Historia e1568077367159

Timeline of History

  • Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE

    First Punic War

    Rome's foreign policy in the 3rd century BC had been oriented to expansion across the Mediterranean
    western. The consequence was the confrontation with Carthage, the other great power in the region. In the First Punic War (264-241 BC) Rome seized the Carthaginian possessions of Sicily, Corsica and
    Sardinia, which became the first Roman provinces.
  • 226 BCE


    treaty for which delimited their respective spheres of influence in the Iberian Peninsula, placing the Ebro as the limit
  • Period: 218 BCE to 197 BCE

    Second Punic War and occupation of the Iberian area

    This stage is framed within from the context of the Second Punic War. The Romans decide to attack Hannibal's rear while The latter invades Italy itself, and an army led by Cneo Cornelius disembarks at Emporion (Ampurias).
    Scipio. After the taking of Carthage Nova by his brother Publius, it culminated in the surrender of Gades in 206 BC Therefore, the Roman occupation was carried out in all the Levante and the south of the peninsula.
  • Period: 133 BCE to 29 BCE

    Consolidation of dominion over the center and west of the peninsula

    This new stage of stabilization of the territories conquered by Rome coincided with civil wars and convulsions
    internal that took place in Rome at the end of the Republic: revolutionary government of the Graco brothers,
    menial wars,highlights the war of Sertorius (82-72 BC).The war ended shortly after Sertorius was assassinated to
    hands of some of his subordinates
    during a banquet.
  • 27 BCE

    administrative reform of Augusto

    administrative reform of Augusto
    He established two types of provinces throughout the
    Roman world, according to its degree of Romanization:
    ∙ those fully pacified and, therefore, did not need the permanent presence of legions, they became senatorial provinces.
    ∙ those of the most recent conquest, in which legions were still needed, became imperial provinces, remaining under the administration and direct control of the emperor, as supreme chief
  • Period: 235 to 284

    military anarchy

    But the leadership of the army also extended to political life and degenerated in a period of military anarchy (235-284): some generals relied on their legions to establish themselves as emperors
    by force, which led to civil wars and a continuous succession of emperors.The end result was political and economic chaos, and increased external threats to weakness.
    internal of the Empire.
  • 415


    In the year 415 the Visigoths led by Ataúlfo entered Hispania. This Germanic people had been in contact with the Roman world for a long time, since they had settled in the area Danube border at the end of the 4th century. To get them away from Italy, where they had just looted their own Rome in 410, the emperor Honorius agreed with his leader Alaric the cession to the Visigoths of the provinces of Aquitaine and Tarraconense in exchange for fighting and expelling Swabians, Vandals and Alans.
  • 589

    The III Council of Toledo

    The III Council of Toledo
    Moreover, the Catholic Church, since its legalization by Constantine in the fourth century had accumulated a great territorial patrimony and, after the III Council of Toledo in 589, in which Recaredo embraced the Catholicism, had acquired great political influence.
  • 654

    Juridical Unification

    Juridical Unification
    Although the first measure aimed at the fusion of the two populations was religious unification, the second and final was the legal unification carried out by Recesvinto in 654 with the compilation of all previous legislation in the Liber Iudiciorum (Trial Book) or Jurisdiction, and its subsequent application to both populations.
  • 711

    Irruption muslim

    Irruption muslim
    It was precisely a succession dispute that offered the pretext for the irruption Muslim in the year 711, which ended the Visigoth monarchy.
    However, the powers of the king were broad (maximum military leadership, legislation, instance superior of justice, etc.), although in practice they were very limited by the power of the nobility and the
  • 711


    an army of 12000 men sent by Musa and under the command of Tariq clash with the army of D.Rodrigo, defeated by the Guadalete River.
  • 718

    The Asturian-lion kingdom

    The Asturian-lion kingdom
    It was an independent medieval kingdom located in the northwestern region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in 910 when the Christian princes of the kingdom of Asturias, on the north coast of the peninsula, transferred their capital from Oviedo to the city of León.
  • 756


