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History 208 Chapters 4-8

  • Nov 28, 1000

    Stephen I

    -Crowned himself king of Hungary
    -Issued a code of law that put Hungary at the political level of other European powers.
  • Nov 28, 1025

    Death of Basil II

    -Leader of Bugaria, defeated in 1018, dies.
  • Nov 28, 1031

    Al-Andalus splits

    splits into smaller portions called "taifas" owned and rulled locally.
  • Nov 28, 1049

    -1054 Papacy of Leo IX

    Leo IX set out to reform the church under papal, not imperial, control. Unlike earlier popes, he often left Rome to preside over church councils and make the pope's influence felt outside of Italy.
  • Nov 28, 1050


    Daughter of Constantine VIII. Acknowladged as a ruler through imperial blood.
  • Period: Jul 7, 1051 to Nov 28, 1150

    The Expansion of Europe

    Europeans gained muscle in the second half of the eleventh century.
  • Nov 28, 1066

    Norman Conquest of England by William of Normandy

    The one-day Battle of Hastings decided William the first Normand king of England. He kept 20% of the land for himself and divided the rest among his elite followers and family members.
  • Nov 28, 1071

    Battle of Manzikert

    A huge Byzantine force was met by an equally large Seljuk army at Manzikert. The Byzantines were defeated and Anatoia was open to a flood of militant nomads.
  • Nov 28, 1073

    -1085 Papacy of Gregory VII

    The papal reform movement is particularly associated with Gregory (The Gregorian Reform). He set out to advocate papal primacy or that the pope is the head of the church. He believed that kings and emporers had no right to deal with church affairs while Henry III disagreed.
  • Nov 28, 1075

    -1122 Investiture Conflict

    Set the beginning of the distinction between church and state. Secular rulers continued to matter in the appointment of of churchmen, but it implied kingship separate from priesthood.
  • Nov 28, 1081

    -1118 Reign of Alexius I Comnenus

    Brought most of the major ruling families together through marriage alliances and created a more European-like , familial form of government. Focused on Battle mostly to secure strongholds and cities here and there.
  • Nov 28, 1085

    Conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI

    Conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI
    Alfonso Claimed to be more than just the king of Leon-Castile and proves it through the conquest of Toledo.
  • Nov 28, 1086

    Domesday Book

    A survey of land and landholders in England. Dubbed the Doomsday book because, like the records of people judged at doomsday, it provides facts that could not be appealed. It is the most extensive inventory of land, livestock, taxes, and people that had ever been compiled anywhere in medieval Europe.
  • Nov 28, 1094

    Al-Andalus under Almoravid Control

  • Nov 28, 1096

    -1099 The First Crusade

    A pious pilgrimage to the Holy Land to be undertaken by an armed militia. Mobilized a force of 50,000 to 60,000 combatants who were divided into separate militias.
  • Nov 28, 1097

    Establishment of a Commune is Milan

    Popular discontent with the archbishop led to numerous armed clashes that led to the transfer of power to from the archbishop to the leading men of the city.
  • Nov 28, 1099

    -1291 Crusader States in the Holy Land

    Leaders of the crusade set up four tiny states, European colonies in the Levant. Tripoli and Edessa were counties, Antioch a principality, and Jerusalem a kingdom.
  • Nov 28, 1122

    Concordat of Worms

    Ended the Investiture Conflict with a compromise. Relied on a conceptual distinction between two parts of investiture, the spiritual and the secular.
  • Nov 28, 1140

    Publication of Gratian's Decretum

    Enhanced papal primacy.
  • Nov 28, 1142

    Death of Peter Abelard

    He stated that "nothing can be believed unless it is first understood". He drew together conflicting authoratative texts on 156 key subjects in his Sic et non and wrote Sententia, on of the most successful theology text books of the middle ages.
  • Nov 28, 1147

    -1149 Second Crusade

    Called in the wake of Sengi's victory, but ended in disaster. After four days of besieging the walls of Damascus, the crusaders could not keep the peace between themselve so they gave up and left.
  • Period: Jul 7, 1151 to Nov 28, 1250

    Institutionalizing Aspirations

    The lively developments of early twelfth-century europe were institutionalized in the next decades.
  • Nov 28, 1152

