Al-Ándalus and The First Christian Kingdoms

  • 711

    Battle of Guadalete

    Battle of Guadalete
    The muslims entered the Península through the south to conquer It. They fought and defeated the last Vitigothic King: Don Rodrigo. They named the territory they ruled as ''Al-Ándalus''
  • Period: 711 to 756

    Dependent emirate of Damascus

    It's called the dependent emirate of Damascus because Al-Ándalus was dependent on the Umayyad caliph (it's in
    Damascus).
  • Period: 718 to 924

    Kingdom of Asturias

    The leader who stood out the most was Pelayo, who resisted an attack by the Muslims in 722.
    The first monarchs of the kingdom of Asturias were Alfonso I and Alfonso II.
    The court of the kingdom was in Oviedo and some Visigothic laws were recovered.
  • 722

    Battle of Covadonga

    Battle of Covadonga
    This battle was fought in Covadonga, by Asturias' army and Al-Ándalus troops, who were defeated by Don Pelayo's army.
  • 732

    Battle of Poitiers

    Battle of Poitiers
    In this battle, Carlos Martel fought the muslims who were trying to conquer the rest of Europe. He defeated them and they stabblished The Pirinees as a border between the Iberian Peninsule and France.
  • Period: 739 to 757

    Galicia becomes part of the Kingdom of Asturias

    Galicia became part of the Kingdom of Asturias between the years 739 and 757
  • Period: 756 to 929

    Independent Emirate of Bagdad

    In 756, Abderramán I arrived to Al-Ándalus after he escaped his death in Damasco. He proclaimed himself as emir after he conquered Córdoba. In 733, he became independent from Bagdad; this independence was administrative and political, but it wasn't religious: he kept the spiritual connections.
  • 778

    Battle of Roncesvalles

    Battle of Roncesvalles
    The Battle of Roncesvalles was fought the 15 August 778, around Roncesvalles, on Navarra's Pirinee. Carlomagno's army fought against the people from this zone, and he lost the battle.
  • Period: 802 to 1035

    County of Aragón

    At first they were part of the Frankish kings.
    Aznar Galíndez independent the Carolingian power.
    Before, this county had a small mountainous territory, its main center was the town of Jaca.
    In the middle of the 10th century, the county of Aragon was incorporated into the kingdom of Pamplona.
  • Period: 824 to 1162

    Kingdom of Pamplona

    The Kingdom of Pamplona began in the year 824. For a hundred years, this kingdom was called Kingdom of Pamplona until the year 925, when García Sánchez I changed it to Kingdom of Nájera.
    When the king Sancho IV changed his title to Rex Navarre (King of Navarra) in 1162, the Kingdom of Pamplona ended.
  • 830

    Creation of the Kingdom of Pamplona

    Creation of the Kingdom of Pamplona
    The Kingdom of Pamplona was created in 830.
  • Period: 910 to 1230

    Kingdom of León

    The Kingdom of León is was a medieval kingdom and it was founded in the year 910 by the kings of Asturias, who moved the capital to León. This kingdom was quite important in the Reconqueer, and later, the Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Castilla will become one.
  • 919

    The Kingdom of Asturias is now called Kingdom of León.

    The Kingdom of Asturias is now called Kingdom of León.
    In the year 919, the Kingdom of Asturias became the Kingdom of León.
  • Period: 929 to 1031

    Caliphate of Córdoba

    It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
    This period was characterized by the expansion of culture, trade and architecture.
    Abd ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself as the caliph of Córdoba (in 929) replacing the original name of the Caliphate (Emirate of Córdoba).
    There was a civil war called Fitna of An-Ándalus, it was a war between the descendents of the last caliph. After the fight, the caliphate divided into a number of independient Muslism kingdoms.
  • 951

    Independence of Castilla's County

    Independence of Castilla's County
    This independence was achieved by Fernán González.
  • 979

