Gez3vslbt1s6npmkooqs historia espanola

The History of Spain

  • 264 BCE

    Beginning of the First Punic Wars (264 BC - 241 BC)

    Beginning of the First Punic Wars (264 BC - 241 BC)
    Rome seized the Carthaginian possessions of Sicily, Corsica and
    Sardinia, which became the first Roman provinces.
  • 29 BCE

    Start of the Cantabrian-Astures Wars (29 BC-19 BC)

    Start of the Cantabrian-Astures Wars (29 BC-19 BC)
    The objectives that Rome pursued with its conquest were several: full control of the peninsula, the eradication of the constant pillage of Cantabrians and Asturians on the peoples of the plateau already dominated and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the northwest with the forced labor of the local population.
  • 200

    Crisis of the third century in Hispania

    Crisis of the third century in Hispania
    The Roman world witnessed a profound crisis that took place from the 3rd century on. This crisis was very serious and weakened the Roman State, which, despite a certain recovery in the fourth century, was unable to withstand the consequences of the crisis that were reflected in all aspects: political and military, economic, demographic and social.
  • 380

    Definitive implantation of Christianity in Hispania

    Definitive implantation of Christianity in Hispania
    The definitive implantation of Christianity in Hispania occurred after the Edict of Thessalonica by Emperor Theodosius I, who established it as the official religion of the Empire.
  • 400

    Fall of the Tartessian Kingdoms

    Fall of the Tartessian Kingdoms
    From the 5th century BC. The references to Tartesos as a kingdom disappear and the texts begin to name the area Turdetania. Although historians have offered some possible explanations for the collapse of such a rich and powerful monarchy, none of them is conclusive. Therefore, the kingdom of Tartesos continues to be a great enigma until now, halfway between history, myth and legend.
  • 409

    Arrival of three barbarian peoples to the peninsula

    Arrival of three barbarian peoples to the peninsula
    In the year 409 three barbarian peoples, two of them Germanic (Swabians and Vandals) and another of Asian origin (the Alans), who had crossed the border of the Rhine a few years earlier, broke into the Iberian Peninsula. These towns during two years were dedicated to looting the territories that crossed.
  • 410

    Fall of rome

    Fall of rome
    The city of Rome was sacked by Alaric's Visigoths.
  • 589

    Recaredo's Conversion to Christianity

    Recaredo's Conversion to Christianity
    Recaredo, Leovigildo's successor, converted to Catholicism at the III Council of Toledo (589) along with Arian nobles and bishops. He thus achieved the religious unification of the Visigoth minority and the Hispanic-Roman majority, while reinforcing his political power.
  • 654

    Legal unification of the Visigothic monarchy

    Legal unification of the Visigothic monarchy
    The legal unification carried out by Recesvinto in 654 with the compilation of all the previous legislation in the Liber Iudiciorum (Book of trials) or Jurisdiction, and its subsequent application to both populations. The only ones who were discriminated against and suffered repressive dispositions throughout the period were the Jews, which explains their support for the Muslim invaders in the 8th century.
  • 711

    Fall of the Visigothic Monarchy

    Fall of the Visigothic Monarchy
    The victory of the Muslims in the Battle of Guadalete in 711 ended the Visigoth monarchy.
  • 711

    Dependent Emirate of Damascus (711-756)

    Dependent Emirate of Damascus (711-756)
    It begins with the battle of Guadalete (711) where they defeat Rodrigo, and the capital is placed in Córdoba. The emirate is ruled by an Emir. In this period there is political instability due to the confrontations between the Arabs and the Berbers.
  • 722

    Battle of Covadonga

    Battle of Covadonga
    This war took place in Asturias in 722, after the fall of the Visigoth monarchy. It pitted the Muslims against the Christians, who had taken refuge in the north of the peninsula, and were led by Don Pelayo. This war was of great importance because it reinforced the confidence of the Christians and recently formed the Kingdom of Asturias, liberated by Pelayo.
  • 756

    Independent Umayyad Emirate of Baghdad (756-929)

    Independent Umayyad Emirate of Baghdad (756-929)
    The Emirate becomes independent and is ruled by Abd Al Rahman I. The religious authority of the Caliph of Baghdad is accepted, but not politics. At this time there are uprisings of Mozarabs and Muladíes. In the 5th century it had an economic and cultural boom.
  • 929

    Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031)

    Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031)
    The Emirate becomes a Caliphate and is governed by Abd Al Rahmán III and continues with its capital in Cordoba. It becomes independent politically and religiously from Baghdad. Maximum splendor and stability of Al-Andalus. The advance of the Christian kingdoms is slowed. In 961 Abd Rahmán III dies and his son succeeds al-Hakam II The Wise. After his death in 976 his son Hisham II would rule, but he was disabled and Almanzor was placed as leader.
  • 1031

    The Taifa kingdoms. Almoravids and Almohads (1031-1212)

    The Taifa kingdoms. Almoravids and Almohads (1031-1212)
    The Caliphate was divided into about twenty taifa. In this moment of weakness the Christian kingdoms advanced south. Some of these taifa asked the Almoravids for help.
    As a consequence Al-Andalus was divided again into the second Taifa kingdoms. These second kingdoms fell upon the arrival of the Almohads. Alfonso VIII ended up defeating them in 1212 at the Battle of Navas de Tolosa. Remaining only the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.
  • Jul 16, 1212

    Battle of Navas de Tolosa

    Battle of Navas de Tolosa
    Alfonso VII, defeated the Muslims in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, in the vicinity of Despeñaperros, the importance of this war is the opening of the Guadalquivir valley by the Castilians.
  • Jun 15, 1217

    Beginning of the Kingdom of Fernando III "The wise"

    Beginning of the Kingdom of Fernando III "The wise"
    Fernando III would definitively unify the crowns of Castilla y León. This monarch carried out an extraordinary expansion, reconquering Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1246) and Seville (1248). As a result, from the end of the 13th century, the only Muslim territory on the peninsula was the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, forcing Fernando to pay outcasts. Fernando III died in 1252 leaving his son Alfonso X a strengthened monarchy comparable to any of Europe.
  • 1238

    Kingdom of Granada (1238-1492)

    Kingdom of Granada (1238-1492)
    This kingdom managed to survive until 1492, supporting the kingdom of Castillas in all its battles. In this kingdom only Arabic was spoken and there was only a Muslim population and a Hebrew minority. In 1472, with the civil war between Isabel la Católica and Beltraneja, they refused to pay outcasts. It was the perfect excuse for Castile to start a military campaign against Granada in 1482. Boabdil, the last monarch of Al-Andalus, handed over the city to Castile on January 2, 1492.
  • Aug 2, 1273

    Foundation of the Honored Council of the Mesta

    Foundation of the Honored Council of the Mesta
    The Honored Council of the Mesta was founded by Alfonso X "El sabio" in 1273 and lasted until 1836. It brought together the aspects related to the transhumant livestock of Merino sheep. Its objectives were: to explore the huge reconquered territories, to control the nobility and clergy and to homogenize the exploitation of the rural environment. This privilege gave royal glens that made the ranchers could transhume, among other privileges.
  • Period: 1468 to 1504

    Exterior projection (1468-1504)

    Aragon and France fight for hegemony in Italy, however it is Fernando the Catholic (King of Sicily) who establishes the Spanish hegemony in Italy. France returns Roussillon and Cerdanya to Spain after the Barcelona treaty. Between 1508 and 1510 half of North Africa was conquered. On October 12, 1492, America is "discovered" thanks to the erroneous expedition of Christopher Columbus. He arrived in the Bahamas and later made 3 more trips discovering more lands.
  • 1469

    Dynastic Union (1469)

    Dynastic Union (1469)
    In 1468, Enrique IV king of Castile names his sister Isabel as princess of Asturias and heir to the throne of Castile after the Treaty of Bulls of Guisando, she is forced to marry whomever Enrique chooses. However, in 1469, Isabel married Fernando II (son of Juan II) without Enrique's consent, thus producing a dynastic union of both crowns. Each kingdom maintained its own laws, institutions, norms... so Spain lacked unity, with advantages that favored the position of leader of Castile.
  • Period: 1474 to 1580

    Interior projection (1474-1580)

    After the war, the kingdom set itself the objective of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, occupying it on January 2, 1492 after the surrender of Boabdil. This campaign lasted 12 years. The Kingdom of Navarre protects itself from the kings. In 1468, the Canary Islands were conquered, after the abandonment of Portugal, ending in 1496. In 1580, Felipe II claimed the throne of Portugal after the continuous deaths of his heirs.
  • 1479

