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German History

  • 100

    Battle of the Teutoburg Forest

    Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    VideoBattle was Fought around September, 9 CE
    Battle in the Teutoburg Forest (German Teutoburger Wald): the defeat of the Roman commander Publius Quintilius Varus against the Germanic tribesmen of the Cheruscian leader Arminius in 9 CE. Three legions were annihilated and Germania remained independent from Roman rule.
  • 100

    Tacitus wrote Germania

    Tacitus wrote Germania
    TacitusTacitus biblicism.wordpress.com Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors
  • Period: 100 to

    German Timespan

  • Period: 450 to Aug 13, 751

    Merovingian dynasty

    Merovingian dynastyThe Merovingian Dynasty was a Frankish dynasty considered the first French royal house. It was the first major political authority which rose out of the ashes of the dying Roman Empire in Europe. It was named for Merovech (fl. c. 450), whose son Childeric I (d. 482?) ruled a tribe of Salian Franks from his capital at Tournai. His son, Clovis I, united nearly all of Gaul in the late 5th century except Burgundy an
  • 476

    Fall of Roman Empire

    Fall of Roman Empire
    Empire finally fell after first being overrun by various non-Roman peoples and then having its heart in Italy seized by Germanic troops in a revolt. The historicity and exact dates are uncertain, and some historians do not consider that the Empire fell at this point. Disagreement persists since the decline of the Empire had been a long and gradual process rather than a single event
  • 507

    Battle of Vouillé

    Battle of Vouillé
    The Battle of Vouillé or Vouglé was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Vouillé, Vienne near Poitiers (Gaul), in the spring of 507 between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths of Alaric II, the conqueror of Spain.
  • 511

    Clovis I

    Clovis I
    Clovis 466 – 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs. He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.
  • 575


    Sigebert I (c. 535 – c. 575) was the king of Austrasia from the death of his father in 561 to his own death. He was the third surviving son out of four of Clotaire I and Ingund. His reign found him mostly occupied with a successful civil war against his half brother, Chilperic.
  • Feb 27, 640

    Pepin of Landen

    Pepin of Landen
    Pepin 0f Landen (c. 580 – 27 February 640), also called the Elder or the Old, was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia under the Merovingian king Dagobert I from 623 to 629
  • Oct 14, 732

    The Battle of Tours

    The Battle of Tours
    The Battle of Tours (October 732)] also called the Battle of Poitiers and in Arabic:was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille,
  • Oct 22, 741

    Charles Marte

    Charles Marte
    Charles Martel (23 August 686 – 22 October 741 also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum (737–43) at the end of his life, using the title Duke and Prince of the Franks. In 739 he was offered the title of Consul by the Pope, but he refused.[6] He is remembered for winning the Battle of Tours in 732, in which he def
  • Period: Aug 13, 751 to

    Carolingian Dynasty

    Carolingian DynastyThe Carolingian Dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians or Karlings) was a dynasty of rulers who began as mayors of the palaces and eventually became kings of the Franks (751 C.E.). It is perhaps most noteworthy as the dynasty which resurrected the idea of a Western Roman Empire. The Carolingians succeeded the Merovingian Dynasty and continued to rule in some kingdoms until 987 C.E. The name Carolingian itself comes from Charles Martel (from the Latin Carolus Martellus), who defeated the M
  • Jan 1, 754

    Childeric III

    Childeric III
    Childeric III (c. 717 – c. 754) was the last King of the Franks in the Merovingian dynasty from 743 to his deposition by Pope Zachary in March 752. Once Childeric was deposed, the Pope crowned Pepin the Short, father of Charlemagne, the King of the Franks in Soissons.
  • Period: Aug 14, 1024 to Aug 14, 1125

    The Salian Dynasty

    Salian Dynasty
    After the death of the last Saxon king in 1024, the crown passed to the Salians, a Frankish tribe. The four Salian kings--Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, and Henry V--who ruled Germany as kings from 1024 to 1125, established their monarchy as a major European power.
  • Aug 14, 1039

    Conrad II

    Conrad II
    Conrad II (c. 990 – 4 June 1039) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1027 until his death.thirty-four years and crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on 26 March 1027, becoming the first of four kings .The inherited the titles of count of Speyer and of Worms as an infant when Henry died at age twenty. As he matured he came to be well known beyond his power base in Worms and Speyer, so when the Saxon line died off and the elected monarchy for the German realm stood vacant, he was elected King in 1024.
  • Aug 7, 1050

    Henry IV

    Henry IV
    Henry IV (11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) was King of the Romans (also referred to as King of the Germans[1]) from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century.
  • Oct 5, 1056

    Henry III

    Henry III
    Henry III (28 October 1017 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia.
  • Mar 14, 1096

    The first Crusade

    The first Crusade
    CrusadesOn November 27, 1095, in Clermont, France, Pope Urban II called for a crusade to help the Byzantines and to free the city of Jerusalem. The official start date was set as August 15, 1096. Those armies that left before that time are considered part of the People's Crusade
  • Aug 14, 1096

