Nov 28, 790
-950 Invasion of Europe-Vikings raided the coasts of France, England, Scotland, Ireland, and across the Atlantic in 1000.
-Muslims conqured Sicily, pillaged southern France, and
Nov 28, 869
-883) Zanj revolt in IraqRevolt led by Ali ibn Muhammad that involved thousands of slaves.
Nov 28, 871
-899 Reign of kin Alfred the great of England-New styles of royal government
-New military forms such as the Navy
-Intened to educate all free-born men http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:King_Alfred_(The_Great).jpg -19th century depiction of Alfred the great
Period: Jul 7, 900 to Nov 28, 1050
Political Communities ReorderedThe large scale centralized governments of the ninth century dissolved in the tenth.
Nov 28, 909
Fatimids-Built mosques & palaces
-held court ceremonies
-founded cairo and turned it into a center of intelectual life
Nov 28, 929
Abd al Rahman the 3rd-claimed to rule al-andalus
-backed by arm of slavic slaves
Nov 28, 955
victory of Otto the 1st over HungariansGerman King Otto the 1'st stopped Hungarian raids by defeating them at Lechfeld.
Nov 28, 962
Otto I (Emperor)Otto I crowned Emperror & recognized the greatness of Charlemagne shortly after being crowned king of germany.
Nov 28, 963
-992 Mieszko I-Leader of Polanians
-Roman Catholic by Faith
-Placed Poland under papal protection in 991 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MieszkoDagome.jpg Portrait of Mieszko
Nov 28, 980
-1037 Ibn Sina-Scholar who studdied & practiced medicine, natural sciences, philosophy, and wrote many books.
-Served the ruler at Bukhara in the Center of Asia
Nov 28, 988
Vladimir converts to Christianity-took the name Basil & married the emperor's sister
-christianization of the general public followed
-the ammount of monks and moastaries increased
Nov 28, 989
Peace of God Movement-movement where bishops listened to popular opinion
-this movement attracted lords and peasants alike
Nov 28, 1000
Stephen I-Crowned himself king of Hungary
-Issued a code of law that put Hungary at the political level of other European powers.
Nov 28, 1025
Death of Basil II-Leader of Bugaria, defeated in 1018, dies.
Nov 28, 1031
Al-Andalus splitssplits into smaller portions called "taifas" owned and rulled locally.
Nov 28, 1049
-1054 Papacy of Leo IXLeo IX set out to reform the church under papal, not imperial, control. Unlike earlier popes, he often left Rome to preside over church councils and make the pope's influence felt outside of Italy.
Nov 28, 1050
ZoeDaughter of Constantine VIII. Acknowladged as a ruler through imperial blood.
Period: Jul 7, 1051 to Nov 28, 1150
The Expansion of EuropeEuropeans gained muscle in the second half of the eleventh century.
Nov 28, 1066
Norman Conquest of England by William of NormandyThe one-day Battle of Hastings decided William the first Normand king of England. He kept 20% of the land for himself and divided the rest among his elite followers and family members.
Nov 28, 1071
Battle of ManzikertA huge Byzantine force was met by an equally large Seljuk army at Manzikert. The Byzantines were defeated and Anatoia was open to a flood of militant nomads.
Nov 28, 1073
-1085 Papacy of Gregory VIIThe papal reform movement is particularly associated with Gregory (The Gregorian Reform). He set out to advocate papal primacy or that the pope is the head of the church. He believed that kings and emporers had no right to deal with church affairs while Henry III disagreed.
Nov 28, 1075
-1122 Investiture ConflictSet the beginning of the distinction between church and state. Secular rulers continued to matter in the appointment of of churchmen, but it implied kingship separate from priesthood.
Nov 28, 1081
-1118 Reign of Alexius I ComnenusBrought most of the major ruling families together through marriage alliances and created a more European-like , familial form of government. Focused on Battle mostly to secure strongholds and cities here and there.
Nov 28, 1085
Conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VIAlfonso Claimed to be more than just the king of Leon-Castile and proves it through the conquest of Toledo. http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/a/alfonso_vi.htm
Nov 28, 1086
Domesday BookA survey of land and landholders in England. Dubbed the Doomsday book because, like the records of people judged at doomsday, it provides facts that could not be appealed. It is the most extensive inventory of land, livestock, taxes, and people that had ever been compiled anywhere in medieval Europe.