    Abd al-Rahman i flees repression in Damascus. He arrived in Al Andalus in 755 and conquered Cordoba in 756 where he proclaimed himself emir in the great mosque. The following year he enters Toledo and subdues all Al Andalus, establishing an independent kingdom of the East in the political but not in the
  • 824


    It was one of the medieval kingdoms of Europe located on both slopes of the western Pyrenees, but with most of its territory located south of the Pyrenean mountain range, in the north of the Iberian
  • 850


    It was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. Castile emerged as an autonomous political entity in the 9th century in the form of a county vassal of León, reaching the category of in the 11th century.
  • 929


    In 912 Abd Al-Rahman III pacificed the territory, coming to the rebel aristocrats of Seville and Carmona, restoring real authoritarianship. Sofocó the revuelta of Ibn hafsún in 928 poniendo fin a la guerra civil. In 929 it was proclaimed caliph of the Muslims and defender of the Islamic faith. Consecrated political así e ideológicamente the supremacía Omeya on the distinct local señores.
  • 985


    Historiographic denomination that designates the counties that appear in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula from the Hispanic Mark of the Carolingian Empire (9th century). It is a territory roughly coinciding with the so-called Old Catalonia and what is currently the principality of Andorra and Roussillon.
  • 1086

    Arrival of the Almoravids

    Arrival of the Almoravids
    The conquest of Toledo in 1085 by Alfonso VI of Castile and the continuous payment of outcasts decided some taifa to resort to the Almoravids, who controlled North Africa. His emir, Yusuf I, carried out three campaigns against the Christians, obtaining a resounding victory in October 1086 at the battle of Sagrajas. But the advances of the Christian conquests and the unpopularity of their measures, such as the introduction of extraordinary taxes, caused riots
  • Apr 9, 1479

    The Treaty of Alcaçovas-Toledo

    The Treaty of Alcaçovas-Toledo
    The Alcaçovas-Toledo Treaty (September 4, 1479) puts an end to the war: Doña Isabel and Don Fernando remain recognized as kings of Castile; doña Juana —the Beltraneja— renounces her supposed rights, the betrothal of the Infante Don Alfonso, son of the Crown Prince of Portugal, with the Infanta Isabel, eldest daughter of the Catholic kings; Finally, Castilla accepts the Portuguese expansion in Africa, although reserving its rights to the Canary Islands.
  • Feb 1, 1492


    The Kingdom of Granada managed to survive until 1492, paying taxes and becoming vassals of Castilla. until in 1474, with the civil war between Isabella the Catholic and the Beltraneja, they refused to pay outings. and that was the perfect excuse for Castilla to start a military campaign against Granada, and in 1492, Boabdil, handed over the keys of Granada to Castilla.
  • Dec 10, 1492

    Discovery of America

    Discovery of America
    a somewhat bizarre sailor, who called himself Genoese and knew all the seas, followed the Reyes in demand of help for a large company. His idea, between great and wrong, was to get to the coasts of Asia sailing to the West. Femando and Isabel were hesitant to grant that help, because the connoisseurs considered that undertaking absurd - and they were, technically, right - and because the Portugal's reaction to an expansive line not foreseen in the Alcaçovas-Toledo Treaty.
  • 1494

    Tordesillas Treaty

    Tordesillas Treaty
    To avoid war, both powers chose to negotiate directly. Portugal accepted the existence of a line demarcation such as that established by the Inter Caetera II, but required that it move 270 leagues to the west. Spain finally accepted this demand and then this agreement was signed and ratified by the Pope and met with the name of TORDESILLAS TREATY (1494), thus establishing the second Alexandrian line, but this time passing 370 leagues west of the islands mentioned.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    Carlos I de España y V de Alemania

