Gez3vslbt1s6npmkooqs historia espanola

The History of Spain

  • 264 BCE

    Beginning of the First Punic Wars (264 BC - 241 BC)

    Beginning of the First Punic Wars (264 BC - 241 BC)
    Rome seized the Carthaginian possessions of Sicily, Corsica and
    Sardinia, which became the first Roman provinces.
  • 29 BCE

    Start of the Cantabrian-Astures Wars (29 BC-19 BC)

    Start of the Cantabrian-Astures Wars (29 BC-19 BC)
    The objectives that Rome pursued with its conquest were several: full control of the peninsula, the eradication of the constant pillage of Cantabrians and Asturians on the peoples of the plateau already dominated and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the northwest with the forced labor of the local population.
  • 200

    Crisis of the third century in Hispania

    Crisis of the third century in Hispania
    The Roman world witnessed a profound crisis that took place from the 3rd century on. This crisis was very serious and weakened the Roman State, which, despite a certain recovery in the fourth century, was unable to withstand the consequences of the crisis that were reflected in all aspects: political and military, economic, demographic and social.
  • 380

    Definitive implantation of Christianity in Hispania

    Definitive implantation of Christianity in Hispania
    The definitive implantation of Christianity in Hispania occurred after the Edict of Thessalonica by Emperor Theodosius I, who established it as the official religion of the Empire.
  • 400

    Fall of the Tartessian Kingdoms

    Fall of the Tartessian Kingdoms
    From the 5th century BC. The references to Tartesos as a kingdom disappear and the texts begin to name the area Turdetania. Although historians have offered some possible explanations for the collapse of such a rich and powerful monarchy, none of them is conclusive. Therefore, the kingdom of Tartesos continues to be a great enigma until now, halfway between history, myth and legend.
  • 409

    Arrival of three barbarian peoples to the peninsula

    Arrival of three barbarian peoples to the peninsula
    In the year 409 three barbarian peoples, two of them Germanic (Swabians and Vandals) and another of Asian origin (the Alans), who had crossed the border of the Rhine a few years earlier, broke into the Iberian Peninsula. These towns during two years were dedicated to looting the territories that crossed.
  • 410

    Fall of rome

    Fall of rome
    The city of Rome was sacked by Alaric's Visigoths.
  • 589

    Recaredo's Conversion to Christianity

    Recaredo's Conversion to Christianity
    Recaredo, Leovigildo's successor, converted to Catholicism at the III Council of Toledo (589) along with Arian nobles and bishops. He thus achieved the religious unification of the Visigoth minority and the Hispanic-Roman majority, while reinforcing his political power.
  • 654

    Legal unification of the Visigothic monarchy

    Legal unification of the Visigothic monarchy
    The legal unification carried out by Recesvinto in 654 with the compilation of all the previous legislation in the Liber Iudiciorum (Book of trials) or Jurisdiction, and its subsequent application to both populations. The only ones who were discriminated against and suffered repressive dispositions throughout the period were the Jews, which explains their support for the Muslim invaders in the 8th century.
  • 711

    Fall of the Visigothic Monarchy

    Fall of the Visigothic Monarchy
    The victory of the Muslims in the Battle of Guadalete in 711 ended the Visigoth monarchy.
  • 711

    Dependent Emirate of Damascus (711-756)

    Dependent Emirate of Damascus (711-756)
    It begins with the battle of Guadalete (711) where they defeat Rodrigo, and the capital is placed in Córdoba. The emirate is ruled by an Emir. In this period there is political instability due to the confrontations between the Arabs and the Berbers.
  • 722

    Battle of Covadonga

    Battle of Covadonga
    This war took place in Asturias in 722, after the fall of the Visigoth monarchy. It pitted the Muslims against the Christians, who had taken refuge in the north of the peninsula, and were led by Don Pelayo. This war was of great importance because it reinforced the confidence of the Christians and recently formed the Kingdom of Asturias, liberated by Pelayo.
  • 756

    Independent Umayyad Emirate of Baghdad (756-929)

    Independent Umayyad Emirate of Baghdad (756-929)
    The Emirate becomes independent and is ruled by Abd Al Rahman I. The religious authority of the Caliph of Baghdad is accepted, but not politics. At this time there are uprisings of Mozarabs and Muladíes. In the 5th century it had an economic and cultural boom.
  • 929

    Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031)

    Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031)
    The Emirate becomes a Caliphate and is governed by Abd Al Rahmán III and continues with its capital in Cordoba. It becomes independent politically and religiously from Baghdad. Maximum splendor and stability of Al-Andalus. The advance of the Christian kingdoms is slowed. In 961 Abd Rahmán III dies and his son succeeds al-Hakam II The Wise. After his death in 976 his son Hisham II would rule, but he was disabled and Almanzor was placed as leader.
  • 1031

    The Taifa kingdoms. Almoravids and Almohads (1031-1212)

    The Taifa kingdoms. Almoravids and Almohads (1031-1212)
    The Caliphate was divided into about twenty taifa. In this moment of weakness the Christian kingdoms advanced south. Some of these taifa asked the Almoravids for help.
    As a consequence Al-Andalus was divided again into the second Taifa kingdoms. These second kingdoms fell upon the arrival of the Almohads. Alfonso VIII ended up defeating them in 1212 at the Battle of Navas de Tolosa. Remaining only the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.
  • Jul 16, 1212

    Battle of Navas de Tolosa

    Battle of Navas de Tolosa
    Alfonso VII, defeated the Muslims in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, in the vicinity of Despeñaperros, the importance of this war is the opening of the Guadalquivir valley by the Castilians.
  • Jun 15, 1217

