Buchdruck 15 jahrhundert 1

XV and XVI century

  • Period: 1402 to 1496

    Conquest of Canary

    The conquest of the Canary Islands took place between 1402 and 1496. It was not a simple military conquest, given the aboriginal resistance on some islands. Nor was it politically, since the particular interests of the nobility converged, determined to strengthen their economic and political power through the acquisition of the islands, and the states, particularly Castile, in full phase of territorial expansion and in a process of strengthening of the Crown against the nobility.
  • Jul 20, 1402

    Battle of angora

    Battle of angora
    The Battle of Angora or Battle of Ankara, was a war between Beyazid I (Bayezid the Lightning), sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Tamerlane (Temür), in the Çubuk plain, northeast of the city of Ankara, in Anatolia, Turkey.
  • 1403


    Emperor Yongle moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing.
  • 1404

    Pope Innocent VII

    Pope Innocent VII
    Innocent VII succeeds Boniface IX as pope.
  • 1406

    Gregory XII

    Gregory XII
    Gregory XII succeeds Innocent VII as pope.
  • 1409

    The Battle of Grünwald (Green Forest in German), also called the Battle of Žalgiris (Green Forest in Lithuanian) by the Lithuanians or the Battle of Tannenberg by the Germans

    fought on July 15, 1410, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland and their allies clashed with the Teutonic Knights. It was the decisive battle of the war that took place between 1409 and 1411. War between Poland and Lithuania against the Theuronic Knights. The battle is the most important war event in the history of Lithuania and one of the most important events in the history of Poland and it is considered one of the great battles of medieval times, with about 12,000 victims.
  • 1412

    Caspe compromise

    The Caspe Compromise was a pact established in 1412 by representatives of the kingdoms of Aragon, Valencia and the principality of Catalonia to elect a new king before the death in 1410 of Martin I of Aragon without descendants and without naming an accepted successor.
  • Aug 14, 1415

    Enrique the navigator conquers ceuta

    Don Duarte and Enrique the Navigator took the city of Ceuta for the crown of Portugal.
  • Oct 25, 1415

    Battle of Azincourt

    The Battle of Azincourt was an unexpected victory that English forces won over French troops in the autumn of 1415 in this town in northern France, during the Hundred Years War.
  • 1417

    Martin V

    Martin V
    Martin V succeeds Gregory XII as Pope
  • 1419

    discovery of madeira

    The island of Madeira was discovered by the Portuguese navigators Tristão Vaz Teixeira, Bartolomeu Perestrelo and João Gonçalves Zarco in 1419, who named the island «Madeira» ("madera”, in Spanish) due to the abundance of this raw material.
  • 1420

    The Forbidden City palace

    The Forbidden City palace
    the emperor never returned to Nanjing after that. The Forbidden City palace was completed in 1420, and on New Year's Day 1421, it officially opened the Ming capital.
  • 1420

    1st Hussite war

    1st Hussite war
    After the murder at the stake of Juan Hus, who was a member of the Catholic Church, a series of conflicts broke out that ignited the flames of war. Hus was a preacher of the ideas of reform and had fearlessly criticized the corruption that plagued the Church, which led him from a privileged position to die in the flames. His death so moved his followers in Czech territory that they were willing to go against the Roman Empire and the church. These movements became known as the Hussite Wars
  • 1421

    2nd Hussite War

  • 1422

    3rdHussite War

  • 1427

    4th Hussite War

  • Oct 12, 1428

    Battle of Orleans

    Battle of Orleans
    The place of Orleans, or Battle of Orleans, was one of the confrontations fought in the final phase of the Hundred Years War, in which Saint Joan of Arc participated, and for which she was precisely called "Maid of Orleans".
  • May 8, 1429

    End of the battle of Orleans

    When Joan of Arc ends the Battle of Orleans thus having a victory for France, she manages to change the course of the Hundred Years' War
  • Jul 17, 1429

    Charles VII of France ascends the throne.

