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History - Berlin to Sarajevo

By e_bosch
  • Congress of Berlin

    Congress of Berlin
    The congress of Berlin was a meeting between the greatest powers of the time, England, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Turkey, to rectify the Treaty of San Stefano (1778) and to settle peace between the Ottoman Empire of Turkey and the Empire of Russia.
  • The Bulgarian crisis

    In 1885 Eastern Rumelia proclaimed union with Bulgaria, which however was against the terms of the Congress of Berlin. Russia was annoyed, but Britain saw the Bulgarian nationalism as a barrier to Russian ambitions in the Balkans, and therefore supported the union. Russia had to accept this situation.
  • The Bulgarian crisis

    In 1886 the Bulgarian parliament offered the vacant throne to Prince Ferdinand, who was a German Catholic, but Russia angrily opposed the appointment. As it looked like another war was going to break out in the Balkans between Russia and Austria-Hungary, Bismarck published the terms of the Dual Alliance of 1879. If Russia were to attack, Bismarck would come to the aid of his Austrian neighbours. However, if Austria-Hungary was the aggressor, she would have to fight Russia alone.
  • The Armenian Massacres (1894 - 96)

    Armenia's two million Orthodox Christians were ruled by the Muslim Turks who persecuted the Armenians for their Faith. When an uprising occurred in 1894, the Turks carried out a series of massacres which continued up to 1896. As Kaiser William II of Germany was trying to cultivate good relations with the Sultan, he was not prepared to speak out against the massacres. Turkey was saved from united action by disagreements among the great powers.
  • Revolt in Crete

    The island of Crete, which was mainly inhabited by Greeks, was subject to Turkish rule.The Greeks revolted in May 1896 and in 1897 Greece declared war on Turkey and sent troops to the island. Although Greece was defeated by Turkey, the great powers intervened and Crete was given self-government in 1908.
  • The Young Turks - Introduction of reforms

    The Young Turks were a group of ardent nationalist led by Enver Bey, who wished to modernise Turkey. With the support of many young army officers they advocated the introduction of a liberal constitution and a parliament elected by the people. They forced the Sultan to introduce these reforms in 1908. When the Sultan tried a counter-coup in 1909 they replaced him with his brother
  • The Young Turks - Austria's reaction

    Austria took advantage of the trouble in Turkey by taking over the full control of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which further frustrated the Serb nationalists. Russia protested, but Germany supported Austria-Hungary against the Serbs
  • The First Balkan War

    The First Balkan War
    Renewed Turkish persecution led to the formation of the Balkan League in 1912 by Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece. The League aimed to drive the Turks out of Europe and declared war on Turkey. By 1913, the 'sick man' were virtually gone from Europe. Little more than Constantinople remained in Turkish hands when the great powers intervened in the First Balkan War .
  • The Treaty of London

    The Treaty of London
    In the Treaty of London, which was signed in 1912, Austria demanded that Serbia and Montenegro should evacuate the Adriatic coastal areas they held. This led to the creation of the new independent Albania, and Serbia was now a landlocked country. Constantinople and the Dardanelles coast were left to Turkey, but her remaining European possessions were divided between Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria
  • The Second Balkan War

    War broke out between the members of the Balkan League, as Bulgaria was unhappy with the terms of the Treaty of London and therefore attacked Serbia in June 1913. The Greeks and Romanians were afraid of Bulgaria and helped the Serbs. The Turks intervened in order to recover Adrianople. The odds against the Bulgarians were too great and they agreed to end the fighting.
  • The Treaty of Bucharest

    The Treaty of Bucharest
    Treaty signed at the end of the Second Balkan War. This Treaty meant the loss of large areas of Bulgaria to Serbia, Greece, Romania and Turkey
  • The end of the Eastern Question

    The end of the Eastern Question
    The Eastern Question and Balkan nationalism, among other factors, sparked off World War 1. During the war, Turkey and Bulgaria took the side of the Triple Alliance, while Serbia, Romania and Greece supported the Entente. Five years after the war had ended, the event which finally settled the Eastern Question took place. By the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, signed between Turkey and its allies, Turkey gave up all its claims to the former European territories of the old Ottoman Empire