    The First Crusade

    The First Crusade
    The First Crusade (1096–1099) was a military expedition by Roman Catholic Europe to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquests of the Levant (632–661), ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem in 1099. It was launched on 27 November 1095 by Pope Urban II with the primary goal of responding to an appeal from Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, who requested that western volunteers come to his aid and help to repel the invading Seljuq Turks from Anatolia.
  • Period: Aug 14, 1096 to Aug 14, 1289

    The Crusades: 1096 to 1289

    There were seven major Crusades. The era the Crusades the first began in 1095 with Pope Urban II's famous speech and the ended in 1291 when Acre, the last of the Latin holdings in Palestine, was lost.
  • May 23, 1125

    Henry V

    Henry V
    Henry V (11 August 1086 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. Henry's reign coincided with the final phase of the great Investiture Controversy, which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms, he surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers.
  • Period: Aug 14, 1138 to Aug 14, 1254

    The Hohenstaufen Dynasty

    Hohenstaufen Dynasty The following two centuries featured two important rivaling princely families, the Hohenstaufen of Swabia who held both the imperial and German crowns, and the Welf from Bavaria and Saxony with alliance to the papacy.
  • Aug 14, 1149

    The Second Crusad

    The Second Crusad
    The Second Crusade (1145–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade (1096–1099) by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall.
  • Feb 15, 1152

    Conrad III

    Conrad III
    Conrad III (1093 Bamberg – 15 February 1152 Bamberg) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia, and Agnes, a daughter of the Salian Emperor Henry IV.
  • Aug 14, 1189

    Third Crusade

    Third Crusade
    (1189–1192), also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin . It was largely successful, but fell short of its ultimate goal—the reconquest of Jerusalem.The elderly Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa responded to the call to arms, and led a massive army across Anatolia, but drowned in a river in Asia Minor on June 10, 1190, before reaching the Holy Land. His death caused the greatest grief among the German Crusaders
  • Aug 14, 1190

    Death of Frederick Barbarossa

    Death of  Frederick Barbarossa
    Frederick BarbarossaThe second of the Hohenstaufen rulers, Frederick I (r. 1152-90), also known as Frederick Barbarossa because of his red beard, struggled throughout his reign to restore the power and prestige of the German monarchy, but he had little success. Because the German dukes had grown stronger both during and after the Investiture
  • Sep 28, 1197

    Henry VI

    Henry VI
    Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197.
  • Jun 21, 1208

    Philip of Swabia

    Philip of Swabia
    Philip of Swabia August 1177 – 21 June 1208) was of the House of Hohenstaufen. He was elector Bishop of Würzburg in 1190 and 1191 (also Duke of the Franks), Margrave of Tuszia (Tuscany) from 1195 to 1197, Duke of Swabia from 1196 to 1208 and King of the Germans from 1198 to 1208. He was the first King of the Germans to be assassinated.
  • Aug 14, 1212

    The Children's Crusade

    The Children's Crusade
    The Children's Crusade is the name given to a disastrous Crusade by European Catholic children to expel Muslims from the Holy Land said to have taken place in 1212. The traditional narrative is probably conflated from some factual and mythical notions of the period including visions by a French or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims in the Holy Land to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children being sold into slavery
  • Aug 14, 1213

    The Fifth Crusade

    The Fifth Crusade
    (1213–1221) was an attempt to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.Pope Innocent III and his successor Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Duke Leopold VI of Austria, and a foray against Jerusalem ultimately left the city in Muslim hands. Later in 1218, a German army led by Oliver of Cologne, and a mixed army of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Holland
  • May 19, 1218

    Otto IV of Brunswick

    Otto IV of Brunswick
    Otto IV of Brunswick (1175 – May 19, 1218) was one of two rival kings of the Holy Roman Empire from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and emperor from 1209 on. The only king of the Welf dynasty, he incurred the wrath of Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated in 1215
  • Aug 14, 1228

    Sixth Crusade

    Sixth Crusade
    The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade. It involved very little actual fighting. The diplomatic maneuvering of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining control of Jerusalem and other areas for fifteen years
  • Aug 14, 1248

    The Seventh Crusade

    The Seventh Crusade
    The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. Approximately 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for King Louis who, along with thousands of his troops, was captured and defeated by the Egyptian army led by the Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah supported by the Bahariyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz, Aybak and Qalawun
  • Dec 13, 1250

    Frederick II

    Frederick II
    Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250), was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous. However, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1254 to Jan 1, 1273


    After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the German kingdom was divided between his son Conrad IV (died 1254) and the anti-king, William of Holland (died 1256). Conrad's death was followed by the Interregnum, during which no king could achieve universal recognition and the princes managed to consolidate their holdings and became even more independent rulers. After Richard's death in 1273, the Interregnum ended with unanimous election of Rudolph I of Habsburg, a minor pro-Staufen count.
  • May 21, 1254

