Armenian Genocide

By armenia
  • Ottoman Reform Begins

    Ottoman Reform Begins
    The Tanzimat, which means 'reorganization' in Ottoman Turkish, was an era of reformation beginning in 1839 with an organic statute and ending in 1876 with the reign of Abdul Hamid II (a time period known as the First Constitutional Era). This refomoration was a very slow attempt to 'integrate' non-Muslims and non-Turks into the Ottoman Empire. As one can imagine, it grinded many gears. Image: A single page of Tanzimat reform.
  • Abdul Hamid II Begins Reign

    Abdul Hamid II Begins Reign
    Sultan Abdul Hamid II, 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, begins his reign. He declares his government a constitutional monarchy. His reign would lead to the magnification of preexisting conflict within the Ottoman Empire and, ultimately, genocide. Image: Abdul Hamid II.
  • First Sasun Resistance (1894)

    First Sasun Resistance (1894)
    The First Sasun Resistance was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Armenian militia of the Armenian national movement of the Hunchak party, occurring in the region of Sasun. This conflict lead to the suppression of the resistance by the Ottoman Empire and induced massacres. Image: Armenian resistance movement leader, Medzn Mourad.
  • Hamidian Massacres Begin

    Hamidian Massacres Begin
    Beginning in 1894, the first acts of genocide known as the Hamidian Massacres are committed against the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire, with a death toll of 80,000 - 300,000 individuals, including 50,000 orphans. These acts lasted until 1896. Image: Political cartoon depicting Hamid as a butcher of Armenians.
  • First Zeitun Resistance (1895)

    First Zeitun Resistance (1895)
    The Zeitun Resistance of 1895 was an attempt by the Armenians of Zeitun to protect themselves from Ottoman troops, This winter resistance effort lead to an Armenian victory with the intervention of the major European powers. Total casualties soared above 20,000 individuals. Image: Monument of the Zeitun Resistance.
  • Ottoman Bank Takeover

    Ottoman Bank Takeover
    The Ottoman Bank Takeover was the seizure of the Ottoman Bank in Constantinople by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak Party). It was a 26-man mission involving small arms and explosives. Within two days of the bank seizure, 3,000 - 4,000 were estimated to be dead. Image: Armenian survivors of the takeover.
  • Second Sasun Resistance (1904)

    Second Sasun Resistance (1904)
    The Second Sasun Resistance was the resistance of the Armenian militia in the Sasun region. The Ottoman Empire's previously defeated forced in the First Zeitun Resistance of 1895 didn't want to see the formation of another Armenian region; Armenian forces were strong in Sasun. There were very heavy casualties. Image: A museum monument of the Sasun Resistance.
  • Yildiz Assassination Attempt

    Yildiz Assassination Attempt
    An attempted assassination of Abdul Hamid II in the Ottoman capital Constantinople. His movements within the city were habitual, so a bomb attempt was created after his patterns were monitored. He failed to show up, to the mosque where the bombing was to occur, however. There were 26 casualties. Image: A dramatization of the failed assassination attempt.
  • Young Turk Revoluton

    Young Turk Revoluton
    Via revolution, the Young Turks seized power over the Ottoman Empire, leading to the deposition of Sultan Abdul Hamid II and the start of the Second Constitutional Era, as well as further evolution of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Image: Public demonstration during the Young Turk Revolution.
  • Adana Massacre

    Adana Massacre
    The Adana Massacre was a massacre involving religious, ethnic, political, and economic clash in the city known as Adana. Such differences in religion, ethnicty, political, and economic views resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogromns throughout the city. Around 30,000 individuals were killed. Image: The bodies of massacred Armenians in Adana.
  • CUP Emerges

    CUP Emerges
    The Committee of Union and Progress emerges as the head of the government. This was led by Enver, Minister of War; Talaat, Minister of the Interior; and Jemal, Minister of the Marine. Image: Members of the Committee of Union and Progress in Paris, France.
  • Ottoman Empire Enters WWI