    In September 1517, Archduke Charles of Ghent, already King of Spain, landed on the coasts Asturian. No one then could have guessed in him one of the key characters of the entire Modern Age. its The concept of Empire as a large community of the Christian peoples of the West responds to an ancient idea. The exacerbated nationalisms of the nineteenth century criticized in him the lack of a concept of nation; ideas today European supranationals tend to enlarge their figure.
  • Period: 1556 to

    Felipe II

    His reign cannot be understood without taking into account that he considered himself the defender of Catholicism. With the German Empire now separated from Spain, Philip II made Spain the center of his Empire, and within Spain he was Castile, the kingdom in which it relied the most. Felipe II would not leave, since his accession to the throne, the Peninsula, in contrast with his father, who traveled a lot. Looking for a secluded place, he established the capital at Madrid (1561).
  • Fall of the Invincible Armada

    Fall of the Invincible Armada
    With Felipe II the things were complicated. At the beginning of his reign he married the Queen of England Maria Tudor, but she died shortly after. Mary Tudor was succeeded by Elizabeth (they had the same father, Henry VIII, but a different mother: Mary Tudor, Catherine of Aragon; by Isabel, Ana Bolena). Thus, when the uprising in the Netherlands supported the Dutch so Philip II decided to confront England. He planned his invasion; a huge fleet (the "Invincible Armada"), however, the plan failed.
  • Period: to

    Felipe III

    He inherited the largest and most powerful empire in the world, but from the first moment, due to his ineptitude, weakness and disinterest, he left the task of government in the hands of his valid, Don Francisco de Sandoval y Rojas, made by him Duke of Lerma. During his government the great expenses of the Court would lead to a deficit of more of 12 million ducats. Accused of causing the bankruptcy of the Treasury, speculating with public offices and bribery would end up being dismissed.
  • Period: to

    Felipe IV

    In domestic politics, the most notable event was Olivares' attempt to carry out a unification process and centralization of the different territories of Spain. Thus he exposed it to the king in the Great Memorial (1625) that intended, among other objectives, to reaffirm the other peninsular kingdoms to equate them with the Kingdom of Castile and magnify the king and the state by uniting all the Spanish kingdoms.
  • Arms Union

    Arms Union
    In 1626 the count-duke succeeded in getting Aragon and Valencia to accept, albeit reluctantly, his project of "Union of Arms", relative to a proportional participation of all the kingdoms in the support of the forces armed: but Catalonia flatly refused to support the initiative. Since then dates the cold war that existed between the valid and the Catalan Parliament and Council.
  • Period: to

    Carlos II

    He will be the last king of the Austrian House in Spain. His reign was characterized by the lack of good government and the harassment from outside powers. The France of Louis XIV and the European courts awaited his death to share his
  • Peace if Basel

    Peace if Basel
    The execution of the French monarch, Louis XVI, prompted Charles IV to declare war on France, in coalition with other absolute monarchies (1793-1795). The defeat of the Spanish troops was unappealable and the Peace of Basel (1795) subordinated Spain to French interests. Alliances with France led to conflict with Great Britain, from which the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) -in which the Franco-Spanish army was destroyed- was the most relevant milestone.
  • Finalidades generales

    -Fiscal: raise money to repay public debt, cover the costs of the Carlist wars or public investment.
    -Transform the land ownership regime. -To encourage productivity.
  • Desamortizacion de Godoy

    Desamortizacion de Godoy
    The objective of the confiscation was to deal with the enormous deficit and the suffocation suffered by the Royal Treasury as a result of the large increase in spending caused by the war of the Convention that Spain maintained with the French Republic.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    The execution of the French monarch, Louis XVI, prompted Charles IV to declare war on France, in coalition with other absolute monarchies (1793-1795). The defeat of the Spanish troops was unappealable and the Peace of Basel (1795) subordinated Spain to French interests. Alliances with France led to conflict with Great Britain, from which the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) -in which the Franco-Spanish army was destroyed- was the most relevant milestone.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The previous situation deteriorated further when Godoy, with the acquiescence of Carlos IV, signed the Treaty with Napoleon. de Fontainebleau (1807), which authorized the Napoleonic armies to enter Spain to attack Portugal.
  • Central Supreme Board