    Conrad IV

    Conrad IV
    Conrad IV (25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254) was king of Jerusalem. He was a son of the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II and the queen regnant of Jerusalem, Isabella II (Yolanda). Born in Andria, Conrad was the second but only surviving child of Frederick and Isabella II, who died while giving birth to him. Conrad lived in Italy until 1235, when he first visited Germany.
  • Jan 28, 1256

    William II of Holland

    William II of Holland
    William II of Holland (February 1228 – 28 January 1256) was a Count of Holland and Zeeland (1235–56). He was elected as German anti-king in 1247 and remained king until his death. He was the son of Floris IV and Mathilde of Brabant. When his father was killed at a tournament at Corbie, William was only seven years old. His uncles William and Otto (bishop of Utrecht) were his guardians until 1239.
  • Aug 14, 1270

    The Eighth Crusade

    The Eighth Crusade
    The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX, King of France, in 1270. Louis was disturbed by events in Syria, where the Mamluk sultan Baibars had been attacking the remnant of the Crusader states. Baibars had seized the opportunity after a war pitting the cities of Venice and Genoa against each other (1256–1260) had exhausted the Syrian ports that the two cities controlled
  • Apr 2, 1272

    Richard of Cornwall

    Richard of Cornwall
    Richard of Cornwall (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (from 1225 to 1243), 1st Earl of Cornwall (from 1225) and German King (formally "King of the Romans", from 1257). One of the wealthiest men in Europe, he also joined the Sixth Crusade, where he achieved success as a negotiator for the release of prisoners, and assisted with the building of the citadel in Ascalon.
  • Aug 14, 1272

    The Ninth Crusade

    The Ninth Crusade
    The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land. The Ninth Crusade saw several impressive victories for Edward over Baibars. Ultimately the Crusade did not so much fail as withdraw, since Edward had pressing concerns at home and felt unable to resolve the internal conflicts within the remnant Outremer territories. It is arguable that the Crusading spirit was nearly "extinct," by this period.
  • Jul 15, 1291

    Rudolph I of Germany

    Rudolph I of Germany
    (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg dynasty to a leading position among the Imperial feudal dynasties. Originally a Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria and Styria, territories that would remain under Habsburg rule for more than 600 years and would form the core of the Habsburg Monarchy and the present-day country of Austria.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1308 to Aug 1, 1437

    The House of Luxembourg

    The House of Luxembourg was a late medieval German dynasty, which between 1308 and 1437 ruled the Holy Roman Empire, twice interrupted by the rivaling House of Wittelsbach.
  • May 1, 1308

    Albert I

    Albert I
    Albert I of Habsburg (German: Albrecht I.) (July 1255 – 1 May 1308) was King of the Romans and Duke of Austria, the eldest son of German King Rudolph I of Habsburg and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenburg.
  • Aug 24, 1313

    Henry VII

    Henry VII
    Henry VII ca. 1275 – 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. During his brief career he reinvigorated the imperial cause in Italy, wracked with the partisan struggles between the divided Guelf and Ghibelline factions, and inspired the praise of Dino Compagni and Dante Alighieri; however, his premature death undid his life's work.
  • Jan 13, 1330

    Frederick the Fair

    Frederick the Fair
    Frederick the Handsome or the Fair (c. 1289, Vienna – 13 January 1330), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314 (antiking until 1325) as Frederick III until his death.
  • Oct 11, 1347

    Louis IV

    Louis IV
    Louis IV (German: Ludwig) (1 April 1282, Munich – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314, the King of Italy from 1327 and the Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
  • Jul 1, 1349

    Günther von Schwarzburg

    Günther von Schwarzburg
    (1304–1349), German king, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII, Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg.He distinguished himself as a soldier, and rendered good service to the Emperor Louis IV on whose death in 1347 he was offered the German throne, after it had been refused by Edward III of England. He was elected German king at Frankfurt on January 30, 1349
  • Nov 29, 1378

    Charles IV

    Charles IV
    Charles IV (14 May 1316, Prague – 29 November 1378]), born Wenceslaus (Václav), was the second king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first king of Bohemia also to become Holy Roman Emperor.
  • May 18, 1410


    Rupert (5 May 1352 – 18 May 1410) was Elector Palatine from 1398 and German King (rex Romanorum) from 1400 until his death. He was the son of Elector Palatine Rupert II and Beatrice, daughter of King Peter II of Sicily. Rupert's granduncle was Emperor Louis IV
  • Aug 16, 1419


    Wenceslaus (26 February 1361 – 16 August 1419) was, by election, German King (formally King of the Romans) from 1376 and, by inheritance, King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) from 1378. He was the third Bohemian and second German monarch of the Luxembourg dynasty. Wenceslaus was deposed in 1400 as German King, but continued to rule as King of Bohemia.
  • Dec 9, 1437

    Sigismund of Luxemburg

    Sigismund of Luxemburg
    (14 February 1368 – 9 December 1437) was King of Hungary, of Croatia from 1387, of Bohemia from 1419, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Italy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411.[1] Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which in the end also led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the later period of Sigismund's life.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1438 to

    The House of Habsburg

    The House of Habsburg and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.
  • Oct 27, 1439