    He became heir to the throne and dolphin of France in 1417, crowning himself King of France on July 17, 1429, a title he held until his death in 1461, despite the fact that at the beginning of his life he had to contest the throne with his nephew Henry VI of England
  • Mar 3, 1431

    Eugenio IV

    Eugenio IV
    Eugene IV succeeds Martin V as Pope
  • May 30, 1431

    Joan of Arc

    Joan of Arc
    He died at the age of 19, on May 30, 1431, burned at the stake accused of heresy by the Inquisition in Rouen (France).
  • Oct 30, 1431

    Treaty of Medina del Campo

    The Treaty of Medina del Campo was signed in October 1431 to seal peace between the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Portugal. The signature of the same took place between Juan I of Portugal and Juan II of Castile and was ratified in Almeirim in January of 1432.
  • Dec 16, 1431

    Enrique VI

    Enrique VI
    Enrique VI rises to the throne succeeding his father Enrique V
  • 1440

    Johannes Gutenberg and the printing press

    Johannes Gutenberg and the printing press
    The invention of the printing press is attributed to the German, Johannes Gutenberg in the year 1440. Gutenberg is considered as "the father of the printing press", after years trying to dispute the title between French, Italians, Dutch and Germans.
  • Period: 1450 to 1465

    Machu Picchu

    Archaeological studies have estimated that Machu Picchu was built during the 15th century. Pachacuteq, the first Inca emperor, after conquering the city of Picchu, ordered the construction of an entire luxury urban complex for the aristocracy of the Inca period in 1450.
  • Period: Apr 7, 1453 to May 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Constantinople (now is Turkey) then the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire, fell to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages. Western Europeans to find a new trade route to the East. The explorations carried out by the Portuguese and the Spanish managed to find out the passage through the sea along the Cape of Good Hope to India, in the last decade of the century.
  • Jul 17, 1453

    Battle of Castillon

    The Battle of Castillon, fought on July 17, 1453, was the last battle of the Hundred Years' War. In it the English armies fought on the one hand and Franco-Breton on the opposite. It was also the first documented battle in which artillery proved to be the deciding factor.
  • Apr 9, 1454

    The Treaty or Peace of Lodi

    The Treaty or Peace of Lodi was a peace agreement signed in the Lombard city of Lodi, on the banks of the Adda River, on April 9, 1454, which ended the confrontation between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan. and their respective allies that lasted from the beginning of the Quattrocento
  • Period: 1455 to 1487

    war of the two roses

    The War of the Two Roses was a civil war that intermittently pitted members and supporters of the House of Lancaster against those of the House of York between 1455 and 1487. Both families claimed the throne of England, by common origin in the House of Plantagenet, as descendants of King Edward III.
  • May 22, 1455

    First Battle of St Albans

    First Battle of St Albans
    The First Battle of St Albans began the War of the two Roses. The combat took place on May 22, 1455 in the town of St Albans.
  • 1456

    Joan of Arc

    They free Joan of Arc from her heresy to the Catholic Church after her death
  • Feb 17, 1461

    Second battle of st albans

    The Second Battle of St Albans was a military confrontation fought on February 17, 1461 in the context of the War of the Two Roses, disputed between the noble houses of York and Lancaster by the English crown.
  • Mar 4, 1461

    The duke of york says his son is the king of england.

    The duke of york says his son is the king of england.
  • Mar 29, 1461

    Battle of Towton

    The Battle of Towton was a military confrontation fought in the context of the War of the Two Roses on March 29, 1461 in the village of the same name in Yorkshire. It is considered the largest and bloodiest battle fought in English territory
  • Jun 28, 1461

    Eduard IV of England

    Eduard IV of England
    richard of york proclaims his son king of england, edoardo iv of england
  • 1464

    Wedding of Eduard IV

    Wedding of Eduard IV
    He marries elizabeth woodville
  • Oct 19, 1469

    Secret wedding of Isabel I of Castilla y Fernando II of Aragón

    Secret wedding of Isabel I of Castilla y Fernando II of Aragón
    On October 19, 1469, Prince Fernando of Aragon and Princess Isabel of Castile were married in Valladolid. For a marriage that would determine the course of history, it was celebrated without any pomp; the husband even had to go secretly and disguised as a merchant's mule handler.
  • Period: 1474 to 1479