    Central Supreme Board
    In September 1808, the Boards sent representatives to Aranjuez, taking advantage of the momentary withdrawal of the Frenchmen from Madrid after the defeat at Bailén, to form a Central Supreme Board to coordinate the struggle and direct rule the country.
  • Battle of Bailén

    Battle of Bailén
    It had an immediate impact: the conquest of Andalusia was prevented. José I leaves Madrid.
  • Period: to

    The war of independence

    On May 2, 1808, the rest of the royal family, who still remained in the palace, prepared to leave for Bayonne, where Napoleon was believed to have kidnapped Ferdinand VII. A crowd gathered outside the palace to prevent his departure and rose spontaneous against the presence French.
  • mutiny in aranjuez

    mutiny in aranjuez
    Pursued the dismissal of Godoy and the abdication of Carlos IV in his son Fernando.
  • The royal family goes to bayonne

    The royal family goes to bayonne
    On May 2, 1808, the rest of the royal family, who still remained in the palace, prepared to leave for Bayonne, where Napoleon was believed to have kidnapped Ferdinand VII. A crowd gathered outside the palace to prevent his departure and rose spontaneous against the presence French.
  • Constitution

    This Constitution, the first in the history of Spain made by a court constituents, summarizes the work Legislator of the Courts and established ideas and language of Spanish liberalism. It is a long textThey regulate in detail all matters related to political life and the rights of citizens.
  • Confiscation Cortes de Cádiz

    Confiscation Cortes de Cádiz
    The Spanish confiscation was a long historical, economic and social process that began at the end of the 18th century with Godoy's Confiscation. It consisted of putting on the market, after forced expropriation and by means of a public auction, the lands and goods that until then could not be disposed of and that were in the hands of the so-called dead hands.
  • Royal Statute in 1834

    aunque no es una Constitución
    recoge un conjunto de reglas para convocar unas Cortes. Reconoce una soberanía compartida entre el rey y las Cortes.
    Éstas estarán compuestas por dos cámaras: la de los Próceres y la de los Procuradores. El sufragio es censitario
    (depende de la renta), por lo que sólo vota el 0,15% de la población. El Estatuto Real no satisfacía a todos los liberales
    y suponía un freno a las futuras reformas.
  • Confiscation of Mendizábal

    Confiscation of Mendizábal
    It consisted of the expropriation of ecclesiastical lands (called “dead hands” due to their unproductiveness) and their public auction. These lands had come to the Church through donations, inheritances and intestacy (succession of dead people without heirs).
  • Royal expedition of 1837

    Royal expedition of 1837
    expedition led by the Carlist army led by
    Don Carlos himself who, from Navarra, went to Catalonia and went to Madrid with the intention of taking the capital.
    However, failing to take the city, they had to retreat to the north.
  • Constitution in 1837

    brief, (with 13 titles and 77 articles), and with the intention of
    be a common point of progressives and moderates. Its main features are:
    - National sovereignty is recognized.
    - Suffrage continues to be based on census but is extended to about 3% of the population.
    - Legislative power is shared by the Cortes with the king.
    - Rights and freedoms greater than those of 1812: the national militia was established, freedom of the press, opinion,
    association, non-denominational...
  • Vergara Convention

    Vergara Convention
    In said agreement or agreement between Maroto and Espartero, the maintenance of the privileges in the provinces was established.
    Basque and Navarre, and the integration of the Carlist officers in the royal army.
  • Constitution of 1845

