Middle Ages 700-1400

  • Jan 1, 717

    Seige of Constantinople (717-718)

    Seige of Constantinople (717-718)
    A land and sea effort by the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate to take the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. The Arabs failed to take back Constantinople and as a result the survival of the Byzantine empire was ensured. The siege halted the Muslim advance into Europe.
  • Oct 1, 732

    Battle of Tours

    Battle of Tours
    Franks defeat Muslim forces at Poitiers in France; A decisive Christian victory and turning point in the struggle against Islam.
    *Importance: foundation is laid for Frankish domination of Europe for the next century.
  • Oct 9, 768

    Charles the Great's Reign (768-814)

    Charles the Great's Reign (768-814)
    Charlemagne or Charles the Great, King of the Franks, Emperor of the Carolingian empire.The empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire.
  • Jan 1, 814

    Louis the Pious (814-840)

    Louis the Pious (814-840)
    King of the Franks after his father Charlemagne. Faced much internal conflict in Carolingian state; His reign led to the breakup of the Carolingian Empire because of invasions, internal disputes, migration, and viking raids.
  • Nov 25, 858

    Siege of Paris (858-886)

    Siege of Paris (858-886)
    Viking siege of Paris- the capital of the kingdom of the West Franks at the time. It was a turning point in the fortunes of the Carolingian dynasty and the history of France.
  • Oct 16, 912

    Rule of Abd al-Rahman III (912-961)

    Rule of Abd al-Rahman III (912-961)
    Greatest ruler of the Umayyad Arab Muslim dynasty of Spain.
  • May 24, 919

    Henry the Fowler (919-936)

    Henry the Fowler (919-936)
    King of Germany. He is generally considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state.
  • Feb 2, 962

    Otto I (reign 936-973)

    Otto I (reign 936-973)
    Otto the Great, founder of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Jul 3, 987

    Hugh Capet

    Hugh Capet
    chosen by French counts to be King of the Franks because they wanted a weak ruler.
  • Oct 14, 1066

    The Battle of Hastings

    The Battle of Hastings
    King Harold II was killed in battle, shot in the eye with an arrow, last English king to die in battle. Decisive Norman Victory.
  • Dec 25, 1066

    William the Conqueror

    William the Conqueror
    The first Norman King of England. Launched the Norman conquest of England. He started feudalism: lords, vassals and fiefs
  • Oct 18, 1084

    The first of many Inquisitions begins

    The first of many Inquisitions begins
    The Inquisition was a medieval church court instituted to seek out and prosecute heretics.
  • Jul 1, 1087

    The reign of King William Rufus (son of William)

    The reign of King William Rufus (son of William)
    Character of William Rufus: Cruel, selfish, self-indulgent and unjust. William was the first to bring organized taxation to England by ordering the compilation of the Doomsday Book in 1086.
  • Jan 1, 1099

    First Crusade

    First Crusade
    Jerusalem is re-taken from the Muslims on the urging of Pope Urban II in 1135
  • Dec 1, 1100

    The reign of King Henry I (William Rufus brother)

    The reign of King Henry I (William Rufus brother)
    Succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms.
  • Jan 1, 1118

    The KnightsTemplar

    The KnightsTemplar
    Founded to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims on their journey to the city.
  • Dec 22, 1135

    The reign of King Stephen (nephew of Henry I)

    The reign of King Stephen (nephew of Henry I)
    He was charming and courageous but he could neither control his friends nor subdue his enemies. He was a weak King
  • Jan 1, 1145

    Second Crusade (1145-1149)

    Second Crusade (1145-1149)
    The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year.
  • Jan 1, 1154

    The reign of King Henry II (grandson of Henry I)

    The reign of King Henry II (grandson of Henry I)
    First of the Angevin kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs. He came to the throne amid the anarchy of Stephen's reign and promptly collared his errant barons. He refined Norman government and created a capable, self-standing bureaucracy.
  • Oct 18, 1170

    Thomas a Becket is murdered in Canterbury Cathedral

    Thomas a Becket is murdered in Canterbury Cathedral
    Henry chose Becket as his next Archbishop of Canterbury. The decision angered many leading churchmen. They pointed out that Becket had never been a priest, had a reputation as a cruel military commander and was very materialistic
  • Oct 18, 1189

    The reign of King Richard I (third son of Henry II)

  • Oct 18, 1190

    Third Crusade

    Third Crusade
    Saladin manages to unite the Muslim world and recapture Jerusalem, sparking the Third Crusade
  • Oct 18, 1200

    Fourth Crusade embarks.

    Fourth Crusade embarks.
    Eventually sacks Constantinople. But never went in to Jerusalem.
  • Oct 18, 1215

    Magna Carta is signed

    Magna Carta is signed
    We should already know about that
  • Oct 18, 1216

    The reign of King Henry III (son of John)

    He was the first child king in England
  • Oct 18, 1258

    Provisions of Oxford forced upon Henry III of England

    Establishing a new form of government, limited regal authority
  • Aug 19, 1272

    The reign of King Edward I (son of Henry III)

    The reign of King Edward I (son of Henry III)
    He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law.
  • Oct 18, 1315

    The Great Famine

    Starting with bad weather in spring 1315, universal crop failures lasted through 1316 until summer harvest in 1317. Did not recover till 1322
  • Jun 1, 1327

    The reign of King Edward III (son of Edward II)

    The reign of King Edward III (son of Edward II)
    His reign saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
  • Jan 1, 1337

    The Hundred Years War begins

    England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    Bubonic Plague ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20% - 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year
  • Oct 18, 1377

    The reign of King Richard II (grandson of Edward III)

  • Jan 1, 1380

    Chaucer begins to write The Canterbury Tales

    Chaucer begins to write The Canterbury Tales
    Religious malpractice and greed are a major theme that Chaucer shows.
  • Jan 1, 1382

    The Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe

    The Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe
    Allows Christianity to spread across Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1419

    The reign of King Henry V (son of Henry IV)

    The reign of King Henry V (son of Henry IV)
    Great King during Hundred Year war.
  • Jan 1, 1422

    The reign of King Henry VI

    The reign of King Henry VI
    He was considered peaceful and pious, not suited for the dynastic wars.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    The Hundred Years War ends

    The Hundred Years War ends
    England had control of parts of France.