    Burgundy War

    The Burgundy War was a conflict between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Valois Dynasty, in which the Old Swiss Confederation was involved, which would play a decisive role.
  • 1478

    holy inquisition

    The Catholic kings (Isabel I of Castile and Fernando II of Aragon) create the Holy Inquisition, also known as the Holy Inquisition, it was an institution dedicated to the investigation, condemnation and punishment of heresy, which was linked to the Catholic Church. A heresy, in this case, was to contravene the postulates of Catholic doctrine and, therefore, the king's faith
  • Period: 1487 to 1488

    Bartolome Díaz

    Find out a way to navigate from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean; doing cabotage, thus obtaining land and never moving away from the coast. (kingdom of portugal)
  • 1492

    they expel the Jews from Spain

  • Oct 12, 1492

    Cristóbal Colón and America

    Cristóbal Colón and America
    The discovery of America is known to the historical moment that occurred on October 12, 1492, when Europeans first arrived on the American continent on an expedition commanded by Christopher Columbus. This expedition, originally destined for India, was made in the name of the Spanish crown.
  • Period: 1494 to 1559

    The italian wars

    The Italian wars, also known as the Great Italian Wars and the Wars of Italy, were a series of conflicts that occurred between 1494 and 1559 that involved, on different occasions, the main states of Western Europe: France, Crown of Castile, Crown of Aragon, Holy Roman Empire, England, the Republic of Venice, the Papal States and most of the Italian city-states, as well as the Ottoman Empire.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Treaty of Torsedillas

    Treaty of Torsedillas
    On June 7, 1494, representatives of Isabel de Castilla and Fernando de Aragón (the Catholic Monarchs) and Juan II of Portugal met in Tordesillas, the town of Valaldolid, to put an end to the disputes that were being lived for control of the New World. All the territories to be discovered to the east of this line would remain under Portuguese rule, while Spain would have sovereignty over those located to the west.
  • Period: 1501 to 1504

    War of napoles

    Having conquered the north of the peninsula and before attacking Sicily Citerior, Louis XII sought an alliance with the only military power capable of stopping his advance towards the south: in November 1500 he signed the Treaty of Granada with Ferdinand II of Aragon, by which both agreed to divide the kingdom of Sicily Citerior: the south would remain for the Crown of Aragon, annexing to Later Sicily, and the north for France, forming the Kingdom of Naples.
  • 1503

    Leonardo Da Vinci begins to paint Mona Lisa

    Leonardo Da Vinci begins to paint Mona Lisa
  • Period: Apr 21, 1503 to Apr 28, 1503

    Battle of Ceriñola

    The Battle of Ceriñola took place on April 21, 1503. It was a warlike confrontation that occurred between the French and Spanish troops, with victory for the latter, during the Second War of Naples, in what is now the city of Ceriñola (Cerignola ).
  • May 20, 1506

    Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid

    Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid
    Christopher Columbus was initially buried in the San Francisco convent in the Spanish city of Valladolid, where he died after suffering a cardiac arrest. Three years later, his remains were transferred to the La Cartuja monastery in Seville.
  • Period: 1508 to 1512

    Michelangelo decorated the Sistine Chapel

    Commissioned by Pope Julius II, Michelangelo decorated the vault of the chapel, all the ceiling frescoes in the Sistine Chapel are the work of this great artist who took four years to finish the work, from 1508 to 1512, creating a work of art unprecedented that would change the course of Western art.
  • 1509

    Battle of diu

    Battle of diu
    The battle of Diu was a decisive naval battle fought in 1509 against Diu, in which the Mamluk and Ottoman fleets fought against the Portuguese fleet commanded by Francisco de Almeida, leading 18 ships against almost 100 of the allies.
  • Period: 1512 to 1524

    The kingdom of Navarre is conquered

    In the year 1512, the king of Aragon Fernando el Católico decided the definitive invasion of the kingdom of Navarre, which he carried out throughout the summer with relative speed, although with different resistance. The conquest of Navarre was a very long process, through a series of treaties agreed between the kingdom of Castile and the crown of Aragon to divide Navarre between them.
  • Sep 25, 1513

    Pacific ocean or Mar del Sur

    Pacific ocean or Mar del Sur
    On September 25, 1513, Balboa, born in Jerez de los Caballeros (Extremadura, Spain), discovered the great Pacific Ocean that he called Mar del Sur.
  • 1517