Nov 28, 1094
Al-Andalus under Almoravid Control
Nov 28, 1096
-1099 The First CrusadeA pious pilgrimage to the Holy Land to be undertaken by an armed militia. Mobilized a force of 50,000 to 60,000 combatants who were divided into separate militias.
Nov 28, 1097
Establishment of a Commune is MilanPopular discontent with the archbishop led to numerous armed clashes that led to the transfer of power to from the archbishop to the leading men of the city.
Nov 28, 1099
-1291 Crusader States in the Holy LandLeaders of the crusade set up four tiny states, European colonies in the Levant. Tripoli and Edessa were counties, Antioch a principality, and Jerusalem a kingdom.
Nov 28, 1122
Concordat of WormsEnded the Investiture Conflict with a compromise. Relied on a conceptual distinction between two parts of investiture, the spiritual and the secular.
Nov 28, 1140
Publication of Gratian's DecretumEnhanced papal primacy.
Nov 28, 1142
Death of Peter AbelardHe stated that "nothing can be believed unless it is first understood". He drew together conflicting authoratative texts on 156 key subjects in his Sic et non and wrote Sententia, on of the most successful theology text books of the middle ages.
Nov 28, 1147
-1149 Second CrusadeCalled in the wake of Sengi's victory, but ended in disaster. After four days of besieging the walls of Damascus, the crusaders could not keep the peace between themselve so they gave up and left.
Period: Jul 7, 1151 to Nov 28, 1250
Institutionalizing AspirationsThe lively developments of early twelfth-century europe were institutionalized in the next decades.
Nov 28, 1152
-1190 Frederick BarbarossaHe was hailed as the reconciler of enemies. He exhumed Charlemagne's body and enclosed the dead emporer's arm in a requilary casket and put the wheels of canonization into motion. He linked the fate of his dynasty to a well organized and wealthy dynasty by marrying his son to Constance, the heiress of the kingdom of Sicily.
Nov 28, 1153
Death of St. BernardHe came to Citeaux in 1112 and became the Abbot of Claivaux, one of the small congressional houses that sprouted up in Burgundy. http://www.aquinasandmore.com/fuseaction/store.patronsaintpage/saint/8
Nov 28, 1154
-1189 King Henry II of EnglandThe Institutions of royal government in England were extended and strengthened under his rule. He destroyed or confiscated all of the private castled built during the civil war and reclaimed land that belonged to the crown. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England
Nov 28, 1162
Mongols formedMongol civilization is formed under the rule of Chingiz (Ghengis) Khan http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkFed7IJrPm4EbIYZvo-QAbwxt-FXjaFZxp4NcQBxDQdeC7-pKgg
Nov 28, 1170
Murder of Thomas BecketKing Henry's archbishop. He was murdered by Henry's men. It led to both church and royal courts to expand and strengthen to address the concerns of an increasingly litigious society.
Nov 28, 1171
Henry Conquers Ireland
Nov 28, 1171
-1193 Saladin's RuleSucceded Shirkuh as general and then took over Egypt after Fatimid's death. By 1183 he was master of Egypt, Syria, and part of Iraq. He was determined to reform the faith along the sunni model and to wage jihad against Christian states.
Nov 28, 1176
Battle of LegnanoFrederick I was defeated at Legnano. He agreed to the Peace of Venice and withdrew his troops.
Nov 28, 1182
Jews Expelled from the Ile-de-FranceExpelled by Philip Augustus, he confiscated their houses, fields, and vineyards for himself. They were allowed to return in 1198 but they did not regain their property.
Nov 28, 1187
Battle of HattinThe Kingdom of Jerusalem was taken by Saladin's forces.
Nov 28, 1188
-1230 Rule of King Alfonso IXRuler of Spanish kingdom Leon-Castile
summoned townsmen to the cortes in 1188
Nov 28, 1189
-1192 Third CrusadeThe Third Crusade was in response to Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem. Richard captured Cyprus and arranged a three year truce with Saladin and reclaimed territory from his brother John and French King Philip II. Richard was captured by the Duke of Austria and was released on a huge ransom.