    -Sovereignty shared between the Crown and the Cortes.
    - Legislative initiative in both institutions.
    - The conservative character of the Senate is reinforced, whose members held a lifetime position, were appointed
    directly by the Crown and had to enjoy a high level of income and be relevant personalities.
    - Confessional state: the Catholic, Apostolic and Roman religion is the sole and official religion of the nation.
    - Very restricted census suffrage
    Limited freedom of expression and assembly
  • second carlist war

    second carlist war
    fundamentally in Catalonia, after the rejection of the candidacy of the son of the
    Infante Don Carlos as husband of Elizabeth II
  • The Concordat of 1851

    reestablishes relations with the Church, which had deteriorated greatly since the confiscation of 1836.
  • Manzanares Manifesto

    redactado por Cánovas del
    Castillo, en el que se unieron los progresistas y un sector de los moderados
  • Desamortización de Madoz

    Desamortización de Madoz
    El gobierno de España en los año 1854 al 1856, conocido como“el bienio progresista” estuvo encabezado por los generales Espartero y O’Donnell, nombran como ministro de Hacienda al navarro Pascual Madoz que lleva a cabo una nueva desamortización, la del año1855.
  • Constitution (1856)

    de carácter progresista que no llegó a ser promulgada (non
    nata): defendía la soberanía popular, recuperaba la Milicia Nacional, establecía un Parlamento bicameral, defendía la
    libertad de imprenta, elección directa de alcaldes y libertad religiosa.
  • the battle of wad ras

    allowed the
    incorporation of Sidi Ifni to the colonial territories in the Maghreb, and a military intervention in Mexico.
  • Independence insurrection in Cuba

    Independence insurrection in Cuba
    Independence insurrection in Cuba (1868). The rebels published an independence proclamation, extolled with the well-known cry of Yara: "Free Cuba!", in which they demanded more equality and emancipation of the slaves.

    In 1868 a revolution took place that put an end to the reign of Elizabeth II and established a regime democracy in Spain.
  • Constitution of 1869

    Constitution of 1869
    The provisional government called elections to the Constituent Courts by universal male suffrage, where the Constitution of 1869 will arise. The Constitution of 1869 is the first democratic constitution in the history of Spain.
  • Period: to


    The problems he had: The Republican opposition, The opposition of the Alfonsine party, The Third Carlist War, The split of the progressive party, The opposition of the church and The opposition of the labor movement.
  • third carlist war

    after the occupation of a king
    foreigner of the Spanish crown (Amadeo de Saboya) and later by the proclamation of the First Republic.
  • Estanislao Figueras

     Estanislao Figueras
    Estanislao Figueras is appointed on February 11, 1873 as the first president of a unitary Republic, but he immediately clashed with the federal Republicans. Its main task was to convene a Cortes Constituents to promulgate a new Constitution. The most serious problems lay in the crisis of the Treasury, the incipient Carlist war in the north, the problem of Cuba and the scarce collaboration of the Army
  • the Peace of Zanjon

    the Peace of Zanjon
    ended the Cuban insurrection
    of 1868. Administrative autonomy was granted to Cuba, in addition to a broad amnesty for insurgents,
    although it did not serve to definitively close the conflict.
  • Pact of El Pardo

    Pact of El Pardo
    A peaceful shift agreement by which Cánovas ceded the government to the Liberal Party. With this
    peaceful turn the system was consolidated, while the regent remained on the sidelines of the political game.
    In this way, continuity was assured with the regency of the dowager queen, which guaranteed the
    succession of his son, the future Alfonso XIII.
  • The Associations Act of 1887

    The Associations Act of 1887
    legalized the labor unions and allowed the celebration in 1888 of the
    founding congresses of the General Union of Workers (UGT).
  • The reform of the army

    The reform of the army
    sought to accommodate those armed forces to their time, following the model of the
    prussian army. But the proposed law ended up being withdrawn.
  • The universal suffrage law of 1890

    The universal suffrage law of 1890
    was mired in controversy, its approval did not lead to the
    democracy, since electoral fraud continued.
  • Coup d'état

    Coup d'état
    Miguel reads a manifesto before the journalist (coup d'état). The coup succeeds and has the support of Alfonso XIII
  • Military Directory (1923-1925)

    Spain goes from being a constitutional monarchy to a republic
  • Civil Directory (1925-1930)