    Albert the Magnanimous

    Albert the Magnanimous
    Albert the Magnanimous (10 August 1397 – 27 October 1439) was King of Hungary from 1437 until his death. He was also King of Bohemia, elected (but never crowned) King of Germany as Albert II, duke of Luxembourg and, as Albert V, archduke of Austria from 1404
  • Aug 19, 1493

    Frederick the Peaceful

    Frederick the Peaceful
    Frederick the Peaceful (September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493) was Duke of Austria as Frederick V from 1424, the successor of Albert II as German King as Frederick IV from 1440, and Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III from 1452. In 1493, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I after ten years of joint rule.
  • Jul 22, 1499

    The Battle of Dornach

    The Battle of Dornach
    22 July 1499 between the troops of Emperor Maximilian I and the Old Swiss Confederacy close to the Swiss village of Dornach. The battle turned into a decisive defeat for Maximilian, and concluded the Swabian War between the Swiss and the Swabian League: it amounted to de-facto independence of Switzerland from the Holy Roman Empire, acknowledged by Maximilian in the Treaty of Basel on 22 September (the independence was however not formally recognized the Peace of Westphalia of 1648).
  • Aug 14, 1517

    Ninety-Five These

     Ninety-Five These
    The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation
  • Period: Aug 14, 1517 to

    The Protestant Reformation

    The Protestant Reformation begins in 1517, when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and concludes in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars
  • Jan 12, 1519

    Maximilian I

    Maximilian I
    (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky. He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from c. 1483. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his his marriage.
  • Aug 11, 1519

    Johann Tetzel

    Johann Tetzel
    Johann Tetzel (1465 – 11 August 1519) was a German Dominican preacher known for selling indulgences. He entered the Dominican order in 1489, achieved some success as a preacher, and was in 1502 commissioned by the pope to preach the Jubilee (Christian) indulgence, which he did throughout his life. In 1509 he was made an inquisitor of Poland, and in 1517 Pope Leo X made him commissioner of indulgences for all of Germany.
  • Aug 14, 1526

    The German Peasants' War

    The German Peasants' War
    The German Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (German: Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, 1524–1526. It consisted, like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Wars, of a series of both economic and religious revolts in which peasants, town-dwellers and nobles participated.
  • Sep 25, 1555

    The Peace of Augsburg,

    The Peace of Augsburg,
    The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg, now in present-day Bavaria, Germany.
  • Sep 21, 1558

    Charles V

    Charles V
    Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.
  • Dec 14, 1563

    The Council of Trent

    The Council of Trent
    The Council of Trent, delayed and interrupted several times because of political or religious disagreements, was a major reform council and the most impressive embodiment of the ideals of the Counter-Reformation. It would be over 300 years until the next Ecumenical Council. When announcing Vatican II, Pope John XXIII stated that the precepts of the Council of Trent continue to the modern day, a position that was reaffirmed by Pope Paul VI.
  • Jul 25, 1564

    Ferdinand I

    Ferdinand I
    Ferdinand I (10 March 1503, Alcalá de Henares, Spain – 25 July 1564, Vienna, Habsburg domain [now in Austria]) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Oct 12, 1576

    Maximilian II

    Maximilian II
    Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576) was king of Bohemia and king of the Romans (king of Germany) from 1562, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1563, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1564 until his death.[1] He was a member of the House of Habsburg.
  • Rudolf II

    Rudolf II
    (July 18, 1552 – January 20, 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608). He was a member of the House of Habsburg.
    Rudolf's legacy has traditionally been viewed in three ways: an ineffectual ruler whose mistakes led directly to the Thirty Years' War; a great and influential patron of Northern Mannerist art; and a devotee of occult arts and learning which helped seed the scientific revolution
  • Period: to

    The Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history.
  • Matthias of Austria

    Matthias of Austria
    (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611. He was a member of the House of Habsburg.Matthias's conciliatory policies were opposed by the more intransigent Catholic Habsburgs, particularly Matthias's brother Archduke Maximilian, who hoped to secure the succession for the inflexible Catholic Archduke Ferdinand ,
  • Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    Johannes Kepler December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.
  • Ferdinand II

    Ferdinand II
    Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1625).[2][3] His rule coincided with the Thirty Years' War.
  • The Peace of Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia
    The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
  • Ferdinand IV

    Ferdinand IV
    (8 September 1633 – 9 July 1654) was King of the Romans, King of Hungary, and King of Bohemia[1]. He was born in Vienna, the eldest son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, and his first wife, Maria Ana of Spain. He was made King of Bohemia in 1646, King of Hungary in 1647 (coronation took place on June 16 in Pressburg) and was elected King of the Romans (future ruler of the Holy Roman Empire) on 31 May 1653, and crowned at Ratisbon (Regensburg) on 18 June of the same year. He died of smallpox
  • Ferdinand III

    Ferdinand III
    Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.
  • The War of the Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession
    The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.
  • Leopold I

    Leopold I
    ( 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was a Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia. A member of the Habsburg family, he was the second son of Emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain. His maternal grandparents were Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. He was also a first cousin of his rival, Louis XIV of France.
  • Joseph I