    Beginning of the Reign of the Catholic Monarchs

    Beginning of the Reign of the Catholic Monarchs
    Two crowns, that of Castile and that of Aragon, were united with their marriage bond. They established a strong monarchy against the delirium of power of ecclesiastics and nobles. With the conquest of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, the Kingdom of Navarra, among other. The territorial union of present-day Spain was achieved. Although each kingdom was governed by its own laws. The kings established a powerful foreign policy and the discovery of America in 1492 marked world history.
  • 1522

    First round the world (1522)

    First round the world (1522)
    In order to reach the Spice Islands, an expedition led by Fernando Magellan set out in 1519, they crossed the Atlantic, coasted South America and crossed the South Sea baptized with the Pacific Ocean. After three months they reached the Mariana Islands and the Philippines where Magellan perished in combat against the indigenous people. Juan Sebastián Elcano took command. Three years after his departure, he had made the first trip around the world.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg (1555)

    Peace of Augsburg (1555)
    The German Empire was made up of a mosaic of federal states ruled by princes dependent on the emperor. The Lutheran Reformation fueled the wishes of these states for political and economic independence. At the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) the Protestant princes fought against Charles, who won. French support for the rebellious Germans ended with the Peace of Augsburg (1555). Germany was divided religiously and the unity of the Empire was broken.
  • End of the expulsion of the Moors (1613)

    End of the expulsion of the Moors (1613)
    The Moorish population consisted of about 325,000 people. It was ordered by King Philip III and carried out in a staggered manner between 1609 and 1613. The first Moors expelled were those of the Kingdom of Valencia, followed by those of Andalusia, Extremadura and the two Castles. The last expelled were those of the Kingdom of Murcia. The kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon were the most affected, as they lost one third and one sixth of their population, respectively.
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)

    Peace of Westphalia (1648)
    The Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on 24 October 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War in Germany and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands. These treaties involved the Holy Roman Emperor, the Spanish Monarchy, the kingdoms of France and Sweden, and the United Provinces. He initiated a new order in Central Europe based on the concept of national sovereignty.
  • End of the War of the Spanish Succession (1714)

    End of the War of the Spanish Succession (1714)
    he war of Spanish succession was an international conflict that lasted from 1701 until the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which had as its fundamental cause the death without issue of Charles II of Spain. The main consequence was the establishment of the House of Bourbon on the throne of Spain. The War of Succession evolved into a civil war. The main consequences were the loss of their European possessions and the disappearance of the Crown of Aragon.
  • New plant decrees

    New plant decrees
    They are a consequence of the War of Succession to the Spanish Crown. Felipe V took the opportunity to abolish the courts, that is, the own legislation and the political system of government by which each one was governed, and to realize the political-administrative unity with Castile, as well as to establish the use of Castilian as an administrative and legal language. Finally, internal borders and customs were abolished.
  • First family pact

    First family pact
    In 1733 the Polish War of Succession broke out. Spain and France fought together against Austria, signing the First Family Pact (1733). At the end of the war, the infante Charles became king of Naples and Sicily.
  • Second family pact

    Second family pact
    In 1740 the War of Succession of Austria broke out, in which again France and Spain are united signing the Second Family Pact (1743). The war ended in 1748 and in it the second son of Elizabeth, the infante Philip, was recognized as Duke of Parma
  • Third family pact

    Third family pact
    This last agreement was signed in the reign of Charles III to defend the Spanish-French colonial interests in America, against British aspirations. After some disastrous beginnings, France and Spain supported the American settlers in their struggle against England, which had to recognize the independence of the United States and return Menorca and Florida to Spain in the Peace of Versailles of 1783.
  • Esquilache Mutiny

    Esquilache Mutiny
    Mutiny of Esquilache. When Charles III became King of Spain he brought with him Italian ministers, among them Esquilache, who carried out a broad reform program. In Madrid he introduced another measure, very unpopular, such as changing the way of dress, with wide hats and long layers. It was thought that this dress served to cover up the evildoers. The people of Madrid rebelled against the minister and his decrees (1766).
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Godoy, with the acquiescence of Carlos IV, signed with Napoleon the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807), which authorized the Napoleonic armies to enter Spain to attack Portugal, an ally of Great Britain. In exchange, a future distribution of Portugal between France and Spain would be agreed upon, and a principality would be created for Godoy, all of which provoked the irritation of the population.
  • Aranjuez Mutiny

