Ice AgeNorthern Europe and most of modern Britain is plunged into a deep Ice Age
Re-colonizationBeginning of the end of the Ice Age
Re-colonization of Britain by home sapiens.
Re-forestationWarmer climate led to the growth of forests all over Britain.
Forming of the British IslesThe British Isles are formed as water levels rise separating them from mainland Europe.
Farming people arrive from Europe.First evidence of farming
Farming quickly spread all across the British Isles. Land is cleared, wheat and barley planted , and herds of domesticated sheep, cattle, and pigs raised.
StonehengeFirst phase of building Stonehenge
Copper ageTools and weapons made from copper
Bronze Age beginsFirst metal workers
People learn to make bronze weapons and tools.
Introduction of cremation of the dead and burials in round barrows. Beaker culture - their name is thought to originate from the distinctive beakers that accompanied their burials. They were farmers and archers. They lived in round huts (similar to the Celts) with a low stone wall for a base. The roof was made of thatch, turf, or hides.
Trade routesTrade routes began to form
Small VillagesSmall Villages were first formed
Iron AgeIron replaces bronze as most useful metal. Population about 150,000.
The CeltsThe Celtic people arrive from Central Europe.
The Celts were farmers and lived in small village groups in the centre of their arable fields. They were also warlike people. The Celts fought against the people of Britain and other Celtic tribes.
First Roman InvasionJulius Caesar heads first Roman Invasion but later withdraws
Romans invadeRomans invade and Britain becomes part of the Roman Empire
Queen BoadiceaBoadicea leads the Iceni in revolt against the Romans
Romans conquerRomans conquer Wales and the North
Period: 122 to 128
Hadrian`s WallEmperor Hadrian builds a wall on the Scottish Border
Romans conquerRomans conquer Scotland
Period: 401 to 410
Romans withdrawThe Romans withdraw from Britain: Anglo Saxons migrants begin to Settle
Anglo-SaxonsFirst invasions of the Jutes from Jutland, Angles from South of Denmark and Saxons from Germany.
Britain is divided up into the Seven Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, Anglia, Wessex, Essex, Sussex and Kent
ChristianitySt Augustine brings Christianity to England from Rome King Æthelberht of Kent gave him land in Canterbury to build a church. Æthelberht became the first Anglo-Saxon king to turn his back on paganism and become Christian.
ÆthelberhtÆthelberht is now one of the most powerful kings in England
NorthumbriaNorthumbria becomes the Supreme Kingdom
First Christian kingEdwin of Northumbria becomes the first Christian king in the north of England
MerciaMercia becomes the Supreme Kingdom and King Offa builds a Dyke along the Welsh Border
Viking attackFirst recorded Viking attack happens in Dorset
WessexWessex becomes the Supreme Kingdom.
Egbert, King of the West Saxons, conquers Mercia and forces the Northumbrians to submit as well. From then on, Wessex retained its dominance in England. Egbert's grandson, Alfred, initiated the creation of the single kingdom of England
Kingdom of ScotlandKingdom of Scotland was formed.
Some sources suggest that around 843 AD the kingdom of the Scots and the Picts was amalgamated, and that from this date historians can speak of a 'kingdom of Scotland'.
AthelstanAthelstan, son of the king of Wessex, defeats a Viking fleet in battle.
Egbert, king of Wessex, had made his second son Athelstan king of Kent. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Athelstan fought a sea battle against the Vikings off Sandwich, capturing nine ships and putting the rest to flight.
Period: 866 to 877
Viking ArmyInvasion of the Great Danish (Viking) Army.
YorvikThe Vikings kill rival kings of Northumbria and capture York
The city became Yorvik, the Viking capital in England.
EdmundEdmund, King of the East Angles, is killed by the Vikings
He was beheaded and his head thrown away to prevent proper burial. Much later, his head was finally reunited with the body, and both were buried in the royal residence, which later became known as Bury St Edmunds, a town in East Anglia
Rhodri MawrWelsh king Rhodri Mawr is defeated by the Vikings and flees to Ireland
King AlfredWessex is overrun by Vikings, and King Alfred goes into hiding in the marshes of Athelney (Somerset). After Easter, he called up his troops and defeated the Viking king Guthrum, who he persuaded to be baptised. He later brought Guthrum to terms and created a settlement that divided England.
England is DividedEngland is Divided
Alfred, King of Wessex, agrees a treaty with Vikings to divide England
The Saxons retain the west, while the east (between the Thames and Tees rivers) was to be Viking territory - later known as the 'Danelaw' - where English and (Danish) Vikings were equal in law.
Anglo Saxon ChronicleThe Anglo Saxon Chronicle starts
DanelawEastern England (Danelaw) is conquered by the Saxons
AthelstanAthelstan, king of Wessex, takes York (Yorvik) from the Vikings, and forces the submission of Constantine of the Scots and of the northern kings.
Death of a kingAthelstan, first king of all England, dies
The last Viking king in EnglandEric Bloodaxe, the last Viking king in England, is forced out of Yorvik (York)
Eric Bloodaxe was invited to take over the kingdom of Yorvik (York) around 946 AD. He was welcomed by Athelstan, king of Wessex, who wanted Eric to protect his kingdom from Scots and Irish invaders.
Crowned kingEdgar is crowned king of England at Bath, 14 years after taking power
Edgar ruled England from 959 to 975 AD, but it was not until 973 AD - two years before his death - that he organised a solemn coronation and anointing.
Murdered at CorfeEdward, oldest son of Edgar crowned King of England.
He was not popular and was treacherously murdered at Corfe in Dorset three years later.
ÆthelredEdward's half-brother Æthelred becomes the new king.
Æthelred the UnreadySwein Forkbeard, son of the Danish king Harold Bluetooth, forces Æthelred the Unready into exile
England now under Danish control
King CanuteKing Canute of Denmark captures the English Crown
Edward IIEdward the Confessor (Edward II) becomes king of England
Westminster AbbeyWestminster Abbey is completed
Saxon victorySaxon victory over invading Vikings at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
Harold II defeats and kills Harald Hardrada
Period: 1066 to Sep 20, 1066
Harald Hardrada, King of NorwaySeptember: Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, invades England.
20 September: He defeats the English at the Battle of Fulford
Jan 6, 1066
Harold GodwinsonEdward the Confessor dies and is succeed by Harold Godwinson.
Harold, earl of Wessex, was crowned king of England on 6 January 1066. He was immediately faced with powerful threats from William, duke of Normandy, and Harold Hardrada, king of Norway, both of whom laid claim to the English throne.