    Joseph I
    (26 July 1678 – 17 April 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary, King of the Romans[1][2] was the elder son of Emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. His motto was Amore et Timore (Latin for "Through Love and Fear"
  • The Treaty of Utrecht

    The Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, comprises a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war. The treaties were concluded between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and Philip V.
  • The Pragmatic Sanction of 1713

    The Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
    Edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to ensure that the throne of the Archduchy of Austria could be inherited by a daughter. Since their marriage in 1708, Charles and his wife Elizabeth Christine had not had children, and since 1711 Charles had been the sole male member of the House of Habsburg alive. Charles' elder brother Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I had died without male issue, making accession of a female a very plausible contingency.
  • Frederick William I

    Frederick William I
    Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740) was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg (as Frederick William II) from 1713 until his death. He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel.
    The King acquired a reputation for his fondness for military display, leading to his special efforts to hire the tallest men he could find in all of Europe for a special regiment nicknamed the Potsdam Giants.
  • Charles VI

    Charles VI
    (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) was the penultimate Habsburg sovereign of the Habsburg Empire. He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (Charles II), Hungary and Croatia (Charles III), Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700.
  • The Battle of Hohenfriedberg

    The Battle of Hohenfriedberg
    The Battle of Hohenfriedberg or Hohenfriedeberg, also known as the battle of Striegau, now Dobromierz, was one of the crowning achievements of Frederick the Great. Frederick's Prussian army decisively defeated an Austrian army under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine on 4 June 1745 during the War of the Austrian Succession.
  • Period: to

    The House of Lorraine

    The House of Lorraine, the main and now only remaining line known as Habsburg-Lorraine, is one of the most important and was one of the longest-reigning royal houses in the history of Europe. Currently the house is headed by Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, the titular Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, Illyria, as well as the titular King of Jerusalem
  • The War of the Austrian Succession

    The War of the Austrian Succession
    The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) – including King George's War in North America, the War of Jenkins' Ear (which actually began formally on 23 October 1739), and two of the three Silesian wars – involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg.
  • The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756

    The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
    Term applied to the reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances which were upheld until the War of the Austrian Succession and then reversed in the Seven Years' War; the shift has also been known as "the great change of partners". The essence of the revolution may be thus summarized: France and Prussia versus Britain and Austria became France and Austria versus Britain and Prussia. It was part of the stately quadrille which saw a constantly shifting pattern of alliances throughout the 18th
  • The Battle of Rossbach

    The Battle of Rossbach
    The Battle of Rossbach (November 5, 1757) took place during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) near the village of Roßbach, in the Electorate of Saxony. Frederick the Great defeated the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman/Austrian Empire. This battle is considered one of his greatest masterpieces due to his exploitation of rapid movement to achieve the element of complete surprise and destroying an enemy army with negligible casualties
  • Battle of Torgau

    Battle of Torgau
    In the Battle of Torgau on 3 November 1760, King Frederick the Great's Prussian army fought a larger Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun. The Prussians won a costly victory in one of the bloodiest battles of the Seven Years' War.
  • The Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War
    was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. In the historiography of some countries, the war is alternatively named after combats in the respective theaters: the French and Indian War (North America, 1754–63), Pomeranian War (Sweden and Prussia, 1757–62)
  • Francis I

    Francis  I
    (8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine, but lost this title when Lorraine was seized by France in the War of the Polish Succession; he was compensated with Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. He was the father of Marie Antoinette.
  • Frederick II

    Frederick II
    Frederick II (German: Friedrich II.; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was a King in Prussia (1740–1772) and a King of Prussia (1772–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[1] He is best known as a brilliant military campaigner and organizer of Prussian armies. He became known as Frederick the Great
  • Joseph II

    Joseph II
    Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, and was the brother of Marie Antoinette. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine
  • Leopold I

    Leopold I
    Leopold II (5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792), born Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard, was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa. Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism
  • Frederick William II

    Frederick William II
    Frederick William II (German: Friedrich Wilhelm II; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was the King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg and the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel.
  • The Battle of Austerlitz,

    The Battle of Austerlitz,
    The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's greatest victories, where the French Empire effectively crushed the Third Coalition. On 2 December 1805 (20 November Old Style, 11 Frimaire An XIV, in the French Republican Calendar), a French army, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, decisively defeated a Russo-Austrian army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II,
  • The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt

    The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt
    The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the river Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia. The decisive defeat suffered by the Prussian Army subjugated the Kingdom of Prussia to the French Empire until the Sixth Coalition was formed in 1812.
  • Francis II

    Francis II
    Francis II (German: Franz II, Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) (12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
  • Frederick William III

    Frederick William III
    Frederick William III (German: Friedrich Wilhelm III.) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel (1797–1806 and again 1813–1840).
  • Frederick William IV

    Frederick William IV
    Frederick William IV of Prussia (German: Friedrich Wilhelm IV. von Preußen) (15 October 1795 – 2 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel (1840–1857).
  • The Franco-Prussian War

    The Franco-Prussian War
    The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War[7] (19 July 1870 – 10 May 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia.
  • Battle of Wissembourg

