Middle ages

Middle Ages Illustrated Timeline

  • Period: 476 to Jan 1, 1453

    Middle Ages

    A period of European history from the fall of Western Roman Empire in 476 until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Followed by the Renaissance. Marked by constant warfare and the feudal system, the Crusades, the Black Death, Christian-orientated art and works, a degeneration of culture, illiteracy
  • Period: 500 to Jan 1, 1500

    Medieval Music

    Western music written during the Middle Ages. This era begins with the fall of the Roman Empire and ends sometime in the early fifteenth century. Medieval music uses many plucked string instruments like the lute, mandore, gittern and psaltery. It evolved over the Middle Ages from chanting to more developed religious songs to secular songs accompanied by instruments. At the end of the Middle Ages, musicians were requested and troubadours were common.
  • Period: 500 to Aug 8, 1500

    Medieval Art

    Medieval art in Europe grew out of the artistic heritage of the Roman Empire and the iconographic traditions of the early Christian church. Includes Early Christian art, Migration Period art, Byzantine art, Insular art, Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art, and Gothic art. Contained elements of classical, early Christian and "barbarian art". Contained mostly religioua undertones.
  • Period: Jan 1, 700 to Jan 1, 1000

    Writing of Beowulf

    Written by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon author between the 8th and early 11th centuries. It is the conventional title of an Old English heroic epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines, set in Scandinavia, considered one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Romanesque and Gothic Architecture

    Romanesque and Gothic Architecture
    Romanesque Architecture included large internal spaces were topped by barrel vaults on thick, squat columns and piers. Windows and doors had round-headed arches, and most major churches were laid out on the basilican plan, modified by the additions of some buttresses, transepts, and towers, and stained glass windows. . In the northern Europe, from mid-10th to the mid-12th century, more progress was made to the development of Gothic architecture, noted for its flying buttresses, pointed arches.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    monasticism (Christian version founded by Saint Anthony the Great)

    monasticism (Christian version founded by Saint Anthony the Great)
    A religious way of life marked by the practice of renouncing worldly pursuits to fully devote one's self to spiritual work. Similar to the monks of the Buddhist faith. Males are referred to as monks or brothers, while females are referred to as sister or nun. These monks most often lived in monasteries with other males. Women lived in convents. Prayer was one’s first priority; apart from prayer, monks prepared medicine, lettered, read, copied Bibles, learned, etc. Most common in Eastern Orthodox
  • Period: Jan 1, 1000 to Jan 1, 1300

    rise of towns and trade

    In the 11th century the Crusades began to stimulate the revival of commerce, which had been lost since the fall of the Roman Empire. Traveling merchants made headquarters in places of safety, such as by the walls of a castle or monastery. Places accessible to main roads or rivers grew rapidly.
    By the 13th century Europe had numerous towns.
    Townspeople lived by the exchange of goods and services. They were not -sufficient and as such relied on trade, labor, economics, and social living to keep.
  • Apr 19, 1054

    Great Schism

    Great Schism
    The formal division of the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) parts, which he Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. Caused by a mutual excommunication of both branches from one another in 1054 amidst numerous tensions.
  • Period: Sep 28, 1066 to Oct 14, 1088

    Norman conquest of England

    Began on 28 September 1066 with the invasion of England by William, who became William the Conqueror after his victory at the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066, defeating King Harold II of England. By 1071, William had controlled of most of England; by 1088, most rebellions and resistance had been quelled.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1095 to Jan 1, 1271


    A series of "holy" wars waged by the Christian states of Europe against the Muslims over control of the holy city of Jerusalem. The Crusades started in 1095 when Pope Urban II asked all Christians to war against the Turks who had control of Jerusalem; the speech inspired thousands to put crosses on their uniforms and fight this religiously sanctioned war. The wars numbered eight in total and the land switched hands often.
  • Period: Nov 27, 1095 to Jul 15, 1099

    First Crusade

    The first crusade to overtake Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks. In 1099, the battle for Jerusalem was won and several small countries were created in addition to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • Jan 1, 1100

    Compass (Medieval Tech)

    Compass (Medieval Tech)
    A Chinese invention from the 1st century AD, used as direction pointers by the 8th century AD in China, and between 850 and 1050 as navigational devices on ships. Knowledge of the compass as a directional device came to Western Europe sometime in the 12th century.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1100 to Jan 1, 1500

