Ataturk - Rise to Power

  • Armistice of Mudros

    Armistice of Mudros
    Ottoman Empire signed the treaty allowing the Allies the right to occupy forts controlling the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus; and the right to occupy the same "in the case of disorder" any Ottoman territory in the event of a threat to their security.
    This treaty created a "somewhat" alliance between the Ottomans and the Allies.
    Ottoman sultan aligned with Western powers demands
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Paris Peace Conference
    Creating the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles. Allowing European power over the Ottoman Empire with sanctions and mandates.
  • Mustafa Kemal Sent to Anatolia to Stop Resistance

    Mustafa Kemal Sent to Anatolia to Stop Resistance
    Mustafa Kemal was appointed inspector of the Ninth Army Troops and sent by the order of the Ottoman Sultan to handle the rebellion in Anatolia. The rebellion was against the Allies demands from the Ottomans. Instead of stopping the movement, he joined it and gradually became the leader of the rebellion.
    IMPORTANT #5: This is a significant event due to being the cause of Ataturk's rise to power. Without being sent to Anatolia, he would not have become what he is known for today.
  • Greek Invasion in Izmir

    Greek Invasion in Izmir
    After the Paris Peace Conference, the League of Nations gave permission to the Greeks to pursue Greek expansion towards Izmir and the Thrace.
  • Congress of Erzurum

    Congress of Erzurum
    First national Turkish assembly. Election of Mustafa Kemal as the chairman of the congress. No mandate or foreign protection is accepted. No special privileges to Armenians or Greeks.
    IMPORTANT #4: This is the first negotiation on the future of Turkey and what it would become. This is the first step taken towards the establishment of Turkey as an independent state.
  • National Congress in Sivas

    National Congress in Sivas
    An assembly of the Turkish National Movement that united delegates from all Anatolian provinces in the Ottoman Empire. The resolutions of the Erzurum congress was adopted into a pact.
  • Ottoman General Elections - Turkish Nationalists Win

    Ottoman General Elections - Turkish Nationalists Win
    The Nationalist movement won most of the seats in the Ottoman Parliament during the elections. The parliament in Istanbul acted as the mouthpiece of the resistance movement based in Ankara.
  • National Pact

    National Pact
    Part of the constitution that assures full Turkish independence over the remaining portions of the Ottoman Empire. Meaning that most Ottoman land, the majority being Muslim, is under the rule of Turkey. This caused the Allies to become worried.
  • British Occupation of Turkey

    British Occupation of Turkey
    Britain occupied Istanbul as a response to the close ties between the parliament and resistance movement.
  • Grand National Assembly

    Grand National Assembly
    To replace the Istanbul government as the legitimate representative of the Turkish people. His efforts resulted in a group meeting of a body of representatives in Ankara. Made of delegates chosen by local resistance groups throughout Anatolia, Thrace and several members of the Ottoman parliament called the national assembly. The deputies agreed to form a government with Ataturk as its president. IMPORTANT #3: This is a turning point for Ataturk's rise to power. He is now seen as the President.
  • Treaty of Sevres

    Treaty of Sevres
    This treaty further divided Turkey. Gave land to France, Italy, Britain and Greece. Ottoman Sultan signed this treaty weakening the Sultanate and abolishing Turkish independence.
  • Battle of Sakarya

    Battle of Sakarya
    The Greeks advanced inland and took control of the western and northwestern part of Anatolia, including the cities of Manisa, Balıkesir, Aydın, Kütahya, Bursa and Eskişehir. However, forces of the Turkish National Movement attacked during this battle and succeeded.
  • Armistice of Mudnaya

    Armistice of Mudnaya
    An agreement between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and Italy, France and Britain. Agreements were that:
    Greek troops were to leave Eastern Thrace as far as the Maritsa River and Adrianople within 15 days and civil power would become Turkish 30 days after the Greek troops left.
  • Abolishment of the Sultanate

    Abolishment of the Sultanate
    the Grand National Assembly declared that the Sultanate's Constantinople government was no longer the legal representative. The abolition of the Sultanate ended the Ottoman Empire. The division of the caliphate caused religious powers to have no control in the government.
    IMPORTANT #2: Gives Turkey full independence and allows Mustafa Kemal to become ruler. The Allied powers now must view Turkey as an independent state.
  • Treaty of Lausane

    Treaty of Lausane
    The Turkish national movement rejected the Treaty of Sèvres previously signed by the Ottoman Empire. In the treaty, Turkey gave up all claims to the remainder of the Ottoman Empire and in return the Allies recognized Turkish sovereignty within its new borders. Allied Powers were forced to pull out of Turkey.
  • First President of Turkey

    First President of Turkey
    The Republic of Turkey is fully established and Mustafa Kemal becomes the first President of the republic.
    IMPORTANT #1: Turkish republic declared and made official. Ataturk's ambitions towards creating a new independent Turkey is reached. Allowing him to continue his work to creating a better Turkey. At this point, Ataturk's rise to power has been completed.