     Battle of Wissembourg
    The Battle of Wissembourg or Battle of Weissenburg,[1] the first of the Franco-Prussian War, was joined when three German army corps surprised the small French garrison at Wissembourg on August 4, 1870. The defenders, greatly outnumbered, fought stubbornly[2] before being overwhelmed; nevertheless, the fall of Wissembourg allowed the Prussian army to move into France and compelled Marshal Mac-Mahon to give battle, and suffer defeat,
  • William I

    William I
    William I,[ 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was the King of Prussia (2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888).
  • Frederick III

    Frederick III
    Frederick III (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia for 99 days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors. Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, known informally as Fritz
  • Franz Ferdinand

    Franz Ferdinand
    Franz Ferdinand (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.[1] His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia
  • Period: to

    World War or the Great War

    World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War
  • The Battle of the Marn

    The Battle of the Marn
    The Battle of the Marne (French: Première bataille de la Marne) (also known as the Miracle of the Marne) was a First World War battle fought between 5 and 12 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army under Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke the Younger. The battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and had reached the outskirts of Paris
  • Battle of the Somm

    Battle of the Somm
    The Battle of the Somme (French: Bataille de la Somme, German: Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, took place during the First World War between 1 July and 18 November 1916 on either side of the river Somme in France
  • The Russian Revolution

    The Russian Revolution
    The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers marking Russia's exit from World War I.
  • Wilhelm II

    Wilhelm II
    Wilhelm II or William II (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; English: Frederick William Victor Albert) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918
  • The German Revolution

    The German Revolution
    The German Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was the politically driven civil conflict in Germany at the end of World War I, which resulted in the replacement of Germany's imperial government with a republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the formal establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919
  • The Beer Hall Putsch

    The Beer Hall Putsch
    The Beer Hall Putsch (also known as the Munich Putsch [1] German: Hitlerputsch or German: Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch) was a failed attempt at revolution that occurred between the evening of 8 November and the early afternoon of 9 November 1923, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler
  • Friedrich Ebert

    Friedrich Ebert
    Friedrich Ebert (February 4 1871 – February 28 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Deutschland (S.P.D.).After he was announced as the new President, the government intervened together with the army and right wing Freikorps against the leftist uprisings, which resulted in the death of several left politicians and ended the partnership of the S.P.D. in government with the Independent Social Democratic Party of Deutschland (U.S.P.D.).
  • German referendum, 1929

    German referendum, 1929
    A referendum was held in Germany on 22 December 1929.[1] It was a failed attempt to introduce a 'Law against the Enslavement of the German People'. The law, proposed by German nationalists, would formally renounce the Treaty of Versailles and make it a criminal offence for German officials to co-operate in the collecting of reparations. Although it was approved by 94.5% of voters, turnout was just 14.9%, whilst a turnout of 50% was necessary for it to pass
  • 1933 Elections

    1933 Elections
    Federal elections were held in Germany on 5 March 1933. The Nazis registered a large increase in votes, again emerging as the largest party by far. Nevertheless they failed to obtain an absolute majority in their own right, needing the votes of their coalition partner, the German National People's Party, for a working majority. Thanks to the success in the poll, party leader Adolf Hitler -
  • Hindenburg

    Von Hindenburg ( October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934.
  • 1936 Summer Olympic

    1936 Summer Olympic
    The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain
  • Austria was annexed into the German

    Austria was annexed into the German
    Austria was annexed into the German Third Reich on 12 March 1938. There had been several years of pressure by supporters from both Austria and Germany (by both Nazis and non-Nazis) for the "Heim ins Reich" movement. Earlier, Nazi Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party (Austrian Nazi Party) in its bid to seize power from Austria's Austrofascist leadership.
  • Munich Agreement

    Munich Agreement
    On 21 September, Czechoslovakia capitulated to accept the demand that were agreed upon by Britain, France, and Germany. The next day, however, Hitler added new demands, insisting that the claims of ethnic Germans in Poland and Hungary also be satisfied.
  • The Spanish Civil War

    The Spanish Civil War
    The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939. The war began after a pronunciamiento (declaration of opposition) by a group of generals under the leadership of José Sanjurjo against the elected government of the Second Spanish Republic, at the time under the leadership of President Manuel Azaña. The rebel coup was supported by a number of conservative groups including the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right
  • Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union

    Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union
    The aggreement gave Hitler the go ahead to invade Poland with impunity a week after the Soviets had gained the upper hand in the far east, and guaranteed Nazi Germany that they would not have to fight the USSR. In addition, the Pact assured a temporary non-involvement of the Soviet Union's participation in a European War
  • Period: to

    World War II

    World War II, or the Second World War (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved a vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units.
  • The Phoney War

    The Phoney War
    The Phoney War was a phase early in World War II that was marked by a lack of major military operations by the Western Allies against the German Reich. The phase was in the months following Britain and France's declaration of war on Germany (shortly after the German invasion of Poland) in September 1939 and preceding the Battle of France in May 1940.
  • Operation Barbarossa,