    Civil Directory (1925-1930)
    Rivera decided to perpetuate the system by including some civil politicians in the Government, such as José Calvo Sotelo (in the Treasury) or Eduardo Aunós (in the Ministry of Labor). The decision to continue the dictatorial regime aroused the opposition of many as they realized Primo's intention to remain in power. The Civil Directory sought the institutionalization of the regime and showed greater interest in economic and social issues.
  • Opposition to the dictatorship

    Opposition to the dictatorship
    The PSOE maintained an unclear policy towards the dictatorship for some time. When the PSOE realized the definitive nature of the dictatorship and understood that the Constitution that was being drafted was not democratic, it clearly opposed the regime.  Anarchism, with the dismantled CNT, suffered the split of its most radical sector.
  • End of the Dictatorship (1930-1931)

    Miguel resigns and the king appoints Berenguer with the mission of replacing the 76th constitution and saving the royal figure
  • II Republic

    II Republic
    Aznar calls municipal elections and the signatories of the San Sebastián pact triumph, which led to the proclamation of the second Republic
  • the radical government of Lerroux

    the radical government of Lerroux
    Undertook a legislative counter-reform that paralyzed agrarian reform, endowed religious schools with a budget, amnestied General Sanjurjo, reduced the education budget and curtailed autonomy in Catalonia.
  • the October revolution of 1934

    the October revolution of 1934
    Gil Robles managed to get 3 members of lq CEDA into the government, this meant for the left a detour towards fascism and triggered the October 1934 revolution. The UGT called general strikes in the big cities although they failed in Madrid. In Barcelona, Lluis Campanys led an insurrection with a pro-independence nuance, declaring the Catalan republic within the Spanish Federal Republic. The revolt was repressed and its members arrested.
  • the popular front

    the popular front
    It is an electoral coalition of the forces of the left, given the decision of the right that coalesced around the National Bloc. Manuel Azaña was appointed President of the Republic and Casares Quiroga President of the Government.
  • End of the right-wing biennium

    End of the right-wing biennium
    With Gil Robles in the War Portfolio and Franco as Chief of Staff, the statute of autonomy of Catalonia was suspended, the properties were returned to the Jesuits and CEDA presented a draft to modify the constitution. A corruption scandal in the Lerroux government was used by Gil Robles to request the head of government. Alcalá Zamora did not agree and commissioned Manuel Portela Valladares to form a government.
  • July 1936 coup

    July 1936 coup
    The uprising began in Morocco on July 17 and would spread to the rest of the nation on the day Next. However, it failed to prevail in the two main cities, Madrid and Barcelona, remaining Spain divided into two practically equal zones.What was going to be a quick coup, Turned into a three-year civil war
  • national uprising

    national uprising
    The "National Uprising", name given by the rebels to the pronouncement of the 17th and 18th of July 1936 against the Popular Front Government, led to the Civil War.
  • the battle of Jarama and the battle of Guadalajara.

    the battle of Jarama and the battle of Guadalajara.
    After failing in their attempt to occupy Madrid, the rebels tried to isolate the city. Was several unsuccessful attempts to cut communications with Valencia. Two battles were decisive: the battle of Jarama, in February 1937, and the battle of Guadalajara in March 1937.
  • Unification Decree

    Unification Decree
    Given the discrepancies between Falangists and traditionalists (Carlists), Franco promulgated in April 1937 a Unification Decree creating a single fascist-style party, Falange Spanish Traditionalist and of the JONS or National Movement, of which he would be the undisputed leader.
  • The first bombardment of the civilian population

    The first bombardment of the civilian population
    on 26 April 1937 the Condor legion bombed Guernica, by order of Franco's headquarters. Was the first bombardment of the civilian population.
  • Period: to

    Blue stage

    Falangism, always present both in the Councils of Ministers (generally in Agriculture and Labor) and in Spanish society, had its hegemony in the beginnings of the dictatorship during the so-called blue stage (1939-1945).
  • Defense Board