    Martin Luther and the Protestants

    Luther's thinking is based on the concept of justification by faith, which denied any Catholic, Orthodox or Coptic theory regarding the personal merits applicable to salvation, in addition to completely rejecting the mediation of the saints / virgins and veneration of the images.
  • Period: 1517 to 1521

    Hernan cortes conquered the aztec empire

    The conquest of Mexico or the Aztec empire was a historical process that occurred between the years 1517 and 1521. From the arrival of the first Castilians to the coasts of the Mayan peoples until the fall of Tenochtitlan at the hands of Hernán Cortés and his indigenous allies.
  • 1518

    Smallpox in Hispaniola

    According to the chronicler Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, in late 1518 and early 1519 an outbreak of smallpox appeared among the indigenous people of Santo Domingo, today the Dominican Republic. It attacked the Indian population so virulently that, according to Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, only a thousand Indians survived. Spaniards in general had "herd immunity", being a common disease in Europe.
  • Feb 25, 1525

    Battle of Pavia

    Battle of Pavia
    The Battle of Pavia was fought on February 25, 1525 between the French army under the command of King Francisco I and the German-Spanish troops of the Emperor Charles V, with the victory of the latter, in the vicinity of the Italian city of Pavia.
  • May 6, 1527

    The sack of rome by Charles I of Spain and V of Germany

    The sack of Rome or sack of Rome took place on May 6, 1527 and was an important victory for the imperial army of Charles V in the framework of the confrontations between his Holy Roman Empire and the so-called League of Cognac, which was an alliance between the Papacy, France, Milan, Venice and Florence signed on May 2, 1526 and in force until 1529.
  • 1529

    first siege of vienna

    first siege of vienna
    The First Siege of Vienna, in 1529, marked the height of the Ottoman invasion of central Europe by Turkish troops commanded by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
  • Period: 1529 to 1532

    civil war in the inca empire

    The Inca civil war was an armed conflict between Huáscar's supporters and his half brother Atahualpa for the Inca throne.It probably started in 1529, but it is known that the victory came for the second suitor in 1532,weeks before he was taken, captured and executed by Francisco Pizarro in Cajamarca.Two versions: the first one says that everything was resolved in a single battle. The second version indicates that the war lasted several years and that Huáscar was not captured until the end of it.
  • Apr 22, 1529

    Zaragoza treaty

    Zaragoza treaty
    The Treaty of Zaragoza is a peace treaty signed on April 22, 1529 between Spain and Portugal, where Carlos I and Juan III of Portugal reigned, respectively. The treaty precisely delimited the Portuguese and Spanish zones of influence in Asia.
  • Period: 1532 to 1533

    Pizarro and the Inca empire

    Pizarro maintained a close alliance with the nobility of Cuzco, partisans of Huáscar, which allowed him to complete the conquest of Peru. After naming Túpac Hualpa, a brother of Atahualpa, Inca, he went to Cuzco (capital of the Inca Empire), which he occupied in November 1533.
  • 1535

    Jornada de Tunis

    It is known as the Jornada de Tunis, called Jornada de Carlos V a Tunisia by Gonzalo de Illescas, to the expedition carried out by King Carlos I of Spain in June 1535 that recovered the influence of the Hispanic Monarchy over Tunisia, which had been taken by the Ottoman corsair Barbarossa in August 1534.
  • Period: 1536 to

    War of Arcauco

    The Arauco War was a prolonged conflict that pitted the military forces of the Spanish Empire and conquered indigenous allies, against Mapuche factions and some allies of the Cunco, Huilliche, Pehuenche and Picunche peoples.
  • Sep 28, 1538

    Battle of Preveza

    Battle of Preveza
    On September 28, 1538, the Spanish fleet under the command of Andrea Doria and the Ottoman fleet under the command of the Viceroy of Algiers and Grand Admiral Khair-ad-Din "Barbarossa" fought off the bay of Préveza.
  • 1543

    Copernicus proposes the heliocentric theory

    Copernicus proposes the heliocentric theory
    Nicolas copernico publishes De revolutionibus, in which he proposes the heliocentric theory.
    The heliocentric theory or heliocentrism is an astronomical model according to which the Earth and the planets move around a relatively stationary Sun that is at the center of the Solar System. Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center.
  • Apr 11, 1544