    Operation Barbarossa,
    Operation Barbarossa, or Case Barbarossa, was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during the Second World War.[17][18] Beginning on 22 June 1941, over 3.9 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a 2,900 km (1,800 mi) front,[19] the largest invasion in the history of warfare
  • The Normandy landing

    The Normandy landing
    The Normandy landings, codenamed Operation Neptune, were the landing operations of the Allied invasion of Normandy, in Operation Overlord, during World War II. The landings commenced on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 (D-Day), beginning at 6:30 am
  • The Battle of the Bulge

    The Battle of the Bulge
    The Battle of the Bulge (also known as the Ardennes Offensive and the Von Rundstedt Offensive to the Germans) (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive (die Ardennenoffensive), launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, and France and Luxembourg on the Western Front. The Wehrmacht's code name for the offensive was Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein ("Operation Watch on the Rhine"),
  • Adolf Hitler

    Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi German
  • Period: to

    Cold War

    The Cold War (often dated 1947–1991) was a sustained state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies
  • The Berlin Blockade

    The Berlin Blockade
    The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.
  • The Schuman Declaration

    The Schuman Declaration
    9 May 1950 was a governmental proposal by then-French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman to create a new form of organization of States in Europe called a supranational Community. Following the experiences of two world wars, France recognized that certain values such as justice could not be defined by the State apparatus alone. It involved far more than a technical Community to place the coal and steel industries of France, West Germany and other countries under a common High Authority.
  • The Berlin Wall

    The Berlin Wall
    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls
  • Konrad Adenauer

    Konrad Adenauer
    Konrad Adenauer( 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman. As Chancellor of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963, he led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that forged close relations with old enemies France and the United States. In his years in power Germany achieved prosperity, democracy, stability and respect He was the first chancellor (head of government) of the Federal Republic of Germany
  • Ludwig Wilhelm Erhar

    Ludwig Wilhelm Erhar
    Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard 4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. He is notable for his leading role in German postwar economic reform and economic recovery ("Wirtschaftswunder", German for "economic miracle"), particularly in his role as Minister of Economics under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in 1949 to his own ascension to the Chancellorship in 1963.
  • Kurt Georg Kiesinge

    Kurt Georg Kiesinge
    Kurt Georg Kiesinger 6 April 1904–9 March 1988) was a German politician affiliated with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). He was Chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October 1969.
  • Willy Brandt

    Willy Brandt
    Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman and politician, leader of the German Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or SPD) from 1964 to 1987, and chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1969 to 1974. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1971 for his efforts to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of the Soviet bloc.
  • Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmid

    Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmid
    Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt born 23 December 1918) is a German Social Democratic politician who served as Chancellor of West Germany from 1974 to 1982. Prior to becoming chancellor, he had served as Minister of Defence and Minister of Finance
  • The Peaceful Revolution

    The Peaceful Revolution
    The Peaceful Revolution (German: Friedliche Revolution) was a series of peaceful political protests against the regime of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) of East Germany. The protests, which included an emigration movement as well as street demonstrations, were a case of nonviolent resistance, also often called civil resistance.The events were part of the Revolutions of 1989.
  • Berlin Wall Falls

    Berlin Wall Falls
    Wall fell is considered to have been 9 November 1989 but the Wall in its entirety was not torn down immediately. Starting that evening and in the days and weeks that followed, people came to the wall with sledgehammers or otherwise hammers and chisels to chip off souvenirs, demolishing lengthy parts of it in the process and creating several unofficial border crossings. These people were nicknamed "Mauerspechte" (wall woodpeckers).
  • East Germany

    East Germany
    a socialist state established by the USSR in 1949 out of the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city. The GDR had an area of 107,771 km2 (41,610 mi2), bordering Czechoslovakia to the south, West Germany to the south and west, Poland to the east, and the Baltic Sea to the north. East Germany ceased to exist when its federal states were re-established and acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany on on 3 October 1990
  • Helmut Josef Michael Kohl

    Helmut Josef Michael Kohl
    Helmut Josef Michael Kohl ( born 3 April 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany between 1982 and 1990 and of the reunited Germany between 1990 and 1998)
  • Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder

    Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder
    Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), he led a coalition government of the SPD and the Greens
  • Angela Merkel

    Angela Merkel
    Angela Dorothea Merkel (born 17 July 1954) is the Chancellor of Germany and Chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU).[2] Merkel is the first female Chancellor of Germany.
  • Treaty of Verdun

    Treaty of Verdun
    The mighty Carolingian empire, with its great history of skillful rulers, was divided by the Treaty of Verdun Its rise was begun by Pepin of Herstal and his son, Charles Martel. Their family gained power during the demise of the Merovingian Dynasty. During this time, Pepin of Herstal, Charles Martel, and his grandson, Pepin the Short, became the most powerful men in the Frankish state. In 751 AD, Pepin the Short disposed of the reigning Merovingian king and became the king of the Franks. He
  • Charlemagne