    Aranjuez Mutiny
    On March 18, 1808, a riot broke out in Aranjuez, the city where the kings were. The mutiny, with popular participation, but led by the palace nobility and the clergy, pursued the dismissal of Godoy and the abdication of Carlos IV to his son Fernando.
  • Bayonne abdications

    Bayonne abdications
    The Bayonne abdications took place on May 5 and 6, 1808 in the French city of Bayonne. It is the name by which the successive resignations of King Charles IV and his son Ferdinand VII to the throne of Spain in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte are known.
  • Battle of Bailen

    Battle of Bailen
    Napoleon thought the invasion would be quick and easy. However, the resistance of cities such as Girona, Zaragoza or Tarragona, subjected to the sieges of the French troops, enduring bombings and hunger for months, it immobilized part of the French army and prevented the advance towards the Levant. Furthermore, the defeat of the invaders in the The Battle of Bailén (July) had an immediate impact: the conquest of Andalusia was prevented. José I leaves Madrid.
  • Treaty of Valencay

    Treaty of Valencay
    In 1812, the course of the war was affected by the campaign that Napoleon began in Russia and that forced him to withdraw thousands of troops from the Peninsula. Given this, the Spanish troops, supported by the guerrillas and by the British army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, achieved the victory of Arapiles (Salamanca, July 1812), which marked a turning point in the military development of the war. The French added two other decisive defeats, Vitoria and San Marcial.
  • Abrantes Manifesto

    Abrantes Manifesto
    On September 29, 1833, Fernando VII died, two days later his brother Carlos Mª Isidro, through the Abrantes Manifesto, claimed the throne from Portugal.
  • Royal Statute

    Royal Statute
    Martínez de la Rosa undertook a series of very moderate reforms, highlighting the Royal Statute in 1834, which, although not a Constitution, includes a set of rules for convening Cortes. It recognizes a shared sovereignty between the king and the Cortes. These will be composed of two chambers: that of the Próceres and that of the Procurators. Suffrage is based on census (depends on income), so only 0.15% of the population votes.
  • San Ildefonso Farm Mutiny

    San Ildefonso Farm Mutiny
    This causes the San Ildefonso Farm Mutiny to take place in the summer of 1836: a group of sergeants force their way into the palace of San Ildefonso de La Granja, María Cristina's summer residence, and force her to restore the Constitution of Cádiz of 1812, repealing the Royal Statute of 1834 and handing over power to the progressive Calatrava.
  • Disentailment of Mendizábal

    Disentailment of Mendizábal
    Juan Álvarez de Mendizábal, progressive liberal, reinstated the decrees of the Triennium on the suppression of majorities, suppressed religious orders and expropriated their property, converting it into national state property and then putting it up for sale at auction.
    Given the different size of the plots, although they were theoretically affordable to the peasants, in practice those who were already landowners monopolized the purchases. When the peasants tried, they found lots too big.
  • Constitution in 1837

    Constitution in 1837
    It ends up enacting a new Constitution in 1837, brief, (with 13 Titles and 77 articles), and with the intention of being a common point of progressives and moderates. Its main features are: National sovereignty, Suffrage continues to be based on census, Legislative power is shared by the Cortes with the king and Rights and freedoms greater than that of 1812.
  • Royal Expedition

    Royal Expedition
    Royal expedition of 1837 led by Don Carlos himself who, from Navarra, went to Catalonia and went to Madrid with the intention of taking the capital. However, failing to take the city, they had to retreat to the north.
  • Confiscation of Madoz

    Confiscation of Madoz
    When the progressives come to power again (1854-1856), they assume that the economic modernization of the country needs Confiscation. At this stage, the progressive Minister of Finance Pascual Madoz will start again the confiscation process.There is talk of "general confiscation", and now they will be put on sale forcibly, although with compensation, the Church’s assets that remain unsold, but also property and land of municipalities: common and own state and other institutions.
  • The revolution of 1868