    Rise of the Universities

    The 12th and 13th centuries saw the beginnings of the first medieval universities. Universities initially were not physical organizations, but groups of students who contracted lecturers to teach them. Universities became formalized when they were granted charters. Early European universities include the University of Paris in France and Oxford in England. They were centers of knowledge and culture, where students learned more than the religious teachings that were offered elsewhere.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1100 to Jan 1, 1500


    A method of teaching and learning that was most popular in medieval universities from around 1100 to about 1500. It was program of articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context and of basically debate. The scholastics would choose a bookto investigate and analyze it and learn the theories of the author. These theories and related books and documents would be studied and then argued. The points of disagreement were subjetced to more study and analysis.
  • Period: Aug 1, 1147 to Jun 1, 1149

    Second Crusades

    The Second Crusade, fought after the Muslims had retaken a number of Christian outposts established during and after the First. After the town of Edessa was attacked by the Turks, St. John of Clairveax called for a new crusade. Loss for the French and German armies.
  • Dec 19, 1154

    Henry II

    Henry II
    Henry II (Mar. 5 1133-Jul. 6 1189)-ruled as King of England. He was the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, and was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England and the first to use the title "King of England" (as opposed to "King of the English"). Crowned December 19, 1154
  • Jan 1, 1170

    Invention of Wheelbarrow (Medieval Tech)

    Invention of Wheelbarrow (Medieval Tech)
    Proved useful in building construction, mining operations, and agriculture. Use of wheelbarrow first mentioned in literature between 1170 and 1250 in North-western Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1185

    Windmill (Medieval Tech)

    Windmill (Medieval Tech)
    The first surviving mention of one comes from Yorkshire in England in 1185; by 1195 they were sufficiently common that the Pope levied a tithe on them. The post mill was introduced to the Middle East by members of the Third Crusade. Used mainly for irrigation and milling.
  • Period: Aug 7, 1187 to Aug 7, 1192

    Third Crusade

    The Muslims captured Jerusalem in 1187, leading Pope Gregory VII to call for a new crusade, which was sponsored by several European kings, of France, England, and the Holy Roman Empire. This war was a great blow to the Christian armies , and the Europeans agreed to stop fighting in 1192.
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Paper (Medieval Tech)

    Paper (Medieval Tech)
    thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. Spread from China to medieval Europe in the 13th century.
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Medieval Literature

    Medieval Literature
    Commonly written in Latin, anonymously, and containing religious inspiration. Many were also written in the author's vernacular and were most religious though some deal with more universal or secular tones of courtly love, tragedy, but usually with some sort of moral. Other works were purely historical or an account of an event or argument.
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Book of the Civilized Man

    Written by Daniel of Beccles. It is believed to be the first English courtesy book (or book of manners), dating probably from the beginning of the 13th century. Civilized Man is a 3,000 line Latin verse poem that gives proper advice on a wide range of social situations the typical medieval person may encounter in day to day life.
  • Period: Aug 7, 1202 to Aug 7, 1204

    Fourth Crusade

    A war begun with the efforts of Pope Innocent III with the intention of conquering Jerusalem and taking it from the Muslims by an invasion of Egypt. However, the knights who answered his call ended up capturing Constantinople, which was sacked and plundered by the crusaders, who also murdered much of the population. Their control of the city gave great wealth to the Church, but lasted less than 60 years.
  • Period: Apr 25, 1214 to Aug 25, 1270

    Louis IX (France) and kingship

    Louis IX was King of France from 1226 until his death. Also known as Saint Louis. He is the only canonised king of France. He was known for being pious and kind to the poor and went on both the Seventh and the Eighth Crusades. Pope Boniface VIII proclaimed the canonization of Louis in 1297 and he is additionally venerated by the Church of England. Under his reign, France was at its most powerful and he was the arbiter of Europe financier of the Crusades.
    Kingship- the state and reign of a king.
  • Jun 15, 1215

    King John and the Magna Carta

    King John and the Magna Carta
    The Magna Carta is an English charter, signed by King John in 1215;it became law in 1225 and forced King John of England to proclaim certain liberties, and accept that his will was not arbitrary, It was the first document forced onto an English King by his subjects; it was done in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect the privileges mostly sponsored by feudal lords.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1305 to Jan 1, 1378

