Battle of GuadaleteThe muslims entered the Península through the south to conquer It. They fought and defeated the last Vitigothic King: Don Rodrigo. They named the territory they ruled as ''Al-Ándalus''
Period: 711 to 756
Dependent emirate of DamascusIt's called the dependent emirate of Damascus because Al-Ándalus was dependent on the Umayyad caliph
Period: 718 to 924
Kingdom of AsturiasThe leader who stood out the most was Pelayo, who resisted an attack by the Muslims in 722.
The first monarchs of the kingdom of Asturias were Alfonso I and Alfonso II.
The court of the kingdom was in Oviedo and some Visigothic laws were recovered.
Battle of CovadongaThe battle was between Don Pelayo's Asturian army and al-Andalus troops, who were defeated.
Battle of PoitiersIn this battle, Carlos Martel fought the muslims who were trying to conquer the rest of Europe. He defeated them and they stabblished The Pirinees as a border between the Iberian Peninsule and France.
Period: 739 to 757
.Galicia became part of the Kingdom of Asturias between the years 739 and 757
Period: 756 to 929
.In 756, Abderramán I arrived to Al-Ándalus after he escaped his death in Damasco. He proclaimed himself as emir after he conquered Córdoba. In 733, he became independent from Bagdad; this independence was administrative and political, but it wasn't religious.
Battle of RoncesvallesThe Battle of Roncesvalles was fought the 15 August 778, around Roncesvalles, on Navarra's Pirinee. Carlomagno's army fought against the people from this zone, and he lost the battle.
Period: 824 to 1162
Kingdom of PamplonaThe Kingdom of Pamplona began in the year 824. For a hundred years, this kingdom was called Kingdom of Pamplona until the year 925, when García Sánchez I changed it to Kingdom of Nájera.
When the king Sancho IV changed his title to Rex Navarre (King of Navarra) in 1162, the Kingdom of Pamplona ended.
Creation of the kingdom of pamplonaThe kingdom of Pamplona was a political entity created in the western Pyrenees around the city of Pamplona in the early centuries of the Reconquest.
Period: 910 to 1230
Kingdom of LeónThe Kingdom of León is was a medieval kingdom and it was founded in the year 910 by the kings of Asturias, who moved the capital to León. This kingdom was quite important in the Reconqueer, and later, the Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Castilla will become one.
The Kingdom of Asturias is now called Kingdom of León.
Period: 929 to 1031
Caliphate of CórdobaIt was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
This period was characterized by the expansion of culture, trade and architecture.
Abd ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself as the caliph of Córdoba, replacing the original name of the Caliphate (Emirate of Córdoba).
There was a civil war called Fitna of An-Ándalus, it was a war between the descendents of the last caliph. After the fight, the caliphate divided into a number of independient Muslism kingdoms.
Castilla county independenceThe county of Castilla was a geographical area that was part of the kingdom of Asturias and the kingdom of León until it took the form of an autonomous State in 932. A century later, in 1065, it became the kingdom of Castilla.
Military expeditions of al-MansurAl-Mansur led two big expeditions against Christians in 978 and three in 979.
They created the constructions fast (less than two years) and moved all the central state apparatuses there, that caused many conflicts.
In total they had 55 expeditions in their 22 years of reign, although the best known is the Barcelona expedition.
Period: 985 to 1137
Catalan CountiesThe Catalan Counties were Pallars, Urgel, Cerdaña, Besalú, Rosellón, Ampurias and Barcelona. These counties were part from France, but with time they got more autonomy and could be more independent. Then Wilfredo el Velloso reestructures the territory. In the year 1137, the counties started forming part of the Corona of Aragón.
Period: 1009 to 1212
First Taifas KingdomsThe Taifas Kingdoms were small kingdoms that belonged to the Caliphate of Córdoba. The finality of these kingdoms was to protect in an easier way the Caliphate of Córdoba. These kingdoms fought against the christians of the north.
Death of Sancho III the Elder of PamplonaHe was king of Pamplona from 1004 until his death. His reign is considered the stage of greatest hegemony in the kingdom of Pamplona over the Spanish-Christian sphere in all its history.
He death in 1035
Period: 1035 to 1157
The kingdoms of Castilla and LeónFernando I, first monarch who was the king of Castilla, and the king of León too, he conquered Portugal.
Alfonso VI was very successful, because he conquered Toledo and the Tagus valley.
At the death of Alfonso VI there was a period of political instability from which he took
profit Enrique de Lorena.
Alfonso VII, grandson of Alfonso VI ruled the kingdom of Castilla-León between 1127-1157.
When Alfonso VI died, Castilla and León divided, and met again in 1230.
Period: 1035 to
Kingdom of AragónIts first monarch was Ramiro I.
At the end of the 11th century, the monarch Pedro I incorporated the towns of Huesca and Barbastro.
The monarch Alfonso I, carried out in the first decades of the 12th century a great offensive on the area of the middle Ebro valley.
In 1137, it was decided that Petronila and Ramón Berenguer IV would marry, which gave rise to the Crown of Aragon. The son of both, Alfonso II, inherited their territories and was the first monarch of the crown of Aragon.