    -1190 Frederick Barbarossa

    He was hailed as the reconciler of enemies. He exhumed Charlemagne's body and enclosed the dead emporer's arm in a requilary casket and put the wheels of canonization into motion. He linked the fate of his dynasty to a well organized and wealthy dynasty by marrying his son to Constance, the heiress of the kingdom of Sicily.
  • Nov 28, 1153

    Death of St. Bernard

    Death of St. Bernard
    He came to Citeaux in 1112 and became the Abbot of Claivaux, one of the small congressional houses that sprouted up in Burgundy.
  • Nov 28, 1154

    -1189 King Henry II of England

    -1189 King Henry II of England
    The Institutions of royal government in England were extended and strengthened under his rule. He destroyed or confiscated all of the private castled built during the civil war and reclaimed land that belonged to the crown.
  • Nov 28, 1162

    Mongols formed

    Mongols formed
    Mongol civilization is formed under the rule of Chingiz (Ghengis) Khan
  • Nov 28, 1170

    Murder of Thomas Becket

    King Henry's archbishop. He was murdered by Henry's men. It led to both church and royal courts to expand and strengthen to address the concerns of an increasingly litigious society.
  • Nov 28, 1171

    Henry Conquers Ireland

  • Nov 28, 1171

    -1193 Saladin's Rule

    Succeded Shirkuh as general and then took over Egypt after Fatimid's death. By 1183 he was master of Egypt, Syria, and part of Iraq. He was determined to reform the faith along the sunni model and to wage jihad against Christian states.
  • Nov 28, 1176

    Battle of Legnano

    Frederick I was defeated at Legnano. He agreed to the Peace of Venice and withdrew his troops.
  • Nov 28, 1182

    Jews Expelled from the Ile-de-France

    Expelled by Philip Augustus, he confiscated their houses, fields, and vineyards for himself. They were allowed to return in 1198 but they did not regain their property.
  • Nov 28, 1187

    Battle of Hattin

    The Kingdom of Jerusalem was taken by Saladin's forces.
  • Nov 28, 1188

    -1230 Rule of King Alfonso IX

    Ruler of Spanish kingdom Leon-Castile
    summoned townsmen to the cortes in 1188
  • Nov 28, 1189

    -1192 Third Crusade

    The Third Crusade was in response to Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem. Richard captured Cyprus and arranged a three year truce with Saladin and reclaimed territory from his brother John and French King Philip II. Richard was captured by the Duke of Austria and was released on a huge ransom.
  • Nov 28, 1192

    -1250 Frederick II

    -failed in trying to unite Sicily Italy and Germany.
    -the popes declared a crusade on him an named him a heretic in the 1240's
  • Nov 28, 1198

    -1216 Pope innocent III

    -1216 Pope innocent III
    -The first pope to be trained in theology and law
    -Thought of himself as ruler in place of Christ, other leaders existed merely to help him. a coin made in honor of pope innocent III by the US house of
  • Nov 28, 1204

    Fall of Constantinople

    Constantinople was taken by the Crusaders sent by pope Innocent III in an effort to spread the reign of Christianity.
  • Nov 28, 1204

    Phillip II takes northern French posessions

    Phillip takes King John's territories in France after Richard dies in reaction to John defying his overlordship.
  • Nov 28, 1212

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

    Battle between Christians and Muslims in Las Navas de Tolosa where the Muslims were defeated. It was the beginning of the end of al-Andalus and also refered to as "the punishment".
  • Nov 28, 1214

    Battle of Bouvines

    Phillip's forces defeat John's in a defining moment for England. The barons were able to organized and rebel and eventually call the king to account.
  • Nov 28, 1215

    Magna Carta

    -intended to be a document defining the rights and obligations of nobility that the king couldnt alter
    -also maintained rights of all other free men
  • Nov 28, 1215

    Fourth Lateran Council

    -produced a comprehensive set of canons (rules)
    -reformed the clergy and laity
    -one of the most important canons required christians to attend Mass and to confess their sins to a priest at least once a year.
    -marriage was a sacrament
  • Nov 28, 1222

    Popolo at Piacenza

    The people, or popolo, were granted a measure of power in the government
  • Nov 28, 1225