    Beginning of the Kingdom of Fernando III "The wise"

    Beginning of the Kingdom of Fernando III "The wise"
    Fernando III would definitively unify the crowns of Castilla y León. This monarch carried out an extraordinary expansion, reconquering Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1246) and Seville (1248). As a result, from the end of the 13th century, the only Muslim territory on the peninsula was the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, forcing Fernando to pay outcasts. Fernando III died in 1252 leaving his son Alfonso X a strengthened monarchy comparable to any of Europe.
  • 1238

    Kingdom of Granada (1238-1492)

    Kingdom of Granada (1238-1492)
    This kingdom managed to survive until 1492, supporting the kingdom of Castillas in all its battles. In this kingdom only Arabic was spoken and there was only a Muslim population and a Hebrew minority. In 1472, with the civil war between Isabel la Católica and Beltraneja, they refused to pay outcasts. It was the perfect excuse for Castile to start a military campaign against Granada in 1482. Boabdil, the last monarch of Al-Andalus, handed over the city to Castile on January 2, 1492.
  • Aug 2, 1273

    Foundation of the Honored Council of the Mesta

    Foundation of the Honored Council of the Mesta
    The Honored Council of the Mesta was founded by Alfonso X "El sabio" in 1273 and lasted until 1836. It brought together the aspects related to the transhumant livestock of Merino sheep. Its objectives were: to explore the huge reconquered territories, to control the nobility and clergy and to homogenize the exploitation of the rural environment. This privilege gave royal glens that made the ranchers could transhume, among other privileges.
  • Period: 1468 to 1504

    Exterior projection (1468-1504)

    Aragon and France fight for hegemony in Italy, however it is Fernando the Catholic (King of Sicily) who establishes the Spanish hegemony in Italy. France returns Roussillon and Cerdanya to Spain after the Barcelona treaty. Between 1508 and 1510 half of North Africa was conquered. On October 12, 1492, America is "discovered" thanks to the erroneous expedition of Christopher Columbus. He arrived in the Bahamas and later made 3 more trips discovering more lands.
  • 1469

    Dynastic Union (1469)

    Dynastic Union (1469)
    In 1468, Enrique IV king of Castile names his sister Isabel as princess of Asturias and heir to the throne of Castile after the Treaty of Bulls of Guisando, she is forced to marry whomever Enrique chooses. However, in 1469, Isabel married Fernando II (son of Juan II) without Enrique's consent, thus producing a dynastic union of both crowns. Each kingdom maintained its own laws, institutions, norms... so Spain lacked unity, with advantages that favored the position of leader of Castile.
  • Period: 1474 to 1580

    Interior projection (1474-1580)

    After the war, the kingdom set itself the objective of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, occupying it on January 2, 1492 after the surrender of Boabdil. This campaign lasted 12 years. The Kingdom of Navarre protects itself from the kings. In 1468, the Canary Islands were conquered, after the abandonment of Portugal, ending in 1496. In 1580, Felipe II claimed the throne of Portugal after the continuous deaths of his heirs.
  • 1479

    Beginning of the Reign of the Catholic Monarchs

    Beginning of the Reign of the Catholic Monarchs
    Two crowns, that of Castile and that of Aragon, were united with their marriage bond. They established a strong monarchy against the delirium of power of ecclesiastics and nobles. With the conquest of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, the Kingdom of Navarra, among other. The territorial union of present-day Spain was achieved. Although each kingdom was governed by its own laws. The kings established a powerful foreign policy and the discovery of America in 1492 marked world history.
  • 1522

    First round the world (1522)

    First round the world (1522)
    In order to reach the Spice Islands, an expedition led by Fernando Magellan set out in 1519, they crossed the Atlantic, coasted South America and crossed the South Sea baptized with the Pacific Ocean. After three months they reached the Mariana Islands and the Philippines where Magellan perished in combat against the indigenous people. Juan Sebastián Elcano took command. Three years after his departure, he had made the first trip around the world.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg (1555)

    Peace of Augsburg (1555)
    The German Empire was made up of a mosaic of federal states ruled by princes dependent on the emperor. The Lutheran Reformation fueled the wishes of these states for political and economic independence. At the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) the Protestant princes fought against Charles, who won. French support for the rebellious Germans ended with the Peace of Augsburg (1555). Germany was divided religiously and the unity of the Empire was broken.
  • End of the expulsion of the Moors (1613)

    End of the expulsion of the Moors (1613)
    The Moorish population consisted of about 325,000 people. It was ordered by King Philip III and carried out in a staggered manner between 1609 and 1613. The first Moors expelled were those of the Kingdom of Valencia, followed by those of Andalusia, Extremadura and the two Castles. The last expelled were those of the Kingdom of Murcia. The kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon were the most affected, as they lost one third and one sixth of their population, respectively.
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)

    Peace of Westphalia (1648)
    The Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on 24 October 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War in Germany and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands. These treaties involved the Holy Roman Emperor, the Spanish Monarchy, the kingdoms of France and Sweden, and the United Provinces. He initiated a new order in Central Europe based on the concept of national sovereignty.
  • End of the War of the Spanish Succession (1714)

    End of the War of the Spanish Succession (1714)
    he war of Spanish succession was an international conflict that lasted from 1701 until the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which had as its fundamental cause the death without issue of Charles II of Spain. The main consequence was the establishment of the House of Bourbon on the throne of Spain. The War of Succession evolved into a civil war. The main consequences were the loss of their European possessions and the disappearance of the Crown of Aragon.