The Middle Ages

  • Jan 4, 1066

    Duke of Normandy Invades England

    Duke of Normandy Invades England
    William I Duke of Normandy invaded England and defeated the English line. He was then crowned King of England.
  • Jan 5, 1066

    King Edward the Confessor dies

    King Edward the Confessor dies
    King Edward the Confessor died and left no heirs to the throne. His death is often thought to be the date which marks the end of Saxon England.
  • Dec 1, 1066

    Domesday Book

    Domesday Book
    The first book to complie all the landownership in England. It was 413 pages originally written by one person and then reviewd by another. The book was written in short latin.
  • Nov 27, 1095

    The First Crusade

    The First Crusade
    The first crusade was the beginning of an on-going battle to free Jerusalem from Palestine. Various warriors of Europe were called upon to help free the "holy land" from Muslim control.
  • Jan 15, 1100

    Song of Roland is written

    Song of Roland is written
    It is a French epic poem about a hero Roland at the Battle of Roncesvaux Pass which was a fictional encounter between Christians and Arabs.
  • Apr 29, 1100

    Mabinogion

    Mabinogion
    Is a collection of Welsh stories;one of the earliest of Arthurian legends, This work voiced concerns of the time
  • May 31, 1136

    Historia Regum Britanniae

    Historia Regum Britanniae
    Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (History of Kings in Britain) was a fictional history about Britain and was one the most popular works at the time.
  • Feb 1, 1163

    Léonin

    Léonin
    Léonin is born. He is a famous composer at Notre Dame known for composing a type of music called Ars Antiqua or “old art”. Ars Antiqua was a type of chant melody composed for multiple voices.
  • Dec 29, 1170

    Death of Thomas Becket

    Death of Thomas Becket
    Thomas Becket was the Archbishop of Canterbury and a close friend of King Henry II. Thomas Becket was murdered by knights of the king on the altar of his church. It was caused by an outrage by the king due to Becket not being willing to absolve with other bishops. After his death the knights were disgraced and the Canterbury Cathedral was made into a shrine which attracted over 4,000 pilgrims mourning the archbishops death.
  • Aug 1, 1171

    Henry II Invades Ireland

    Henry II Invades Ireland
    On a request of the pope, Henry II invaded Ireland to "clean up" the mess and lack of Christianity. Many think of it as being the fall of Ireland, when really the Irish built a shrine for Henry II and embraced the protection provided to them now by the English.
  • Jun 15, 1215

    Magna Carta was signed

    Magna Carta was signed
    The Magna Carta was signed by King John and was the founding document of English liberties. It showed that the king's powers could be restricted by a written grant.
  • Period: Sep 19, 1240 to Feb 2, 1302

    Cimabue

    Accomplishments- He was the last great painter who worked in the Byzantine tradition but also a founder of the movement towards greater realism which culminated in the Renaissance
  • Jan 30, 1250

    First Commoners were allowed into British Parliament

    First Commoners were allowed into British Parliament
    By allowing commoners into British Parliament, they were further limiting the control of the King and providing for a better representation of the people.
  • Period: Feb 2, 1266 to Jan 8, 1337

    Giotto

    • Accomplishments-Architect, sculptor, and painter
  • Mar 31, 1266

    Summa Theologica

    Summa Theologica
    Thomas Aquinas writes Summa Theologica; based on Christian ideology which became the basis for the Roman Catholic church values.
  • Jan 30, 1270

    The End of the Crusades

    The End of the Crusades
    The end came after the death of Henry III and the warriors were foreced to return home to England.
  • May 1, 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut

    Guillaume de Machaut
    Guillaume de Machaut, a famous composer is born. He was known as a representative of the Ars Nova tradition. He wrote polyphonic music. He wrote a total of 42 ballads, 33 virelais, 21 rondeaux, 19 lais, 1 complainte, 1 chanson royale, 23 motets; most known of which is "Messe de Nostre Dame" and a hocket titled "David."
  • Jan 16, 1302

    Church of San Francesco in Assisi by Cimabue

     Church of San Francesco in Assisi by Cimabue
    He did alot of frescos in the upper part of the church
  • Jul 31, 1307

    The Divine Comedy

    The Divine Comedy
    Dante begins writing The Divine Comedy; themes within the work addressed social and political problems of the time.
  • Nov 27, 1314

    Noli me tangere "Touch me not” by Giotto

    Noli me tangere "Touch me not”  by Giotto
    Noli me tangere is part of the story in the Bible of the Resurrection of Christ where Jesus appears before the weeping Mary Magdalene at his empty tomb. She reaches out to him but he does not allow her to touch him.
  • Apr 4, 1320

    The last Supper by Giotto

    The last Supper by Giotto
    In medieval examples the apostles are usually arranged around the table, even if this means having some of their backs to the viewer
  • Aug 1, 1320

    Ars Compositionis de Motetis

    Ars Compositionis de Motetis
    Written by Philippe de Vitry, who died Bishop of Meaux. Ars Compositionis de Motetis was a very famous motet and is also one of the oldest.
  • Jan 31, 1349

    Decameron

    Decameron
    Giovanni Boccaccio writes the Decameron; told the story of the Black Plague but not in the traditional Christian interpretation.
  • Apr 28, 1380

    Bible Translated to English

    Bible Translated to English
    The entire Bible is translated to English for the first time, making it more accessible to people and this spread Christian ideals.
  • May 1, 1385

    John Dunstaple

    John Dunstaple
    Dunstaple ComposerJohn Dunstaple is born. He is one of the leading English composers of his time. He wrote many famous motets and works such as Quam Pulchra Es.
  • Period: Feb 2, 1386 to Dec 13, 1466

    Donatello

    • Accomplishments- famous Italian sculptor
  • Jan 31, 1387

    The Cantebury Tales

    The Cantebury Tales
    Chaucer begins The Canterbury Tales; it is a story of traveling pilgrims. This was one of the first major literary works to be written in English over French which was widely spoken at the time.
  • Period: Feb 14, 1404 to Apr 25, 1472

    Leon Battista Alberti

    Accomplishments- an early Renaissance architect and artist. The architect of the Malatesta temple.
  • Feb 2, 1409

    Madonna by Donatello

    Madonna by Donatello
    Madonna- Was a raised type of art. It was a technique Donatello had invented and perfected.
  • Feb 2, 1415

    David by Donatello

    David by Donatello
    David- recorded as the centerpiece of the first courtyard in the Palazzo Medici during the wedding festivities of Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini in 1469
  • Feb 2, 1450

    Gothic church of S. Francesco by Leon Battista Alberti

    Gothic church of S. Francesco by Leon Battista Alberti
    He was commissioned to transform this church
  • Aug 5, 1450

    Malatesta temple by Leon Battista Alberti

    Malatesta temple by Leon Battista Alberti
    Was the first building that Leon Battista Alberti designed and attempted to construct based on his architectural principals.
  • Jun 27, 1455

    First Book with Movable Type

    First Book with Movable Type
    Gutenberg prints first book with movable type. This made the production process easier and cheaper, became possible to distribute to more people which then increased the literacy rate; this then led to censorship by authority.
  • Sep 28, 1469

    The Legend of King Arthur

    The Legend of King Arthur
    Malory wrote The Legend of King Arthur, about King Arthur and Knights of the Round Table and how they searched for the Holy Grail. The story contained tales of chivalry and noble values, the War of the Roses was going on when he wrote this and these values were being disrupted from war.