    -1274 Thomas Aquinas

    Wrote the texts for Corpus Christi
    Wrote summae, long and systematis treatises that attempted to sum up all knowlege, in order to harmonize matters both human and divine
  • Nov 28, 1226

    -1270 Rule of King Louis IX

    -1270 Rule of King Louis IX
    Louis IX (St. Louis) served as king of France
    Actively promoted the conversion and baptism of Jews
  • Nov 28, 1226

    Death of Saint Francis

    st. francis dies
  • Nov 28, 1230

    Rus conquered

    Rus was conquered by the Mongols as part of Ghengis Khan's vision of world conquest
  • Period: Jul 7, 1251 to Nov 28, 1350

    Discordant Harmonies

    Taking advantage of the new opportunities for commerce and evangelization offered by the new empire, Europeans ventured into experiments in government, thought, and artistic modes.
  • Nov 28, 1265

    -1321 Dante Alighieri

    Poet responsible for Commedia, later known as the Divine Comedy
    Member of the Whites party in Tuscany
    Condemned to death and expelled from the city by the Blacks party in 1301
  • Nov 28, 1266

    -1337 Giotto

    Painter who experimented with illusion of depth, weight, and volume
    Paintings such as Padua and Massacre of the Innocents were used in the Arena Chapel
  • Nov 28, 1273

    Election of Rudolf

    The Princes came together and chose Rudolf of Habsburg as Holy Roman Emperor.
    -His family was new to imperial power
    -He used this power to gain Austria for his family but did not try to assert his power in Italy.
  • Nov 28, 1275

    Statute of Jewry

    Drawn up by King Edward I of England
    Stipulated taht Jews had to end the one occupation that they had been given, moneylending
    Expected Jews to "live by lawful trade and by their labor"
    15 years later Edward I expelled them altogether
  • Nov 28, 1279

    China conquered

    All of China came under the rule of the Mongols as part of Ghengis Khan's vision for world domination
  • Nov 28, 1284


    Gold ducats are first minted
  • Nov 28, 1296

    Clericis Liacos

    Issued by Boniface VIII
    Declared that all clerics who paid and all laymen who imposed payments without prior authorization from the pope shall incur the sentence of excommunication
  • Nov 28, 1299

    -1324 Rule of Osman

    Founded the Ottoman Empire during this time
    Marked a transformation of Europe's southeast
  • Nov 28, 1302

    Unam Sanctam

    Issued by Boniface VIII
    Declared that it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human being to be subject to the Roman Pontiff
  • Nov 28, 1302

    Battle of Courtrai

    War between the King of France and the Count of Flanders
    The workers supporting the count defeated French forces
    Led to some patricians who supported the king being replaced by artisans in the apparatus of Flemish town governments
  • Nov 28, 1309

    -1378 Avignon Papacy

    The pope was forced from Rome by civil strife and settled at Avignon
    established a sober and efficient organization that took in regular revenues and gave the papacy more then ever before in the appointment of churchmen and the distribution of church benefices and revenues
    Largely French papacy
  • Nov 28, 1337

    -1453 Hundred Years War

    English king's bid to become ruler of France
    Fought over long-standing claims to Continental land
    Also feuled by Flemish-English economic relations
    Not so much between England and France, but between two conceptions of France: centralized monarchy vs. association of terrirotes ruled by counts and dukes
  • Nov 28, 1340

    -1400 Geoffrey Chaucer

    -1400 Geoffrey Chaucer
    Wrote the Cantebury Tales
    Associated war with cheer and valor, a central conceit of chivalry
  • Nov 28, 1346

    -1453 Black Death

    Devastated European population
    Half of Paris' population died
    70-80% of Normandy wiped out
    Led to acute labor shortages in towns and countries
    Peasants gained more power
  • Period: Jul 7, 1351 to Nov 28, 1500

    Catastrophe and Creativity

    Those who survived the plague and disease enjoyed a higher standard of living than before and new-style political entities gained powers that the old had never had.
  • Nov 28, 1356

    Golden Bull Promulgated

    Germany was freed from the papcy, but was left dependent on German princes
    Left royal and imperial level of administration less important than local administration
  • Nov 28, 1378

    -1417 Great Schism

    Rival popes based in Avignon and Rome, both claiming to rule
    Third pope based in Bologna joined in 1409
    Fed the Hundred Years War
  • Nov 28, 1378