    Defense Board
    In Madrid, on March 5, 1939 Republican General Casado staged a coup and created a Defense Board, made up of socialists, anarchists and republicans, with the intention of negotiating the end of the war with Franco.
  • The last part of the war

    The last part of the war
    On April 1, Franco signed the last part of the war: “Today, captive and unarmed the red army, the national troops have achieved their latest military objectives. Spaniards, the war is over."
  • The defeat of Germany

    The defeat of Germany
    The defeat of Germany in 1945, Spain is isolated from abroad. Francoism had to assume that their survival required distance from fascism. The official speech began to present as a regime centered on Catholicism and anticommunism, which earned him to get out of that isolation during the Cold War.
  • Stabilization Plan

    Stabilization Plan
    Stabilization Plan that laid the foundations for a modernization of the economy, which would continue with the Development Plans5 in the 1960s (the Spanish miracle), and the society, whose mentality began to move away from the traditional patterns of Francoism.
  • Juan Carlos l

    Juan Carlos l
    the young Juan Carlos (son of don Juan) was named Franco's successor, and in 1969, he swore compliance of the "Fundamental Principles of the Movement".
  • Franco's desth

    Franco's desth
    Power, the doctrine of caudillismo, was justified by the "charismatic" and "providentialist" path. Until his death, November 1975, General Franco remained, as his coins proclaimed.
  • "Platajunta"

    In March 1976, the two groups, the Democratic Board, founded in 1974 and promoted by the PCE, led by Santiago Carrillo, and the Democratic Convergence Platform, organized around the PSOE in 1975, led by
    Felipe González joined in the Democratic Coordination
  • Moncloa Pacts

    Moncloa Pacts
    To alleviate the effects of the oil crisis, signing the Moncloa Pacts (October 1977) with the opposition, employers and unions, which included economic measures but also political and social decisions.
  • important events in the six months that elapsed until the general elections of June 1977

    important events in the six months that elapsed until the general elections of June 1977
    In the six months that elapsed until the general elections of June 1977, these Facts stood out:
    - The legalization of the parties and the UGT and CCOO. The legalization of the PCE was especially difficult
    - regulation of freedom of expression and important amnesty measures for political crimes committed during the Franco regime.
    - ETA and far-right terrorism (“Atocha Massacre”) tried to destabilize the new regime.
  • the first democratic elections

    the first democratic elections
    On June 15, 1977, the first democratic elections were held after the Franco regime. The UCD (center right) of Adolfo Suárez obtained a simple majority, followed by the PSOE of Felipe González (center left).
  • The 1978 Constitution

    The 1978 Constitution
    The 1978 Constitution has its sources in the Spanish historical Constitutionalism (Constitution of 1931) and, above all, in the post-war European Constitution (Bonn Fundamental Law). It is extensive, inclusive (the result of a broad consensus), rigid (complicated procedure to change the basic principles) and Democratic.

    The regional and municipal map was designed Significant legislative work has been done Calvo Sotelo could not prevent the decomposition of the UC.

    The reform of the Administration and the Army. The regulation of rights and freedoms and the extension of the welfare state. The development of the State of Autonomies The economic modernization of Spain and a banking restructuring The end of international isolation. As of 1988 the reformist impulse of the PSOE waned.

    Aznar, leader of the PP, won the 1996 elections by a narrow margin. The economic policy was based on the search for stability, in the creation of employment through agreements between agents social, support for the internationalization of Spanish companies and in the privatization policy. He highlighted:
    - Transfer of skills
    - Economic improvement
    -Economic convergence

    Rajoy assumed the presidency of the government. Since 2014, a certain recovery in the economy began to be seen At the institutional level, the abdication of Juan Carlos I took place by surprise on June 2, 2014, and the coronation of Felipe VI. Mariano Rajoy lost power after a motion of censure that promoted Pedro Sánchez to the presidency of the Spanish government.