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Danmarkshistorie og perioder

By 3m0g1rl
  • Period: Oct 25, 675 to Oct 25, 1086

    The Viking Age

    Traditionally, the Viking age ended 1066, with Vilhelm of Normandy's conguering England.
  • Period: Oct 25, 675 to Oct 25, 1086

    The Viking Age Community

    Teh icelandic Saga's can be used for information about the community of The Viking Age. It's described as a tribalcommunity, where welthy peasants were the dominating, absolute upper class. There were the free peasants, and lastly the thralls.
    Supposedly, women had some significanse, especially when their husbands went away. They could raise runestones for their husbands or demand a divroce. In the icelandic sagas, most women are independent, but this may have only been upperclass-women.
  • Period: Oct 25, 800 to Oct 25, 899

    Plunder of the Franks kingdom

  • Oct 25, 840

    Conquests

    From this point on, the Vikings conquests were plunder-and tradeventures, that resulted in colonisation and minor exodus.
  • Period: Oct 25, 900 to Oct 25, 999

    Centralpower

    Mid-900's - From this point on, Denmark steps up politically as a collective area.
    980 - Extensive building occured. I.e, Kanhavekanalen in Samsø and trelleborge near Slagelse, Odense and Hobro.
  • Period: Oct 25, 916 to Oct 25, 1241

    Birth of Denmark

  • Oct 25, 960

    Jellingestenen

    Jellingestenen
    Harald Bluetooth Gormsson raises the Jelling Stone. Recorded birth of Denmark.
    On the stone; "Harald King had these runes made after his father Gorm and his mother Thyra, the Harald, who won himself all of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes chrisitans."(translated loosely)
  • Oct 25, 960

    The ordeal and the christianisation of the danish King

    About year 960, there was said to have been a munk named Poppo, who tried convisncing the king that the christian god was the one and only. King Harald demanded the munk perform an ordeal, and supposedly the munk did.
    It's importnat to remember, that king Harald did not try to subdue his people to Christianity. The upperclass were also chrisitans. An ordeal; a test used on criminals; carrying whitehot iron - if your hands were unhurt, you were innocent.
  • Oct 25, 1000

    Conquests

    The conquests became political-oriented.
  • Oct 25, 1013

    Svend Forkbeard conquered most of England.

    Svend died the year after and England inaugerated an king of english heritage.
  • Oct 25, 1014

    Re-conguering England

    Svends son, Canute(Knud in danish), reigned over half the english kingdom. By marrying the widow of the english King(died 1016), he reigned all of England.
    Canute died 1035, and his reign over England was handled by english public servants and had to share his power with the english bigshots who helped him to it.
    His rule over Denmark was handled by most others.
  • Period: Nov 2, 1050 to Nov 2, 1150

    Early middleage

    The late Viking Age and early middleage were unsteady timeperiods - there was no succesion, and most kings died before due time.
    1104 - the Pope of Rome gives Denmark it's own archbishop, his residence placed in Lund, Skåne - Denmarks wealthiest province at the time. It was a prosperous time of progression within agricultural technology, entailing increased productions. Also herring-trade thrived on for hundreds of years.
    Construction boom of brickchurches in 1100-1250. Woodchurches from 1100s.
  • Nov 1, 1100

    Munkorders

    Munkorders
    Benedictines constructed city-monastaries, Cistercienserne (danish word) monasteries in desolate and scenic regions to pray and work at. They were for upperclass-kids who were unprovided for. Cistercienserne brought with them South-european technology.
    1230 - To new orders arrived; Franciscans (greybrothers) and Dominicans (blackbrothers), which profited from begging. They were humble, which bred respect, and became socialcare. Picture from Sean Connery's "Name of the Rose".
  • Period: Nov 1, 1100 to Nov 1, 1250

    Construction boom for chruches

    1100 - 1000 woodcurches resided around Denmark.
    1125 - implement of the tithe(10 % tax to the church); used for financing the building. Squires stood for the organizing, peasants did the work. Almost all 2000 villagechurches were raised in this timeperiod.
    Late 1100s - Ribe,Viborg,Ringsted and Lund had monumental churches built by the Church and King.
  • Nov 2, 1145

