Doctrines delivered US aid to Turkey totaling around $3B, enabling a Turkish army of 500K men to deter Soviet designs.
  • Menderes misuses military for political agenda

    Menderes misuses military for political agenda
    Sensitivity to public criticism, & economic policies coming under fire, leading to a series of repressive measures allowing the gov't to censor press, imprison journalists, & shutdown offending newspapers.
  • 27th of May Coup D'état

    27th of May Coup D'état
    DP gov't was overthrown by military group called the National Unity Committee, led by General Cemal Gürsel from fears the founding principles of the Turkish Republic were being eroded, & growing public dissatisfaction with Menderes' perceived intolerance of criticism.
  • Turkish Constitution of 1961 --> 1982

    introduced following the 1960 coup d'état, replacing the earlier Constitution of 1924.
  • 12 Mar 1971 Coup D'état

    12 Mar 1971 Coup D'état
    Demanded "the formation, within the context of democratic principles, of a strong and credible government, which will neutralise the current anarchical situation and which, inspired by Atatürk's views, will implement the reformist laws envisaged by the constitution"
  • Süleyman Demirel Prime Minister 1965 -1971

    Süleyman Demirel Prime Minister 1965 -1971
    Resigned as Prime Minister after his budget was blocked by parliament, but formed his third government shortly after. He resigned after the military memorandum of 12 March 1971, which had been caused by a disagreement between the government and military over the Cyprus dispute, an escalation of tensions with Greece and growing political violence.
  • 12 Sep 1980 Coup D'état

    12 Sep 1980 Coup D'état
  • CURRENT Constitution of Republic of Turkey

    Replaced the earlier Constitution of 1961 after Coup.
    Establishes the organization of the government and sets out the principles and rules of the state's conduct along with its responsibilities in regards to its citizens.
  • Period: to

    Political instability (1987-2002)

  • "Postmodern Coup" by Turkish Admiral

    "Postmodern Coup" by Turkish Admiral
    28 February 1997, the generals submitted their views on issues regarding secularism and political Islam on Turkey to the government.
  • Period: to

    AKP Government (2002-Present)

    Justice & Development Party(AKP)
  • Operation Sledge Hammer

    Operation Sledge Hammer
    The case was heavily criticised by the political opposition for the suspected involvement of high-ranking bureaucrats and legal officials which were close to the Cemaat movement, an Islamist movement led by exiled cleric and (then) AKP ally Fethullah Gülen.
  • ONGOING Conflict with Kurdish Groups Since 1984

    ONGOING Conflict with Kurdish Groups Since 1984
  • Turkish Military attempt to overthrow President Erdoğan

    Turkish Military attempt to overthrow President Erdoğan
  • COVID-19 ONGOING

    COVID-19 ONGOING