    Military expeditions of al-Mansur

    Military expeditions of al-Mansur
    Al-Mansur led two big expeditions against Christians in 978 and three in 979.
    They created the constructions fast (less than two years) and moved all the central state apparatuses there, that caused many conflicts.
    In total they had 55 expeditions in their 22 years of reign, although the best known is the Barcelona expedition.
  • Period: 985 to 1137

    Catalan Counties

    The Catalan Counties were Pallars, Urgel, Cerdaña, Besalú, Rosellón, Ampurias and Barcelona. These counties were part from France, but with time they got more autonomy and could be more independent. Then Wilfredo el Velloso (who ruled 5 of the most importan couinties) reestructures the territory. In the year 1137, the counties started forming part of the Corona of Aragón.
  • 987

    Borrell II is no longer loyal to the french kings

    Borrell II is no longer loyal to the french kings
    Borrell II was the Count of Barcelona, Gerona and Osona. He was also the Count of Urgel.
  • Period: 1009 to 1212

    First Taifas Kingdoms

    The Taifas Kingdoms were small kingdoms that belonged to the Caliphate of Córdoba. The finality of these kingdoms was to protect in an easier way the Caliphate of Córdoba. These kingdoms fought against the christians of the north.
  • 1035

    Division of the kingdom of Pamplona

    Division of the kingdom of Pamplona
    The creation of the Kingdom of Pamplona was in 830 and its division was in 1038.
  • Period: 1035 to 1157

    The kingdoms of Castilla and León

    Fernando I (1035-1065),
    first monarch who was the king of Castilla, and the king of León too, he conquered Portugal.
    Alfonso VI was very successful, because he conquered Toledo and the Tagus valley.
    At the death of Alfonso VI there was a period of political instability from which he took
    profit Enrique de Lorena.
    Alfonso VII, grandson of Alfonso VI ruled the kingdom of Castilla-León between 1127-1157.
    When Alfonso VI died, Castilla and León divided, and met again in 1230.
  • Period: 1035 to

    Kingdom of Aragón

    Its first monarch was Ramiro I.
    At the end of the 11th century, the monarch Pedro I incorporated the towns of Huesca and Barbastro.
    The monarch Alfonso I, carried out in the first decades of the 12th century a great offensive on the area of ​​the middle Ebro valley.
    In 1137, it was decided that Petronila and Ramón Berenguer IV would marry, which gave rise to the Crown of Aragon. The son of both, Alfonso II, inherited their territories and was the first monarch of the crown of Aragon.
  • 1038

    The kingdom of Castilla merges with the kingdom of León.

    The kingdom of Castilla merges with the kingdom of León.
    The kingdom of Castilla and León came together in 1038 and fought together for the Peninsula.
    They are independent in the years 1065 to 1072 and 1157, and definitively joined in 1230.
  • Period: 1040 to 1147

    Almoravids

    They were an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
    Almoravids were soldiers-monks from Sahara.
    The Almoravid capital was Marrakesh (founded in 1062)
    The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms when they defeated the Castilian and Aroganase armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086.
    They formed part of the Taifa Kingdoms.
    They formed part of the Zalaca battle too (1086).
  • Period: 1043 to 1099

    The Cid

    Rodrigo Díaz was a military leader who came to dominate the Levante of the Iberian Peninsula in the late eleventh century on his own. He conquered Valencia and established an independent lordship in this city from June 17, 1094 until his death; his wife Jimena Díaz inherited and maintained it until 1102, when it returned to Muslim rule.
  • Period: 1065 to 1230

    Kingdom of Castilla

    The kingdom of Castilla, was born when, to block the Muslims, the kings of León built castles to defend themselves, that's why its name.
    As these territories were far from the control of lions, they ended up separating.
    During the 10th century, Fernando González unified the countries of Castilla and declared hereditary his title.
  • Period: 1075 to 1105

    Construction of the Cathedral of Santiago

    It all started when one of the most important apostles, Santiago the Greater, was executed in Palestine in 44 AD.His grave was forgotten. Until one night 1,200 years ago its discovery occurred. The king realized that there were the relics of an apostle of Christ and ordered to build a church, the next king a larger one.
    The construction of the current cathedral began in 1075 under the reign of Alfonso VI.
  • 1085

