2153893 409290 vector map colored by national flag

Timeline of Democracy: Turkey

By nrahimi
  • Period: Jan 1, 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

    Modern Turkey, was once the central component of the Ottoman Empire. Its capital, Istanbul, was both the leading city and capital in the Empire. It stretched around the Middle East, Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Europe, and more. This was the first sense of leadership ‘Turkish’ states had in their own environment and community. In addition, as years went on, many areas of the Ottoman Empire started to pull away, becoming increasingly independent, as they started to build up their governments.
  • Period: to

    Political and Social Developments

    Turkey made many political and social developments within this time period. However, the government continued to be held under a single-party control, having two leaders within a 30 year span. Despite the fact that the leaders had been in power for a while, and many opinions on the final decision were not chosen by several people; the developments moved the nation, and the government forward as they were improvements towards the society.
  • Establishment of Turkey as a Country

    Establishment of Turkey as a Country
    Modern Turkey was founded in 1923, in which M.K.Ataturk was the first president. His view was to move Turkey forward as a country by introducing improvements in order to become unsacred and increasingly Western. The developments involved integrating the education system, banning the traditional Turkish fez, and more. Most importantly, there were political improvements put into place, that benefited the government. Due to these aspects, the democratic elements were advancing in strength.
  • Constitution of the Turkish Republic of 1924

    Constitution of the Turkish Republic of 1924
    This constitution was provided in terms of carrying on the parliamentary governments system, as it included elements of parliamentary systems and governmental executive powers. On other levels, it could be known as the framework and structure of many laws in Turkey. It was an essential part in the transformation into a secular, and democratic republic. That being said, it was one of the biggest steps in the change of government, towards modern Turkey.
  • Islam is Taken Out of the Constitution

    Islam is Taken Out of the Constitution
    They expressed that Islam, which is the state religion, was to be taken out of the constitution, further resulting Turkey to become secular. This lead to many events taking place, such as the removal of headscarves within the public communities, universities, and government workers. They revolved around the idea of stepping away from discrimination in the society. The needs and respect toward cultures, and religions were being taken into account.
  • Women Have the Right to Vote

    Women Have the Right to Vote
    On February 6, 1935, for the first time Turkey gave the right to women, to vote in national elections. Moreover, they were also allowed to run for office, in which eighteen candidates were elected to Turkey's parliament. This was a major aspect in moving the nation forward  as voting equality was taken to the next step. This connects directly to allowing the voice of many of the citizens to be heard and acknowledged.
  • A Multi-Party Democracy

    A Multi-Party Democracy
    In 1950, it was the beginning of a multi-party democracy, and the first open elections were held. Throughout many years, there were countless political parties forming, and growing. This contributed to the growth and benefits of a democracy, as there were plenty of opinions, ideas, debates, and more of the society was involved in politics and decision- making.
  • Constitution of the Turkish Republic of 1961

    Constitution of the Turkish Republic of 1961
    This constitution was the framework and structure of many laws in Turkey, as it developed areas in the parliamentary system. It was highly based on human rights, and the securities of individuals, as Turkey became more aware in these topics and issues within the constitution. Each level of change in the constitution, made improvements, making laws, and powers more efficient in various communities.
  • Military Coups

    Military Coups
    Democratic leaders had been struggling, in which Turkey encountered horrible military coups. These coups caused the constitution to be rewritten and accepted in the referendum (1982). Three years after, the country was ruled by the National Security Council, prior to the time that democracy was restored. Democracy had been shattered by aspects of fragility and intermittent military coups, which regarded the civilians, in returning political power. However, beneficial knowledge was taken from it.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey in 1982

    Constitution of the Republic of Turkey in 1982
    The constitution is the foundation of Turkey, as it lays out important aspects, and constructs of the government. Although it was said to be limiting political and cultural freedoms, the constitution included rights such as Equality of citizens, Freedom of Speech and more. This expands the idea of rights and responsibilities of the citizens, making for a stronger democracy. In addition, the constitution was changed several times and the improvements have a beneficial impact on the government.