    Battle of Cerisoles

    The Battle of Cerisoles was an armed confrontation between the French army of Francisco I and that of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the framework of the Italian War of 1542-1546
  • Period: 1547 to

    Chichimeca war

    The Chichimeca War broke out around 1550, and is considered the bloodiest and most costly between Spaniards and Indians. It began with the attack by the Zacatecos on a convoy of Spaniards. Almost immediately the guachichiles began to attack the foreigners.
  • 1553

    Maria I of England rises to the throne

    Maria I of England rises to the throne
    Maria I of england rises to the throne succeeding her father Henry VIII of england
  • 1554

    the guide of Tormes is published

    the guide of Tormes is published
    The protagonist is an orphan and poor boy who recounts the course of his life from infancy to adulthood. Lazarillo's goal is social ascension and this comes in the last treaty where he receives a stable job and marries.
  • 1556

    Felipe II ascends to the throne

    Felipe II ascends to the throne
  • 1560

    The battle of Los Gelves

    The battle of Los Gelves took place in May 1560 and faced in the vicinity of the island of Yerba, in Tunisia, the Ottomans commanded by Pialí Bajá and a Christian army, with the majority of Spanish troops. The result was favorable to the Ottomans; the Europeans lost about half of their ships.
  • 1563

    The London Plague

    The London plague of 1563 is an epidemic derived from the plague caused by the yersinia pestis in 1563 when London experienced its worst episode of plague during the 16th century. At least 20,136 people in London and surrounding parishes were recorded to have died of plague during the outbreak. Around 24% of London's population eventually perished, the plague hitting London parishes and unsanitary neighborhoods the most.
  • Period: 1563 to

    Escorial monastery

    The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial is a complex that includes a royal palace, a basilica, a pantheon, a library, a school and a monastery. King Felipe II commissioned the construction of El Escorial to the Renaissance architect Juan Bautista de Toledo, who had been Michelangelo's assistant in the Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican, and after his death in 1567, the works were carried out by Juan de Herrera, who gave him his famous style, the Herrera style.
  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years' War

    The Eighty Years' War was a war that pitted the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands against their sovereign Felipe II of Spain.
  • 1569

    the Republic or Commonwealth of the Two Nations

    the Republic or Commonwealth of the Two Nations
    the Republic or Commonwealth of the Two Nations was a federal aristocratic monarchy formed in 1569 by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania through the Union of Lublin, and existed until the successive Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795. The State It did not cover only the current territories of Lithuania and Poland, but also the territory of Belarus, a large part of Ukraine, Latvia, Estonia, as well as the Kaliningrad Oblast and parts of the Smolensk Oblast and Bryansk
  • 1571

    holy league with pope pius v

    The Holy League or Holy League was a military coalition made up of the Hispanic Monarchy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, the Order of Malta, the Republic of Genoa and the Duchy of Savoy to fight against the Ottoman Empire in 1571.
  • 1579

    the united provinces of netherlands

    the united provinces of netherlands
    The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, was a state made up of the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands (Friesland, Groningen, Gelderland, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht and Zealand), grouped from the Union of Utrecht (1579) until the French occupation (1795).
  • Period: to

    The Anglo-Spanish War

    The Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604) was a conflict between the kingdoms of England, ruled by Isabel I, and Spain, ruled by Felipe II. The war would begin with quite important English victories, such as that of Cádiz in 1587, as well as the loss of the Invincible Armada in 1588
  • Period: to

    The siege of Antwerp

    The siege of Antwerp took place between July 3, 1584 and August 17, 1585, during the Eighty Years' War, this decisive siege was consummated by the Spanish troops under the command of the Ray of War
  • Dafne, the first opera

    Dafne, the first opera
    Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the first composition considered opera, as we understand it today. It was written during 1597, under the great inspiration of an elitist circle of Florentine humanist writers, known as the "Camerata de 'Bardi" or "Camerata Florentina".
  • Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare published

    Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare published
    Romeo and Juliet is a love story between two 16-year-olds. They belong to the families of the Capulets and the Montagues, who are the most powerful in the city but are at odds with each other. Juliet celebrates the party of her 16 years of age and in it she meets Romeo. They fall in love at first sight.