    The reconquer of Toledo by Alfonso VI

    The reconquer of Toledo by Alfonso VI
    Alfonso VI, the leader of the Castilla and León's army fought against Al-Cádir, the king of Taifa of Toledo. Alfonso VI won this battle so Toledo was christian again.
  • 1094

    Conquest of Valencia by Cid

    Conquest of Valencia by Cid
    Cid arrived Valencia wanting to attack it for this reason King Rodrigo asked the Catholic Kings for help but they didn't arrive on time.
    Rodrigo tried to fight but can't do anything because there were many Almoravids.
    The battle ended with the first defeat of Spain.
  • Period: 1121 to 1269

    Almohads

    The Almohad Caliphate was a North African Berber Muslim movement and empire.
    They dominated North Africa and the South of the Peninsule
    They formed part of the Taifa Kingdoms.
    The Almohad movement was founded by Ibn Tumart.
  • 1137

    Union of the kingdom of Aragon and the Catalan counties. The crown of Aragon formed

    Union of the kingdom of Aragon and the Catalan counties. The crown of Aragon formed
    On November 13, 1137, Ramiro II the Monk, King of Aragon, resigned Zaragoza, deposited in his son-in-law Ramón Berenguer the kingdom.
    Then, Ramón Berenguer got married with Petronila, Queen of Aragón.
    Alfonso II, son of both, inherited the kingdom of Castilla and the kingdom of León.
    Later, by conquest of new territories and marriage, this union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona under the same crown (The Crown of Aragón)
  • Period: 1162 to

    Kingdom of Navarra

    The Kingdom of Navarra was the sucesor of the Kingdom of Pamplona. This kingdom balanced itself by dividing the kingdom in two: High Navarra and Low Navarra. In 1789, this kingdom became one of the kingdoms of the Corona de Castilla until 1841, when it was considered a floral province after the First Carlista War
  • 1212

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
    In this battle, many christian troops became allies with each other (they were around 70,000 soldiers) and together they fought Muhammad an-Nasir's army (around 120,000 soldiers). The christians won the battle.
  • 1230

    Definitive union of Castilla and León. The Crown of Castilla formed.

    Definitive union of Castilla and León. The Crown of Castilla formed.
    The crown of Castilla is considered the beginning of the last and final union of the two kingdoms.
    Fernado III, King of Castile since 1217, became King of León after Teresa of Portugal's resignation, joining both kingdoms once and for all.
  • Period: 1230 to

    Castilla's Crown

    In 1230, Castilla and León were reunited, when King Fernando II inherited the kingdom of Castilla from his mother, and the kingdom of León from his father.
    From the union of these two kingdoms the Crown of Castile was born, the largest Christian territory on the Peninsula, which played a major role in the last phase of the conquest.
  • Period: 1230 to

    Corona of Aragón

    The Corona of Aragón is how we call the territory that the king of Aragón ruled. The first king of this territory was the son of Petronila and Ramón de Berenguer: Alfonso II of Aragón. Later, more territories were conqueered, like the actual Baleares islands and the south of Italy. When the Catholic Kings got married, the Corona of Aragón slowly disappeared.
  • Period: 1238 to 1492

    Nasrid Kingdom of Granada

    It was founded by the Nasrid noble Mohamed-Ben-Nazar, although he originally had his power center located in Jaén.
    He survived by his position but Granada was losing territory because of the Battle of Granada (1482-1492).
    Granada disappeared completely in 1492.
    Catile was the new Kingdom of Granada.
  • 1492

    The conquer of the Catholic Kings in Granada

    The conquer of the Catholic Kings in Granada
    The Catholic Kings were involved in the War of Granada, in which they fought the muslims and got the city back. There are some questionable things about this war, like if the kings were fighting for Granada or for Baza.