    The revolution of 1868
    Known as La Gloriosa or La Septembrina, it opens a period of social and political reform that goes beyond a simple change of government, it means the attempt to implant a democratic liberalism. It began with a military pronouncement in Cadiz on 19 September 1868 and ended in January 1784 with the coup d'état of Pavia.
  • Yara's scream

    Yara's scream
    In 1868 a popular uprising led by Manuel Céspedes (Yara's cry) began the struggle for autonomy in Cuba. They fought for the abolition of slavery in the sugar plantations and mills and for political autonomy, similar to the one defended at that time by the federal republicans in the metropolis.
  • Constitution of 1869

    Constitution of 1869
    It is the first democratic constitution in the history of Spain and was drawn up by constituent courts by universal male suffrage. It was based on the monarchy subject to national sovereignty and reaffirmed universal male suffrage. A very broad recognition of freedoms and rights together with a bicameral system of Congress and Senate
  • Beginning of the reign of Amadeus I of Savoy

    Beginning of the reign of Amadeus I of Savoy
    The Cortes in 1870 named him king of Spain after winning the vote, but his main valet, Prim, died three days before his arrival. The main problems that will be encountered will be the republican opposition and the Alfonsino party, the split of the progressive party, its only support, the opposition of the Church and the workers' movement, and the discontent of the army along with the third Carlist war. All this led to the abdication on February 10, 1873.
  • The first republic

    The first republic
    It was proclaimed by the Cortes on February 11, 1873 as a solution of urgency and would last eleven months, its main problems were: the maintenance of two wars that of Cuba and the Carlist, the scarce popular support, the internal division and the problem of cantonalism. The Republic will have four presidents: Estanislao Figueras, Pi and Margall, Salmerón and Emilio Castelar
  • Serrano's conservative dictatorship

    Serrano's conservative dictatorship
    It will last practically all year and will focus on the restoration of order. At this juncture Cánovas del Castillo prepares the Bourbon Restoration with the Sandhurst Manifesto in which Alfonso XII promised a constitutional regime. The military pronouncement of General Martínez Campos in Sagunto accelerated the proclamation of the king on December 29, 1874.
  • Constitution of 1876

    Constitution of 1876
    The Constitution of 1876 was created, inspired by the Constitution of 1845. It was carried out by a committee of notables, in just two months and with hardly any debate. Its main principles were:
    - Sovereignty was shared between the Cortes and the Crown
    - Legislative power is held by the bicameral courts.
    - Executive power is vested in the Crown.
    - Individual rights and freedoms were recognized
    - The State is confessional. Catholicism was recognized as the official religion.
    - Depended on a law
  • Beginning of the presidency of Cánovas

    Beginning of the presidency of Cánovas
    This stage was known as the "Canovist dictatorship" due to the authoritarianism of its politics. Its objective was: to guarantee the consolidation of the monarchy and build a strongly centralized political system.
    The curtailment of freedoms was reflected in measures to control freedom of expression and the press. The freedom of assembly was regulated by the law that established a division of legal and illegal parties. A policy of repression against anarchist ideology was practiced.
  • Start of the Little War

    Start of the Little War
    General Martínez Campos promised to grant Cuba a broad amnesty to the insurgents, the abolition of slavery and forms of self-government. But that promise was not respected and Cubans continued to ask for greater freedoms, giving rise to the so-called Little War (1879-1880).
  • Pardo Pact

    Pardo Pact
    The death of Alfonso XII endangered the entire Restoration system. The protagonists of the Restoration agreed to stabilize the political situation. An agreement was reached, the Pact of El Pardo, by which Cánovas ceded the government to the Liberal Party. With this peaceful shift, the system was consolidated and guaranteed the succession of María Cristina by her son Alfonso XIII.
  • Death of Alfonso XII

    Death of Alfonso XII
    The king died on November 25, 1885 and the Regency of María Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorraine began. The Regent held the position until her son Alfonso XIII, born in May 1886, came of age. Although it was a period of continuity, several aspects stand out in these years: the social upheaval, the economic problems, the political instability, the emergence of nationalism and the loss of the last colonies in 1898.
  • End of the long reign of Sagasta