.The creation of the Kingdom of Pamplona was in 830 and its division was in 1038. The kingdom of Castilla annexes the kingdom of León. It was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula that existed between the years 1065 and 1230. It emerged as an autonomous political entity in the 9th century, being a vassal county of the Kingdom of León. Its name was due to the large number of castles that were in the area.
Period: 1040 to 1147
AlmoravidsThey were an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Almoravids were soldiers-monks from Sahara.
The Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, founded in 1062
The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms when they defeated the Castilian and Aroganase armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086.
They formed part of the Taifa Kingdoms and Zalaca battle too
Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar El CidHe was a Castilian military leader who came to dominate the Levante of the Iberian Peninsula at the end of his 11th century as an independent lord over the authority of any king.
Period: 1065 to 1230
Kingdom of CastillaThe kingdom of Castilla, was born when, to block the Muslims, the kings of León built castles to defend themselves, that's why its name.
As these territories were far from the control of lions, they ended up separating.
During the 10th century, Fernando González unified the countries of Castilla and declared hereditary his title.
Kingdom of CastillaIt all started when one of the most important apostles, Santiago the Greater, was executed in Palestine in 44 A.D.His grave was forgotten. Until one night 1,200 years ago its discovery occurred. The king realized that there were the relics of an apostle of Christ and ordered to build a church, the next king a larger one.
The construction of the current cathedral began in 1075 under the reign of Alfonso VI.
The reconquer of Toledo by Alfonso VIAlfonso VI, the leader of the Castilla and León's army fought against Al-Cádir, the king of Taifa of Toledo. Alfonso VI won this battle so Toledo was christian again.
Conquest of Valencia by CidCid arrived Valencia wanting to attack it for this reason King Rodrigo asked the Catholic Kings for help but they didn't arrive on time.
Rodrigo tried to fight but can't do anything because there were many Almoravids.
The battle ended with the first defeat of Spain.
Period: 1121 to 1269
AlmohadsThe Almohad Caliphate was a North African Berber Muslim movement and empire.
They dominated North Africa and the South of the Peninsule and formed part of the Taifa Kingdoms. The Almohad movement was founded by Ibn Tumart.
Alfonso Enriquez makes the kingdom of Portugal independentHe was the second count of the Portucalense County of the house of Burgundy and the first king of Portugal
Union of the kingdom of Aragon and the Catalan counties. The crown of Aragon formedOn November 13, 1137, Ramiro II the Monk, King of Aragon, resigned Zaragoza, deposited in his son-in-law Ramón Berenguer the kingdom.
Then, Ramón Berenguer got married with Petronila, Queen of Aragón.
Alfonso II, son of both, inherited the kingdom of Castilla and the kingdom of León.
Later, by conquest of new territories and marriage, this union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona under the same crown (The Crown of Aragón)
Period: 1162 to
Kingdom of NavarraThe Kingdom of Navarra was the sucesor of the Kingdom of Pamplona. This kingdom balanced itself by dividing the kingdom in two: High Navarra and Low Navarra. In 1789, this kingdom became one of the kingdoms of the Corona de Castilla until 1841, when it was considered a floral province after the First Carlista War
Pedro II de Aragon is defeated in the battle of MuretPedro II de Aragón is defeated by Simón de Monfort in Muret. On September 12, 1213, Pedro II of Aragon lost his life when he was defeated by Simón de Monfort in the battle of Muret
Definitive union of Castilla and León. The Crown of Castilla formed.The crown of Castilla is considered the beginning of the last and final union of the two kingdoms.
Fernado III, King of Castile since 1217, became King of León after Teresa of Portugal's resignation, joining both kingdoms once and for all.
Period: 1230 to
Corona of AragónThe Corona of Aragón is how we call the territory that the king of Aragón ruled. The first king of this territory was the son of Petronila and Ramón de Berenguer: Alfonso II of Aragón. Later, more territories were conqueered, like the actual Baleares islands and the south of Italy. When the Catholic Kings got married, the Corona of Aragón slowly disappeared.
Period: 1230 to
Castilla's CrownIn 1230, Castilla and León were reunited, when King Fernando II inherited the kingdom of Castilla from his mother, and the kingdom of León from his father.
From the union of these two kingdoms the Crown of Castile was born, the largest Christian territory on the Peninsula, which played a major role in the last phase of the conquest.
Period: 1238 to 1492
Nasrid Kingdom of GranadaIt was founded by the Nasrid noble Mohamed-Ben-Nazar, although he originally had his power center located in Jaén.
He survived by his position but Granada was losing territory because of the Battle of Granada (1482-1492).
Granada disappeared completely in 1492.
Catile was the new Kingdom of Granada.
Peter III the Great of Aragon incorporates SicilyCalled the Great, he was the son of James I the Conqueror and his second wife Violant of Hungary. He succeeded his father in 1276 in the titles of King of Aragon, King of Valencia and Count of Barcelona. Furthermore, he also became king of Sicily.
The conquer of the Catholic Kings in GranadaThe Catholic Kings were involved in the War of Granada, in which they fought the muslims and got the city back. There are some questionable things about this war, like if the kings were fighting for Granada or for Baza.