    The cathedral of Lund is consecrated

  • Period: Nov 2, 1157 to Nov 2, 1241

    The Age of Valdemars

    1157 - Valdemar the Great rises to power.
    1158 - The battle on Grathe Hede won.
    1241 - Valdemar the Congueror dies.
    Conflict of interest temporarily solved between the Church and the Crown.
  • Nov 2, 1167

    Founding of Copenhagen

    Absalon uilts fortress at Harbour
  • Nov 1, 1170

    Conquest of Arkona

    Valdemar the Conqueror conquers the most important town and fortress Arkona on the island of Rügen. This gave him his title.This is the zenith of his reign.
  • Nov 8, 1200

    Early midldeages of 1200s

    A this point, some tried alternative translations of the Christian teachings.
    To prevent this, the church had the Inquisition to enforce their practices, but since the Black Death there'd been strong criticism of the church's ways, as they had not been able to prevent the epidemic.
  • Jul 15, 1219

    The Dannebrog descends during battle

    Valdemar the Conqueror conguers Estonia in a crusade.
  • Mar 10, 1241

    First constitution of Denmark: The law of the Jutes

    The inauguration of The Law of the Jutes happened by Valdemar the Conqueror in his last year of life.
    The preamble of Codez Holmiensis says "With law shall land [nation] be built. And if all men would keep [be content with] what is theirs, and let others enjoy the same rights, there would be no need of [a] law." The Law of the Jutes juxtaposes Denmark with civilisation under more southern skies.
  • Period: Nov 1, 1241 to Nov 1, 1397

    Jyske Lov

    The church was against slavery, warprisoners were no longer imported, so thralls decreased in numbers. The use of thralls ceased completely. The economic welfare was a result of technological innovation; wheel-ploughs gave a better profit than previosuly. Thus, the production increased alongside the population. The plough was difficult to move around, so agriculural communities formed.
    There was a feudal system (up until 1700s). -købing and -borg cities became commercial towns.
  • Nov 2, 1282

    First danish charter

    By Erik Klipping.
  • Nov 2, 1286

    Last murder on danish royalty

    The unsolved murder on Erik Klipping brought upon he country a ruelling civil war.
  • Nov 2, 1340

    Civil war ends

    Valdemar IV becomes King and the civil war from 1282 ends. However, due to the time spent without a king, the squires starting gaining more power and ilfuence, which made them able to rearm their fortresses - making the time period hereafter known as The Century of the Fortress(until plague in 1349).
  • Nov 1, 1349

    Black death

    Due to poor hyegene and climate-deterioration.
  • Nov 8, 1517

    Martin Luther openly critices the churchs indulgence

    He was banished, but because he was supported by great north-german lords, he was able to spread his words. And because bookprinting was blooming, leaflets were effective means to do so. That was the first modern mass media.
    This made the churchs critics come forward all over Europe.
  • Nov 8, 1520

    Christian II conguers Sweden: Stockholm Bloodbath

    82 swedish noblemen were executed at the Swedish Bloodbath under Christian II with accusations of heresy. The swedish call Christian II "Christian Tyrant"(danish: Christian Tyran).
  • Nov 8, 1523

    Christian II as a danish refuge

    Chrisitan II's enemies joined against him and he was forced to leave Denmark, seeking reufge with his brother-in-law Karl V. He returned 1531 to attack Norway, but ended up negotiating with Frederik I - in exchange he got safe-conduct. However, Christian II was imprisoned in Sønderborg Slot, and at his death in 1559 he played a signifcant part due to his family-connections.
  • Nov 15, 1523

    Kalmar Union ends

  • Nov 8, 1533

    Frederik I dies.

    Councillar hesitated to, but eventually, inaugerated duke Christian, the hesitation due to Christian having brought the lutheran reformation to his domain.
    The lack of centralpower resulted in a civil war about class war. He was crowned King Christian III of Denmark(with the exception of Jutland, as there was insurgent rule there).
  • Period: Nov 8, 1533 to Nov 8, 1536

    Count's Feud

    When Christian III was King, he hired Johan Rantzau as his military commander. Rantzau ended the rebellion at Funen, reconquered Zealand and went for Malmø and Copenhagen. Copenhagen was the last to be conquered.
    To pay for his war-expenses, Christian III imprisoned the bishops and took their land. Along with having a competent Chancellor of the Exchequer, Christian III's rule improved the economics of Denmark. Thus came the reformation.
  • Nov 8, 1536