    End of the long reign of Sagasta
    In July 1890, Sagasta had to leave the government because of the internal division in his party. During this decade the stability of the system was affirmed. Within the Conservative Party, Silvela tried to introduce a "regeneration" of Spanish political life, away from corrupt practices, but failed in his attempt. Only after the assassination of Cánovas and the disaster of 1898 did Silvela's regenerationist theses find their way into Spanish politics.
  • Blasting of the Battleship Maine

    Blasting of the Battleship Maine
    The Americans took advantage of the blowing up of the battleship Maine (February 15, 1898, for unknown reasons) to issue an ultimatum and demand the Spanish renunciation of Cuban sovereignty, a step prior to declaring war on Spain. American public opinion clamored for war due to a harsh anti-Spanish journalistic campaign in the newspapers. The Spanish government, relying on a campaign of warmongering patriotism launched by the press, launched into a war for which Spain was not prepared.
  • Paris treaty

    Paris treaty
    The main stipulations were of a territorial nature: Spain was losing the last stretches of the overseas empire. Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines and the island of Guam (in the Mariana archipelago) to the US. Cuba, although formally independent, remained under American control.
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    The reasons for the United States to intervene in the conflict were of various kinds. In addition, the Spanish-Cuban war coincided with the moment of maximum expansion of US imperialism on the continent itself, in the Caribbean and in Asia. In the conflict, the main war actions took place at sea and in the two main battles the Spanish fleets were destroyed. The war took place on two fronts, the Caribbean and the Pacific.
  • Morocco war

    Morocco war
    General Fernández Silvestre made a military error. From Melilla he undertook a campaign to reach Alhucemas and subdue the dangerous Rif tribes, but his imprudence and tactical errors, in contrast to the effective performance of Abd-el-Krim, led to the defeat of Annual, which triggered a dramatic military disaster. To clarify what happened and determine who was responsible for the Annual disaster, a long and eventful investigation was opened, which concluded in a report known as the Picasso File.
  • 1923 Coup

    1923 Coup
    The goals of the coup were to end the parliamentary system, guarantee public order, end separatism and solve the Moroccan problem. The coup succeeds with hardly any opposition. He had the support of King Alfonso XIII, related to the ideas of the military commanders, who commissioned him to form a government, thus legalizing an unconstitutional act and becoming directly responsible for the Dictatorship.
  • Landing of Al Hoceima

    Landing of Al Hoceima
    During the first stage of the dictatorship, the conflict in Morocco focused the interest of Primo de Rivera. The following year the Alhucemas landing was organized . After several defeats, Abd-el-Krim surrendered, surrendering to the French troops.
    In 1927, the Spanish army terminated the effective occupation of the entire protectorate in Morocco.
  • National Consultative Assembly

    National Consultative Assembly
    A National Consultative Assembly, formed in 1927 with the task of preparing and presenting a new general and complete legislation that would have to be submitted for approval. It was not, therefore, a Representative Parliament of the nation did not have a legislative function, but was limited to elaborating draft laws of the new regime and to advise the government.
  • Resignation of Primo de Rivera (01-1930)

    Resignation of Primo de Rivera (01-1930)
    Increasingly isolated politically, Primo de Rivera decided to consult the captain generals to find out if he had their support. Primo de Rivera resigned in January 1930. Alfonso XIII commissioned General Berenguer to form a government, with the task of replacing the 1876 Constitution and saving the royal figure, increasingly unpopular as he was considered directly responsible of the dictatorship. The change was so slow that the opposition called this stage "the Dictablanda".
  • Beginning of the Reformist Biennium

    Beginning of the Reformist Biennium
    Niceto Alcalá Zamora, elected President of the Republic by the Cortes, ordered Manuel Azaña to preside over a republican-socialist government, which undertook the reforms initiated by the Provisional Government to dismantle traditional structures and impose the values of democracy.
  • Proclamation of the Second Republic

    Proclamation of the Second Republic
    On April 14, 1931, Alfonso XIII, after checking that did not have the support of the army or the Civil Guard to stay on the throne, he left the country. The same day the Revolutionary Committee of the Pact of San Sebastian proclaimed the Second Republic, before the popular enthusiasm.
    On April 14, 1931 the Revolutionary Committee was established in Provisional Government, it proclaimed the Second Republic amid great popular demonstrations.
  • Beginning of the Rightist Biennium

