Ataturk's Rise to Power: Conditions and Methods

  • Greek Occuption of Izmir

    Greek Occuption of Izmir
    In the Treaty of Sevres, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned where Izmir was meant to be for the Greeks due to the immense Greek population in the area. The Greeks wanted to liberate those who were ethnically Greek from Turkish control and were supported by the Allied when the decide to occupy Izmir.
  • Ataturk sent to Samsun

    Ataturk sent to Samsun
  • Period: to

    Turkish War of Independence

    The Turkish Nationalist Movement, lead by Ataturk, fought the war against the Allied for the independence of a Turkish State. The war ended with Turkish victory, establishing the Republic of Turkey.
  • Congress of Erzurum

    The Congress lasted until August 4th 1919, where a declaration was issued "proclaiming the goals of the movement for the defence of the Eastern provinces" (Yapp). Members agreed that the state of Turkey couldn't be divided and that they would do anything to avoid foreign invasion where the wishes of the people were more important than anything else.
  • Sivas Congress

    Sivas Congress
    It was an assembly for the Turkish nationalists and it ended on September 11, where the representatives decideds to "unite and form the Society for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia" (Yapp 208). The established goals were known as the national pact.
  • Ottoman General Election

    This election was the last election of the Ottoman Empire and suprisingly, Ataturk's party won most of the votes due to their political ideology.
  • British Occupation of Istanbul

    British Occupation of Istanbul
    After the Turkish Nationalist Party won, the Allied feared losing territory and a rebellion from within their Islamic colonies.
  • Establishment of the Grand National Assembly

    Establishment of the Grand National Assembly
    Ataturk was appointed as the president. At first, their aim was to preserve the religion’s last country which was Turkey and the members of the party consisted of individuals of diverse backgrounds. They wanted to preserve the old Ottoman system.
  • Treaty of Sevres

    Treaty of Sevres
    The post-WW! agreement between the Allies and the Ottoman representatives marked the end of the empire. Signed by the Ottomans themselves, the treaty forced Turkey to hand over its territory to the Middle East and North Africa. Regions within the abolished empire were to be split between the Allied powers causing discontent among Turkish civilians.
  • Treaty of Moscow

    Alliance between Russia and Turkey, however their relations were still strained due to the mistreatment of the Armenians by Ataturk.
  • Treaty of Ankara

    Treaty of Ankara
    The French and the Italians, unlike the British, were willing to negotiation and modify the terms of the Treaty of Sevres due to their neutrality, Since the Turkish government was in full support of the British, they were unwilling to ratify the Treaty of Sevres. This treaty was between the French and the Turkish nationalists where it stated France's recognition of Ataturk's party as the Turkish government.
  • Armistice of Mundaya

    It was an agreement between the Turkish Nationalists and Italy, France and Britain. The compromise led to the Greek withdrawal from Eastern Thrace, where the path was open for a renegotiation of the Treaty of Sevres.
  • Abolition of the Sultanate

    Abolition of the Sultanate
    The Sultan was exiled from the Ottoman Empire, officially marking the end of the dynasty. This cleared the way for the establisment of a Turkish Republic.
  • Conference of Lausanne

    During the conference, the Treaty of Sevres was renegotiated so that it wouldn't be as severe.
  • Treaty of Lausanne