    CharlemagnevideoCharlemagne (742 or 747 – January 28, 814) video (also Charles the Great [1]; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 C.E. to 814 C.E. . He was crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III and is therefore regarded as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire (as Charles I).
  • Formation of the duchies of Franconia, Saxony, Bavaria and Lorraine

    Formation of the duchies of Franconia, Saxony, Bavaria and Lorraine
    duchies, these entities were not defined by strict administrative boundaries but by the area of settlement of major Germanic tribes. Their dukes were neither royal administrators nor territorial lords. The Saxon, Bavarian, Thuringians, Frankish and Alamannian territories became Saxony, Bavaria, Thuringia, Franconia and Swabia respectively.
  • Conrad I

    Conrad I
    Though Conrad never used the title rex Teutonicorum ("king of the Germans") nor rex Romanorum ("King of the Romans"), he was the first king of East Francia who was elected by the rulers of the German stem duchies as successor of the last Carolingian ruler Louis the Child. His Kingdom of Germany evolved into the Holy Roman Empire upon the coronation of Emperor Otto I in 962.
  • Otto the Great

    Otto the Great
    Otto the Great, was the founder of the Holy Roman Empire, reigning from 936 until his death in 973. The oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, Otto was "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy
  • Otto defeated the Magyars

    Otto defeated the Magyars
    The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955), often seen as the defining event for holding off the incursions of the Hungarians into Western Europe, was a decisive victory by Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, over the Hungarian leaders
  • Charles the Fat

    Charles the Fat
    Charles the Fat[1] (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles III, was the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888. The youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, Charles was a great-grandson of Charlemagne and was the last Emperor to rule over a united Empire.

    Over his lifetime, Charles became ruler of the various kingdoms of Charlemagne's former Empire.
  • Arnulf of Carinthia

    Arnulf of Carinthia
    Arnulf of Carinthia (850 – 8 December 899) was the Carolingian King of East Francia[1] from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from 22 February 896 until his death.
  • Childebert II

    Childebert II
    Childebert II (570–95) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia, which included Provence at the time, from 575 until his death in 595, the eldest and succeeding son of Sigebert I, and the king of Burgundy from 592 to his death, as the adopted and succeeding son of his uncle Guntram.
  • Dagobert II

    Dagobert II
    Dagobert II (c. 650 – December 23, 679) was the king of Austrasia (676–79), the son of Sigebert III and Chimnechild of Burgundy. He is also accounted a saint by the Roman Catholic Church; his feast day is 23 December
  • Pepin

    Pepin died 24 September 768), called the Younger, was the first King of the Franks (752–768) of the Carolingian dynasty. In 741 he and his brother Carloman succeeded their father, Charles Martel, as mayors of the palace and de facto rulers of the kingdom during an interregnum
  • Charles the Bald

    Charles the Bald
    Charles the Bald[ (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II) and King of West Francia (840–877, as Charles II, with the borders of his land defined by the Treaty of Verdun, 843), was the youngest son of the Emperor Louis the Pious by his second wife Judith.
  • Louis the Pious

    Louis the Pious
    Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire,[1] was the King of Aquitaine from 781. He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne and Hildegard, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed.
  • Henry I the Fowler

    Henry I the Fowler
    Henry I the Fowler (876 – 2 July 936) was the Duke of Saxony from 912 and German king from 919 until his death. First of the Ottonian Dynasty of German kings and emperors, he is generally considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler"because he was allegedly fixing his birding nets when messengers arri
  • Louis the German

    Louis the German
    Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (806 – 28 August 876), also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian, was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.
    He received the appellation 'Germanicus' shortly after his death in recognition of the fact that the bulk of his territory had been in the former Germania.
  • Louis the Younger

    Louis the Younger
    Louis the Younger (835 – 20 January 882), sometimes Louis III, was the second eldest of the three sons of Louis the German and Emma. He succeeded his father as the King of Saxony on 28 August 876 and his elder brother Carloman as King of Bavaria from 880. He died in 882 and was succeeded in all his territories, which encompassed most of East Francia, by his younger brother, Charles the Fat, already King of Italy and Emperor.
  • Louis the Child

    Louis the Child
    Louis the Child (893 – 20 or 24 September 911), sometimes called Louis IV or Louis III,[1] was the last Carolingian ruler of East Francia. Louis was the only legitimate son of the Emperor Arnulf and his wife, Ota, a member of the Conradine Dynasty. He was born in September or October 893, in Altötting, Bavaria. He succeeded his father as king upon the latter's death in 899, when he was only six. During his reign, the country was ravaged by Magyar raids.
  • Period: to Aug 14, 1024

    The Saxon Dynasty

    The Saxon DynastyThe founder of the dynasty was Henry I, who ruled from 919 to 936. Otto I ruled from 936 to 973 and became emperor in 962. Otto II ruled from 973 to 983, and Otto III from 983 to 1002. With the death of Otto III, the direct line of the dynasty came to an end, and the Bavarian duke Henry, a member of a collateral line, became king. He ruled as Henry II from 1002 to 1024. When Henry died, the Saxon dynasty was replaced by the Franconian dynasty.