A land and sea effort by the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate to take the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. The Arabs failed to take back Constantinople and as a result the survival of the Byzantine empire was ensured. The siege halted the Muslim advance into Europe.
Oct 1, 732
Battle of Tours
Franks defeat Muslim forces at Poitiers in France; A decisive Christian victory and turning point in the struggle against Islam.
*Importance: foundation is laid for Frankish domination of Europe for the next century.
Oct 14, 1066
The Battle of Hastings
King Harold II was killed in battle, shot in the eye with an arrow, last English king to die in battle. Decisive Norman Victory.
Dec 25, 1066
William the Conqueror
The first Norman King of England. Launched the Norman conquest of England. He started feudalism: lords, vassals and fiefs
Oct 18, 1084
The first of many Inquisitions begins
The Inquisition was a medieval church court instituted to seek out and prosecute heretics.
Jul 1, 1087
The reign of King William Rufus (son of William)
Character of William Rufus: Cruel, selfish, self-indulgent and unjust. William was the first to bring organized taxation to England by ordering the compilation of the Doomsday Book in 1086.
Jan 1, 1099
Jerusalem is re-taken from the Muslims on the urging of Pope Urban II in 1135
Dec 1, 1100
The reign of King Henry I (William Rufus brother)
Succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms.
Jan 1, 1118
Founded to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims on their journey to the city.
Dec 22, 1135
The reign of King Stephen (nephew of Henry I)
He was charming and courageous but he could neither control his friends nor subdue his enemies. He was a weak King
Jan 1, 1145
Second Crusade (1145-1149)
The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year.
Jan 1, 1154
The reign of King Henry II (grandson of Henry I)
First of the Angevin kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs. He came to the throne amid the anarchy of Stephen's reign and promptly collared his errant barons. He refined Norman government and created a capable, self-standing bureaucracy.
Oct 18, 1170
Thomas a Becket is murdered in Canterbury Cathedral
Henry chose Becket as his next Archbishop of Canterbury. The decision angered many leading churchmen. They pointed out that Becket had never been a priest, had a reputation as a cruel military commander and was very materialistic
Oct 18, 1189
The reign of King Richard I (third son of Henry II)
Oct 18, 1190
Saladin manages to unite the Muslim world and recapture Jerusalem, sparking the Third Crusade
Oct 18, 1200
Fourth Crusade embarks.
Eventually sacks Constantinople. But never went in to Jerusalem.
Oct 18, 1215
Magna Carta is signed
We should already know about that
Oct 18, 1216
The reign of King Henry III (son of John)
He was the first child king in England
Oct 18, 1258
Provisions of Oxford forced upon Henry III of England
Establishing a new form of government, limited regal authority
Aug 19, 1272
The reign of King Edward I (son of Henry III)
He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law.
Oct 18, 1315
The Great Famine
Starting with bad weather in spring 1315, universal crop failures lasted through 1316 until summer harvest in 1317. Did not recover till 1322
Jun 1, 1327
The reign of King Edward III (son of Edward II)
His reign saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
Jan 1, 1337
The Hundred Years War begins
England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe.
Jan 1, 1347
The Black Death
Bubonic Plague ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20% - 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year
Oct 18, 1377
The reign of King Richard II (grandson of Edward III)
Jan 1, 1380
Chaucer begins to write The Canterbury Tales
Religious malpractice and greed are a major theme that Chaucer shows.
Jan 1, 1382
The Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe
Allows Christianity to spread across Europe.
Jan 1, 1419
The reign of King Henry V (son of Henry IV)
Great King during Hundred Year war.
Jan 1, 1422
The reign of King Henry VI
He was considered peaceful and pious, not suited for the dynastic wars.
Jan 1, 1453
The Hundred Years War ends
England had control of parts of France.
Charles the Great's Reign (768-814)
Charlemagne or Charles the Great, King of the Franks, Emperor of the Carolingian empire.The empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire.
Louis the Pious (814-840)
King of the Franks after his father Charlemagne. Faced much internal conflict in Carolingian state; His reign led to the breakup of the Carolingian Empire because of invasions, internal disputes, migration, and viking raids.
Siege of Paris (858-886)
Viking siege of Paris- the capital of the kingdom of the West Franks at the time. It was a turning point in the fortunes of the Carolingian dynasty and the history of France.
Rule of Abd al-Rahman III (912-961)
Greatest ruler of the Umayyad Arab Muslim dynasty of Spain.
Henry the Fowler (919-936)
King of Germany. He is generally considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state.
Otto I (reign 936-973)
Otto the Great, founder of the Holy Roman Empire.
chosen by French counts to be King of the Franks because they wanted a weak ruler.