    Beginning of the Rightist Biennium
    The abstention promoted by the anarchists and the division of the left facilitated the victory of the center-right parties. The victory of the right was largely attributed to the vote of women, who were voting in these elections for the first time.
  • The coup of July 1936

    The coup of July 1936
    The coup began to take shape from the same night in February he won the Front Popular.
    From there, Gen. Emilio Mola became the "director" of the coup. Sanjurjo he was to take command of the rebels, but died the first days of the uprising. also they had the support of some political sectors such as CEDA, Falange and the Carlist, but they could not agree on the political model to follow after the coup. Also, they had a support network outside the country, in Italy and Germany.
  • Beginning of the Popular Front

    Beginning of the Popular Front
    Repression October and subsequent action enabled the creation of the Popular Front, an electoral coalition of leftist forces (republicans, socialists and communists) backed by the anarchists who did not participate, given the disunity of the right (CEDA, monarchists and traditionalists) that coalesced around the National Bloc, but were unable to create a single application for all Spain.
  • Beginning of the civil war

    Beginning of the civil war
    Once the uprising was over, its own failure in the main cities due to the reaction of the workers' militias caused it to become a Civil War. The immediate foreign aid from Italy and Germany to the rebels was an essential factor in prolonging the struggle. The country is divided into two:
    The rebels triumphed in rural Spain.
    The most important cities (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao) and the industrial zones remained faithful to the Republic..
  • Franco becomes a general

    Franco becomes a general
    Franco became the undisputed military leader and was proclaimed Head of State and Generalissimo of the Spanish Armies on October 1, 1936. A personal dictatorship was established that annulled the reforms of the republican government and prohibited political parties and unions, except for the Spanish Falange. and of the JONS5 and the Traditionalist Communion (Carlists).
  • Bombing of Guernica

    Bombing of Guernica
    Between April and October 1937, the efforts of the nationals were concentrated in the northern part of the peninsula, which had remained loyal to the republic. On April 26, 1937, the Condor Legion bombed Guernica, by order of Franco's headquarters. It was the first bombing of the civilian population.
  • Battle of the Ebro

    Battle of the Ebro
    On the Aragon front, Franco's army made its way to the Mediterranean, reaching as far as Vinaroz in April. The republican zone is divided into two parts separated by the river Ebro. The republican army, reorganized by Vicente Rojo, prepared an offensive to reunite the republican territory: the battle of the Ebro, the bloodiest and longest of the entire war, until Franco managed to break the republican front.
  • Fundamental Laws

    Fundamental Laws
    In order to legitimize the new State, the following are established: Labor Law (1938), Constitutive Law of Cortes (1942), Spanish Law (1945), National Referendum Law (1945), Law of Succession to the Head of State (1947), Law of Principles of the National Movement (1958) and State Organization Act (1967)
  • Totalitarian phase

    Totalitarian phase
    In which we initially distinguish a predominance of the Phalanx (Blue Stage: 1939-1945) until Franco gives more prominence to the Catholics of the ACNP (Stage of National Catholicism: 1945-1957). The first phase was characterized by economic regression, ideological involution and the harshness of repression. Economic policy was based on autarky.
  • Last war pact

    Last war pact
    On April 1, Franco signed the last part of the war: “Today, captive and unarmed the red army, the national troops have achieved their latest military objectives. Spaniards, the war is over."
  • Technocratic phase

    Technocratic phase
    Franco appointed technocratic ministers of Opus Dei in 1957 who approved in 1959 a Stabilization Plan that laid the foundations for a modernization of the economy, which would continue with the Development Plans.
  • Munich collusion

    Munich collusion
    In the 60s and 70s, social changes facilitated the generalisation of the opposition, leading men of all political tendencies, except communists, made a declaration in favor of democracy and condemnation of the regime. Inside, the workers' movement, the Catalan and Basque nationalist movements (dissidents of the PNV created ETA); the student movement and the grassroots Catholics managed to create a key social response for the transition to democracy.
  • Regime decomposition phase

    Regime decomposition phase
    Franco, physically deteriorated, delegated the Head of Government to his trusted man, Admiral Carrero Blanco, and signs of decomposition of the regime appear: the distancing of the Church, the mobilizing capacity of the opposition, and, above all, the tensions within the regime between immobilizers and spoilers
  • Franco's death 1975