    Ciompi Revolt

    Coalition of wool workers, small businessmen, and some disaffected guild members challenged the ruling elites
    Succeeded in briefly taking over Florentine government
    The movement soon splintered and ended up leaving the old elite back in charge
  • Nov 28, 1381

    Wat Tyler's Rebellion

    Group of "commons" converged on Longon to demand an end to serfdom
    Response to a poll tax of one shilling per person
    Clash between new expectations of freedom brought about by the Black Death and old obligations of servitude
    Tyler was killed and the rest of the commons dispersed, but they ultimately dealt the death blow to serfdom
  • Nov 28, 1409

    Council of Pisa

    Delegates deposed popes from Rome and Avignon
    Elected a new pope
    Left three popes, all claming to rule as vicar of Christ
    Elongated the Great Schism
  • Nov 28, 1414

    -1418 Council of Constance

    Met to resolve papal crises and institute church reforms
    Deposed three rival popes and elected Martin V as pope
    Did not end fragmentation of church
  • Nov 28, 1429

    French victory at Orleans

    French forces led by Jeanne d'Arc defeated the English forces laying seige to Orleans
  • Nov 28, 1450

    Printing press

    Invented by Johann Gutenberg at Mainz in Germany
    Product of an enormous demand for books
    Marked a great practical breakthrough
  • Nov 28, 1452

    -1519 Leonardo da Vinci

    -1519 Leonardo da Vinci
    Italian Renaissance artist
    Painted The Last Supper on one of the walls of a Dominican convent in 1497
    In that painting demonstrated mastery of the new science of linear perspective
  • Nov 28, 1453

    Ottoman Conquest

    Ottoman's conquered Constantinople
    Ended the Byzantine Empire
  • Nov 28, 1454

    Peace of Lodi

    Ended wars between Venice and Milan
    Led to the creation of the Italic League
  • Nov 28, 1455

    -1487 Wars of the Roses

    Series of dynamic wars between the Yorkists and Lancastrians
  • Nov 28, 1477

    Battle of Nancy

    End of the Burgundian state
    Charles the Bold's expansionist policies led to a coalition against him and he died fighting just outside of Nancy
  • Nov 28, 1492

    Conquest of Granada

    Last bit of Muslims driven out of Granada by king and queen of Spain
  • Nov 28, 1494

    French Invasion

    French forces invaded Italy
    Italian League lost control of the status quo in Italy
  • -883) Zanj revolt in Iraq

    Revolt led by Ali ibn Muhammad that involved thousands of slaves.
  • Fatimids

    -Built mosques & palaces
    -held court ceremonies
    -founded cairo and turned it into a center of intelectual life
  • Abd al Rahman the 3rd

    -claimed to rule al-andalus
    -backed by arm of slavic slaves
  • victory of Otto the 1st over Hungarians

    German King Otto the 1'st stopped Hungarian raids by defeating them at Lechfeld.
  • -1037 Ibn Sina

    -Scholar who studdied & practiced medicine, natural sciences, philosophy, and wrote many books.
    -Served the ruler at Bukhara in the Center of Asia
  • Vladimir converts to Christianity

    -took the name Basil & married the emperor's sister
    -christianization of the general public followed
    -the ammount of monks and moastaries increased
  • -992 Mieszko I

    -992 Mieszko I
    -Leader of Polanians
    -Roman Catholic by Faith
    -Placed Poland under papal protection in 991 Portrait of Mieszko
  • Peace of God Movement

    -movement where bishops listened to popular opinion
    -this movement attracted lords and peasants alike
  • -950 Invasion of Europe

    -Vikings raided the coasts of France, England, Scotland, Ireland, and across the Atlantic in 1000.
    -Muslims conqured Sicily, pillaged southern France, and
  • -899 Reign of kin Alfred the great of England

    -899 Reign of kin Alfred the great of England
    -New styles of royal government
    -New military forms such as the Navy
    -Intened to educate all free-born men -19th century depiction of Alfred the great
  • Otto I (Emperor)

    Otto I crowned Emperror & recognized the greatness of Charlemagne shortly after being crowned king of germany.
  • Period: to Nov 28, 1050

    Political Communities Reordered

    The large scale centralized governments of the ninth century dissolved in the tenth.