Nov 28, 1192
-1250 Frederick II-failed in trying to unite Sicily Italy and Germany.
-the popes declared a crusade on him an named him a heretic in the 1240's
Nov 28, 1198
-1216 Pope innocent III-The first pope to be trained in theology and law
-Thought of himself as ruler in place of Christ, other leaders existed merely to help him. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Innocent_III_bas-relief_in_the_U.S._House_of_Representatives_chamber.jpg a coin made in honor of pope innocent III by the US house of
Nov 28, 1204
Fall of ConstantinopleConstantinople was taken by the Crusaders sent by pope Innocent III in an effort to spread the reign of Christianity.
Nov 28, 1204
Phillip II takes northern French posessionsPhillip takes King John's territories in France after Richard dies in reaction to John defying his overlordship.
Nov 28, 1212
Battle of Las Navas de TolosaBattle between Christians and Muslims in Las Navas de Tolosa where the Muslims were defeated. It was the beginning of the end of al-Andalus and also refered to as "the punishment".
Nov 28, 1214
Battle of BouvinesPhillip's forces defeat John's in a defining moment for England. The barons were able to organized and rebel and eventually call the king to account.
Nov 28, 1215
Magna Carta-intended to be a document defining the rights and obligations of nobility that the king couldnt alter
-also maintained rights of all other free men
Nov 28, 1215
Fourth Lateran Council-produced a comprehensive set of canons (rules)
-reformed the clergy and laity
-one of the most important canons required christians to attend Mass and to confess their sins to a priest at least once a year.
-marriage was a sacrament
Nov 28, 1222
Popolo at PiacenzaThe people, or popolo, were granted a measure of power in the government
Nov 28, 1225
-1274 Thomas AquinasWrote the texts for Corpus Christi
Wrote summae, long and systematis treatises that attempted to sum up all knowlege, in order to harmonize matters both human and divine
Nov 28, 1226
-1270 Rule of King Louis IXLouis IX (St. Louis) served as king of France
Actively promoted the conversion and baptism of Jews http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRXpnXxl2vrl7ku5SzL2JLD6UHwlPcdJw8zfsMTrDbsS3kVUN2V
Nov 28, 1226
Death of Saint Francisst. francis dies
Nov 28, 1230
Rus conqueredRus was conquered by the Mongols as part of Ghengis Khan's vision of world conquest
Period: Jul 7, 1251 to Nov 28, 1350
Discordant HarmoniesTaking advantage of the new opportunities for commerce and evangelization offered by the new empire, Europeans ventured into experiments in government, thought, and artistic modes.
Nov 28, 1265
-1321 Dante AlighieriPoet responsible for Commedia, later known as the Divine Comedy
Member of the Whites party in Tuscany
Condemned to death and expelled from the city by the Blacks party in 1301
Nov 28, 1266
-1337 GiottoPainter who experimented with illusion of depth, weight, and volume
Paintings such as Padua and Massacre of the Innocents were used in the Arena Chapel
Nov 28, 1273
Election of RudolfThe Princes came together and chose Rudolf of Habsburg as Holy Roman Emperor.
-His family was new to imperial power
-He used this power to gain Austria for his family but did not try to assert his power in Italy.
