Timeline- History of Britain

By L.G
  • 25,000 BCE

    Ice Age

    Northern Europe and most of modern Britain is plunged into a deep Ice Age
  • 12,000 BCE

    Re-colonization

    Beginning of the end of the Ice Age
    Re-colonization of Britain by home sapiens.
  • 8500 BCE

    Re-forestation

    Warmer climate led to the growth of forests all over Britain.
  • 6000 BCE

    Forming of the British Isles

    The British Isles are formed as water levels rise separating them from mainland Europe.
  • 4200 BCE

    Farming people arrive from Europe.

    First evidence of farming
    Farming quickly spread all across the British Isles. Land is cleared, wheat and barley planted , and herds of domesticated sheep, cattle, and pigs raised.
  • 2800 BCE

    Stonehenge

    First phase of building Stonehenge
  • 2700 BCE

    Copper age

    Tools and weapons made from copper
  • 2100 BCE

    Bronze Age begins

    First metal workers
    People learn to make bronze weapons and tools.
    Introduction of cremation of the dead and burials in round barrows. Beaker culture - their name is thought to originate from the distinctive beakers that accompanied their burials. They were farmers and archers. They lived in round huts (similar to the Celts) with a low stone wall for a base. The roof was made of thatch, turf, or hides.
  • 2000 BCE

    Stonehenge

    Stonehenge completed
  • 1650 BCE

    Trade routes

    Trade routes began to form
  • 1200 BCE

    Small Villages

    Small Villages were first formed
  • 750 BCE

    Iron Age

    Iron replaces bronze as most useful metal. Population about 150,000.
  • 500 BCE

    The Celts

    The Celtic people arrive from Central Europe.
    The Celts were farmers and lived in small village groups in the centre of their arable fields. They were also warlike people. The Celts fought against the people of Britain and other Celtic tribes.
  • 55 BCE

    First Roman Invasion

    Julius Caesar heads first Roman Invasion but later withdraws
  • 43

    Romans invade

    Romans invade and Britain becomes part of the Roman Empire
  • 61

    Queen Boadicea

    Boadicea leads the Iceni in revolt against the Romans
  • 70

    Romans conquer

    Romans conquer Wales and the North
  • Period: 122 to 128

    Hadrian`s Wall

    Emperor Hadrian builds a wall on the Scottish Border
  • 140

    Romans conquer

    Romans conquer Scotland
  • Period: 401 to 410

    Romans withdraw

    The Romans withdraw from Britain: Anglo Saxons migrants begin to Settle
  • 450

    Anglo-Saxons

    First invasions of the Jutes from Jutland, Angles from South of Denmark and Saxons from Germany.
    Britain is divided up into the Seven Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, Anglia, Wessex, Essex, Sussex and Kent
  • 597

    Christianity

    St Augustine brings Christianity to England from Rome King Æthelberht of Kent gave him land in Canterbury to build a church. Æthelberht became the first Anglo-Saxon king to turn his back on paganism and become Christian.
  • 600

    Æthelberht

    Æthelberht is now one of the most powerful kings in England
  • 617

    Northumbria

    Northumbria becomes the Supreme Kingdom
  • 627

    First Christian king

    Edwin of Northumbria becomes the first Christian king in the north of England
  • 779

    Mercia

    Mercia becomes the Supreme Kingdom and King Offa builds a Dyke along the Welsh Border
  • 793

    Viking attack

    First recorded Viking attack happens in Dorset
  • 829

    Wessex

    Wessex becomes the Supreme Kingdom.
    Egbert, King of the West Saxons, conquers Mercia and forces the Northumbrians to submit as well. From then on, Wessex retained its dominance in England. Egbert's grandson, Alfred, initiated the creation of the single kingdom of England
  • 843

    Kingdom of Scotland

    Kingdom of Scotland was formed.
    Some sources suggest that around 843 AD the kingdom of the Scots and the Picts was amalgamated, and that from this date historians can speak of a 'kingdom of Scotland'.
  • 851