    Franco's death 1975
    On November 20, 1975 Franco died. Two days later, Juan Carlos de Borbón was proclaimed King of Spain (Juan Carlos I) by the Cortes of Spain. He appointed Torcuato Fernández Miranda, a man he trusted, as president of the Cortes. Carlos Arias Navarro, the last head of government of the dictatorship, remained in office.
  • Platajunta 1976

    Platajunta 1976
    The main democratic left-wing parties, some tolerated by the government, called for a political break with the Franco regime and with the continuing government of Arias Navarro. Most of the leftist organizations had grouped themselves into two platforms: The Democratic Board and the Democratic Convergence Platform.
    In March 1976, these two groups united in the Democratic Coordination, popularly known as the "Platajunta".
  • Political Reform Act 1976

    Political Reform Act 1976
    The king ordered Adolfo Suárez to form a government who, relying above all on the Christian Democrat sectors, promoted the Law for Political Reform that established a Constituent Cortes, approved by the “Francoist” Cortes (which thus signed his death certificate) and submitted to a referendum in December 1976, with great popular participation and a large majority of yeses, which denoted the desire for change in the country.
  • First democratic elections 1977

    First democratic elections 1977
    On June 15, 1977, the first democratic elections were held after the Franco regime. The UCD (centre right) of Adolfo Suárez obtained a simple majority, followed by the PSOE of Felipe González (centre left). The Suárez government, seeking consensus, set itself two main objectives: Manage an emergency economic policy and Prepare a new Constitution and build the State of Autonomies.
  • Constitution 1978

    Constitution 1978
    The 1978 Constitution has its sources in Spanish historical Constitutionalism and, above all, in post-war European Constitutionalism. It is extensive, inclusive, rigid and democratic.
  • The UCD government of Adolfo Suárez (1979-1982).

    The UCD government of Adolfo Suárez (1979-1982).
    The regional and municipal map was designed, with the approval of statutes of autonomy and the holding of regional elections, and tambiénse held the first democratic municipal elections. an important legislative work was carried out with the approval of the Workers' Statute and the Act on divorce; and tax reform minister Fuentes Quintana, agreed in Moncloa Pacts.
  • The four legislatures of the PSOE (1982-1996).

    The four legislatures of the PSOE (1982-1996).
    In October 1982, the PSOE, with the slogan "for change", achieved an absolute majority. The PSOE would govern during 4 legislatures. The absolute majority was renewed in the 1986 and 1989 elections, but not in 1993 when the PSOE had to seek the support of other parties in order to govern. Felipe González, with a great pragmatic sense, practiced a reformist policy, which combined liberal and social democratic measures, for the consolidation of democracy.
  • The first legislature of the PP(1996 -2004).

    The first legislature of the PP(1996 -2004).
    José María Aznar, the PP leader, won the 1996 elections by a narrow margin, developing a political centrist and dialogue for the support of nationalist minorities (CiU and PNV) and trade unions. The support of the government came from the former UCD (Mayor Oreja) or young politicians (Rodrigo Rato) to the PP that kept the old image of the Franco regime, represented by Fraga. Economic policy was based on the pursuit of stability, job creation through agreements between social partners.
  • The socialist government of J. L. Rodriguéz Zapatero (2004-2011).

    The socialist government of J. L. Rodriguéz Zapatero (2004-2011).
    Social policy took a sharp turn with the approval of gay marriage, anti-smoking law and the Law Unit. In addition, they climbed the minimum wage, regularized illegal immigration or were directed to gender violence. Sometimes they clashed with the Catholic hierarchy, such as the requirement of the European Commission to apply VAT to the Church arrived, causing a major conflict between the Government and this institution. This also happened in the field of education.
  • The government of Mariano Rajoy (2011-2018).

    The government of Mariano Rajoy (2011-2018).
    In 2011, Mariano Rajoy, leader of the PP, assumed the presidency of the government. During his tenure, marked by the economic crisis and austerity policies in line with the EU came to light important corruption cases like Gürtel, the ERE of Andalusia and the beginnings of the Pujol case in Catalonia, where will go to more radicalization of political life, increasing supporters of the independence movement to be a social fracture still latent.