Nov 28, 1275
Statute of JewryDrawn up by King Edward I of England
Stipulated taht Jews had to end the one occupation that they had been given, moneylending
Expected Jews to "live by lawful trade and by their labor"
15 years later Edward I expelled them altogether
Nov 28, 1279
China conqueredAll of China came under the rule of the Mongols as part of Ghengis Khan's vision for world domination
Nov 28, 1284
VeniceGold ducats are first minted
Nov 28, 1296
Clericis LiacosIssued by Boniface VIII
Declared that all clerics who paid and all laymen who imposed payments without prior authorization from the pope shall incur the sentence of excommunication
Nov 28, 1299
-1324 Rule of OsmanFounded the Ottoman Empire during this time
Marked a transformation of Europe's southeast
Nov 28, 1302
Battle of CourtraiWar between the King of France and the Count of Flanders
The workers supporting the count defeated French forces
Led to some patricians who supported the king being replaced by artisans in the apparatus of Flemish town governments
Nov 28, 1302
Unam SanctamIssued by Boniface VIII
Declared that it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human being to be subject to the Roman Pontiff
Nov 28, 1309
-1378 Avignon PapacyThe pope was forced from Rome by civil strife and settled at Avignon
established a sober and efficient organization that took in regular revenues and gave the papacy more then ever before in the appointment of churchmen and the distribution of church benefices and revenues
Largely French papacy
Nov 28, 1337
-1453 Hundred Years WarEnglish king's bid to become ruler of France
Fought over long-standing claims to Continental land
Also feuled by Flemish-English economic relations
Not so much between England and France, but between two conceptions of France: centralized monarchy vs. association of terrirotes ruled by counts and dukes
Nov 28, 1340
-1400 Geoffrey ChaucerWrote the Cantebury Tales
Associated war with cheer and valor, a central conceit of chivalry https://encrypted-tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR5ymuQuH6u6Hkj-Z1zpNAa2XLa47JkZFjNctWeE8exEVz9oTMi
Nov 28, 1346
-1453 Black DeathDevastated European population
Half of Paris' population died
70-80% of Normandy wiped out
Led to acute labor shortages in towns and countries
Peasants gained more power
Period: Jul 7, 1351 to Nov 28, 1500
Catastrophe and CreativityThose who survived the plague and disease enjoyed a higher standard of living than before and new-style political entities gained powers that the old had never had.
Nov 28, 1356
Golden Bull PromulgatedGermany was freed from the papcy, but was left dependent on German princes
Left royal and imperial level of administration less important than local administration
Nov 28, 1378
-1417 Great SchismRival popes based in Avignon and Rome, both claiming to rule
Third pope based in Bologna joined in 1409
Fed the Hundred Years War
Nov 28, 1378
Ciompi RevoltCoalition of wool workers, small businessmen, and some disaffected guild members challenged the ruling elites
Succeeded in briefly taking over Florentine government
The movement soon splintered and ended up leaving the old elite back in charge
Nov 28, 1381
Wat Tyler's RebellionGroup of "commons" converged on Longon to demand an end to serfdom
Response to a poll tax of one shilling per person
Clash between new expectations of freedom brought about by the Black Death and old obligations of servitude
Tyler was killed and the rest of the commons dispersed, but they ultimately dealt the death blow to serfdom
Nov 28, 1409
Council of PisaDelegates deposed popes from Rome and Avignon
Elected a new pope
Left three popes, all claming to rule as vicar of Christ
Elongated the Great Schism
Nov 28, 1414
-1418 Council of ConstanceMet to resolve papal crises and institute church reforms
Deposed three rival popes and elected Martin V as pope
Did not end fragmentation of church
Nov 28, 1429
French victory at OrleansFrench forces led by Jeanne d'Arc defeated the English forces laying seige to Orleans
Nov 28, 1450
Printing pressInvented by Johann Gutenberg at Mainz in Germany
Product of an enormous demand for books
Marked a great practical breakthrough
Nov 28, 1452
-1519 Leonardo da VinciItalian Renaissance artist
Painted The Last Supper on one of the walls of a Dominican convent in 1497
In that painting demonstrated mastery of the new science of linear perspective https://encrypted-tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTL5sptwsFrSoB-ZIVdtZczdD6ILUDAhU-UM_uRAF16mQ2yl-GR1A
Nov 28, 1453
Ottoman ConquestOttoman's conquered Constantinople
Ended the Byzantine Empire
Nov 28, 1454
Peace of LodiEnded wars between Venice and Milan
Led to the creation of the Italic League
Nov 28, 1455
-1487 Wars of the RosesSeries of dynamic wars between the Yorkists and Lancastrians
Nov 28, 1477
Battle of NancyEnd of the Burgundian state
Charles the Bold's expansionist policies led to a coalition against him and he died fighting just outside of Nancy
Nov 28, 1492
Conquest of GranadaLast bit of Muslims driven out of Granada by king and queen of Spain
Nov 28, 1494
French InvasionFrench forces invaded Italy
Italian League lost control of the status quo in Italy