    Ottoman Empire Enters WWI
    The Ottoman Empire enters the war on the side of the Central Powers (the Austro-Hungarian Empire, German Empire, and Kingdom of Bulgaria). The Ottoman Empire formed a Triple Alliance with these Central Powers. The Triple Alliance declared war on Russia, Great Britian, and France. Image: Allied colonies can be seen in green, and Central colonies can be seen in orange. Neutral countries are gray.
  • Armenian Decimation

    Armenian Decimation
    The Ottoman government decided to decimate the Armenians from their population (about 2 million). Image: A group of Ottoman soldiers.
  • Armenian Saftey

    Armenian Saftey
    The lives of Armenians became unprotected and unsafe. Image: An Armenian woman with her child.
  • Armenian Execution

    Armenian Execution
    The Armenians in the Ottoman government were either worked to death or executed. Image: The remains of Armenians after one of many executions.
  • Mass Deportation

    Mass Deportation
    Tens of thousands were driven hundreds of miles towards the Syrian desert in convoys. Some were forced to march under life-threatening conditions. Image: An Armenian woman kneeling beside her dead child, a victim of a death March.
  • Frequent Convey Attacks

    Frequent Convey Attacks
    Bands of killers slaughtered the Armenians in terrifying episodes by sword. Image: Convoy attack victims.
  • Denial of Nutrients

    Denial of Nutrients
    Deportees were denied food and water to quicken death. Image: A starving Armenian woman and her child.
  • Survivors

    Survivors who reached Syria were seperated into concentration camps and sent further south of Syria. Image: A group of survivors of the Armenian genocide.
  • Red Sunday

    Red Sunday
    The night in which the Armenian leaders on the Ottoman capital were arrested an deported outside of Constantinople. They rounded up an etimates 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders. Image: Several Armenian leaders who were arrested on Red Sunday and later executed.
  • Armenian Resistance

    Armenian Resistance
    Armenians defended themselves until relieved by Russian forces. Image: One of the many Armenian Genocide resistances, the Van Resistance.
  • Abandonment

    Armenians were hunted down by Turkish forces. Towns that resisted were attacked reduced to rubble. Image: A modern depiction of what Armenian communities may have looked like.
  • Henry Morgenthau

    Henry Morgenthau
    American Ambassador Henry Morgenthau publicized the Armenians situation in the US. Because of this, Near East Relief was developed. It was a committee to feed starving Armenians. They raised funds and saved tens of thousands of lives. Image: Henry Morgenthau on the telephone.
  • Rehabilitation

    After the war, the Near East Relief made a big effort to rehabilitate survivors who had been deported. They set up camps, orphanages, medical clinics and educational facilities. Image: Armenians eating food provided by the Near East Relief.
  • Tehcir Law Comes Into Effect

    Tehcir Law Comes Into Effect
    The Tehcir Law comes into effect June 1st, when it was passed on May 27th. It last for nearly nine months when it cames to an end February 8th, 1916. The Tehcir Law was part of several special measures of the Ottoman Empire taken against the Armenian population during World War I. Image: The Tehcir Law.
  • Talat Dies

    Talat Dies
    The principal of the Genocide, Talat, was killed in Berlin where he had gone into hiding. His assassin was then tried in a German court which acquitted him. Image: Talat Pasha.
  • Last of Armenian Communities

    Last of Armenian Communities
    National forces wiped out the last intact Armenian community with expulsion and massacres. Image: A common site during the Armenian Genocide. Mobbing and public hangins were commonplace.
  • Turkey Declares Republic

    Turkey Declares Republic
    All questions and related matters of the Armenian Genocide were quickly forgotten. Image: Turkey, which was once part of the Ottoman Empire. Note that Constantinople was present-day Istanbul.
  • Armenian Memorial

    Armenian Memorial
    Armenians gather each year on April 24 at the site of memorials. They remember and pay respects to their suffered nation. Image: An Armenian Genocide memorial ceremony.
  • Today: The Turkish Denial

    Today: The Turkish Denial
    May 24th was 3 days ago. Armenians around the world still remember the suffering that they went through during this atrocity. Yet, Turkey refuses to call it a genocide. In fact, it isn't legal to refer to the Armenian Genocide as a genocide in Turkey. Image: 2005 anniversary poster commemorating the Armenian Genocide and recognizing the Turkish Denial.