    Reformation

    Contrary to how the church had previously been a mihty authority due to it's numbers and wealth, there had been criticism of it since the beggar-munk Orders came to in the 1200s.
  • Nov 8, 1550

    First bibel-translation to danish

    The reformation gets through. Priests could get married and have kids. Monasteries and nonneries were shut down, with negative concequences for social welfare as beggarmunks had been running.
    And important notice is that the wallpaintings of churches were painted over, because the services were now in the motherlanguage of the people. With this, the way of the church began focusing on the text and the services, instead of the interpretation and maintenance of it.
  • Nov 15, 1563

    7 Years war of Denmark and Sweden

    1611-1613: A tie.
    1625-1629: On the surface; a religious war of protestantism and catholism.
    1643-1645: Defeat to DK. Gotland, Halland, Øland and parts of Norway were lost for 30 years.
    1657-1658: Defeat to DK. Sweden marched across the ice(a very rough winter). Scania, Halland, Blekinge as well as greater norse properties were lost then.
    1675-1679: Scanian war.
    1700-1720: Great Northern War.
  • Astronomer Tycho Brahe's book: Om den nye stjerne

  • First publishment of (100) folkeviser

  • DK withdraws from 30 Years war after defeat

    Germany occupies Jutland.
  • "Børsen" is built in CPH.

    During Christian IV's reign.
  • "Rundetårn" is built.

    During Christian IV's reign.
  • DK surrenders Scania to Sweden

  • Coup d'etat

    Heretive monarchy is implemented.
  • Period: to

    The absolute monarchy

    October 10th 1660 - Witht eh help from the bourgeoisie, the king forces the nobility to finance the rebuild of the country and agree to an heritable monarchy.
    18. oktober 1665 was the ceremony and confirmed this change in the society. So did the Kings Law from 1665. King Chrisitan IV was known for his buldings in the capital, and he led a mercantile fiscal policy - Denmark was to be more independent and had to minimise it's imports. He established colonies in Westafrica, West- and Southindia.
  • Kings Law

    Mounted by Frederik III. Provides executive, judiaciary and legislature to the King.
    Only demands; the king must be lutheran, he must not surrender his autocratic power, and he must not divide the kingdom between his heirs.
    Was the constitution of Denmark until june 1849.
  • Chrisitan V's Law

    A law that provided equality before the law. Main principle was preventing crimes from happening.
  • New land register

    Provided fair taxes, as it clarified how much land belonged to who, the quality there of and there was a quite good outline on the contry's economic capacity.
  • Period: to

    Foreign Policy 1720-1814

    1801 - Battle of the roadstead. England vs. Denmark(who is in a neutrality federal with Sweden, Russia, Prussia, that dissolves when Russia pulls out)
    1806 - England demands the danish navy handed ot them.
    1807 - terrorbombing at Cph for 3 days.
    1813 - Money inversion. 1/6.
    1814 - Peace obtained. Denmark surrenders Norway to Sweden.
  • Denmarks first theatre

    Built by René Montaigu on Lille Grønnegade in the inner capital.
    Ludvid Holberg wrote comedies for 5 years.
    Closes 1728 due to bad economy.
  • Period: to

    Background of the rural reforms

    1731 - the serfdom is implemented. Farm service ages from 14-36 changed to be 4-40.
    Mid 1700s - Trade boom due to neutrality during wars.
    1772-784 - Agricultural renovation of fields. "Udskiftningen"(danish for 'replacement', loosely)
    1764 - Crown Prince Frederik takes over from Chrisitan VII
    1787 - the farmers legal position on euqal footing with the landowners.
    1814 - School law; education for 7 years and free public schooling
  • Period: to

    The England Wars + DK's alliance w. Napoleon

    Alliance w. Napoleon was not beneficial for DK.
  • Contest of Denmarks national anthem.

    Though popular, "There is a lovely land" was not chosen.
  • Liberalization of the SBS.

    The citizenship of copenhagen meets at King Frederik VII's door, to request a new, free constitution. He answers that so it shall be.
    s. 58
  • June Constitution WIP

    s. 58