    Athelstan

    Athelstan, son of the king of Wessex, defeats a Viking fleet in battle.
    Egbert, king of Wessex, had made his second son Athelstan king of Kent. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Athelstan fought a sea battle against the Vikings off Sandwich, capturing nine ships and putting the rest to flight.
  • Period: 866 to 877

    Viking Army

    Invasion of the Great Danish (Viking) Army.
  • 867

    Yorvik

    The Vikings kill rival kings of Northumbria and capture York
    The city became Yorvik, the Viking capital in England.
  • 869

    Edmund

    Edmund, King of the East Angles, is killed by the Vikings
    He was beheaded and his head thrown away to prevent proper burial. Much later, his head was finally reunited with the body, and both were buried in the royal residence, which later became known as Bury St Edmunds, a town in East Anglia
  • 877

    Rhodri Mawr

    Welsh king Rhodri Mawr is defeated by the Vikings and flees to Ireland
  • 878

    King Alfred

    Wessex is overrun by Vikings, and King Alfred goes into hiding in the marshes of Athelney (Somerset). After Easter, he called up his troops and defeated the Viking king Guthrum, who he persuaded to be baptised. He later brought Guthrum to terms and created a settlement that divided England.
  • 886

    England is Divided

    England is Divided
    Alfred, King of Wessex, agrees a treaty with Vikings to divide England
    The Saxons retain the west, while the east (between the Thames and Tees rivers) was to be Viking territory - later known as the 'Danelaw' - where English and (Danish) Vikings were equal in law.
  • 889

    Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    The Anglo Saxon Chronicle starts
  • 926

    Danelaw

    Eastern England (Danelaw) is conquered by the Saxons
  • 927

    Athelstan

    Athelstan, king of Wessex, takes York (Yorvik) from the Vikings, and forces the submission of Constantine of the Scots and of the northern kings.
  • 939

    Death of a king

    Athelstan, first king of all England, dies
  • 954

    The last Viking king in England

    Eric Bloodaxe, the last Viking king in England, is forced out of Yorvik (York)
    Eric Bloodaxe was invited to take over the kingdom of Yorvik (York) around 946 AD. He was welcomed by Athelstan, king of Wessex, who wanted Eric to protect his kingdom from Scots and Irish invaders.
  • 973

    Crowned king

    Edgar is crowned king of England at Bath, 14 years after taking power
    Edgar ruled England from 959 to 975 AD, but it was not until 973 AD - two years before his death - that he organised a solemn coronation and anointing.
  • 975

    Murdered at Corfe

    Edward, oldest son of Edgar crowned King of England.
    He was not popular and was treacherously murdered at Corfe in Dorset three years later.
  • 978

    Æthelred

    Edward's half-brother Æthelred becomes the new king.
  • 1013

    Æthelred the Unready

    Swein Forkbeard, son of the Danish king Harold Bluetooth, forces Æthelred the Unready into exile
    England now under Danish control
  • 1016

    King Canute

    King Canute of Denmark captures the English Crown
  • 1042

    Edward II

    Edward the Confessor (Edward II) becomes king of England
  • 1055

    Westminster Abbey

    Westminster Abbey is completed
  • 1066

    Saxon victory

    Saxon victory over invading Vikings at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
    Harold II defeats and kills Harald Hardrada
  • Period: 1066 to Sep 20, 1066

    Harald Hardrada, King of Norway

    September: Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, invades England.
    20 September: He defeats the English at the Battle of Fulford
  • Jan 6, 1066

    Harold Godwinson

    Edward the Confessor dies and is succeed by Harold Godwinson.
    Harold, earl of Wessex, was crowned king of England on 6 January 1066. He was immediately faced with powerful threats from William, duke of Normandy, and Harold Hardrada, king of Norway, both of whom laid claim to the English throne.