    Babylonian Captivity

    Also known as Avignon Captivity, the period during which seven Popes resided in Avignon, in modern-day France. Clement V, a Frenchman,was elected as pope in 1305. He declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309 moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained until 1378 when the Western Schism began.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1308 to Jan 1, 1321

    Writing of The Divine Comedy

    The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia) is an epic poem written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321. It is widely considered the preeminent work of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature, The poem's imaginative and allegorical vision of the afterlife is a culmination of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church. Italian.[
  • Jan 1, 1324

    Invention of Cannon (Medieval Tech)

    Invention of Cannon  (Medieval Tech)
    Large hollow barrel designed to use gunpowder to hurl an object at a target. Though there is dispute over the earliest mention of cannon, there is an undoubted reference to their use in the siege of Metz in 1324. The primary use of early cannon were as bombards to knock down the walls of besieged towns and castles.
  • Period: Nov 1, 1337 to Jul 17, 1453

    Hundred Years' War

    A series of wars from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagene for the French throne. Also an English invasion of France for the French throne. The war started in May 1337 when King Philip VI of France attempted to confiscate the English territories in Aquitaine It ended in July 1453 when the French finally expelled the English from the country.
  • Period: Oct 1, 1347 to Aug 7, 1351

    Black Death

    One of the most devastating oandemics in history, a period from 1347 to 1351 marked by the death of 30%-60% of the European population and which caused the end of the feudal system and the beginnings of scientific medical research. Caused by the bubonic plague and spread from China through the Silk Road.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1358 to

    Hanseatic League

    The League was an economic alliance ofGerman trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the Northern Europan coast. It reached from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland from the 14th to the 17th centuries.Created to protect commercial interests and privileges granted by foreign rulers in cities and countries the merchants visited. Had its own legal system and own protection and mutual aid.
  • Period: Apr 1, 1378 to Aug 1, 1418

    East/West Church Schism

    This schism was a split in the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. Two men at the same time claimed to be the true pope.This was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). The claims of two different men hurt the reputation of the office and of the Church. Pope Boniface IX, was crowned in Rome in 1389 and Benedict XIII reigned in Avignon from 1394; the two maintained their claims and thrones until their deaths.
  • Apr 29, 1429

    Joan of Arc and Orleans

    Joan of Arc and Orleans
    During the Hundred Years' War, a 17-year-old French peasant named Joan of Arc (nicknamed "The Maid" and who claimed to have seen visions that told her to aid Charles in gaining the French throne and expelling the English) led a French force in relieving the city of Orleans, besieged by the English since October 14,1428. By bringing supplies and soldiers to the embattled city, she inspired and rallied the Frenchmen to aid her. On May 8, the siege of Orleans was broken, and the English retreated.
  • Aug 7, 1450

    Invention of the Printing Press

    Invention of the Printing Press
    Invented around 1450 by Johannes Gutenburg. It lead to a wider spread of ideas and culture and directly contributed to the birth of the Renaissance. It led to the first mass production of books in history and allowed books to be more numerous and affordbale. This also led to an increase in literacy.
  • Period: May 22, 1455 to Jun 16, 1485

    War of the Roses

    A series of civil wars fought in England between 1455 and 1485 over the English throne between the House of York (white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose). The final victory went to Henry Tudor in 1485 when he defeated the last Yorkist King Richard III and married Elizabeth of York to unite the 2 families. The House of Tudor ruled for the next 117 years.
  • Royal Authority, Common law

    Royal Authority, Common law
    Royal Authority had 4 components according to the author of "The Nature and Properties of Royal Authority", Jacques Bossuet: "royal authority is sacred; second, it is paternal; third, it is absolute; and fourth, it is subject to reason."

    Common law-law developed by judges through previous decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive branch action. Institutionalized by King Henry II in 1154.
  • Period: to

    Holy Roman Empire

    An "empire" that existed from the crowning of Otto I as King of Germany in 962 until the abdication of the throne and dissolve of the "empire" by Francis II during the Napoleonic Wars in 1806. It was mainly based in Germany and had territories extending from it. Much of the territory was taken by Napoleon and reorganized into the Confederation of the Rhine. In its last centuries, the emperors power weakened significantly; ironically, it neither had a church or was actually an empire.