Bjarni Herjolfsson was the first to see Canada. Bjarni was also likely the first European to visit Canada, and his discovery led to a short Norse colonization of Newfoundland.
First Nations Confederacies
Many First Nations group start to form confederacies and councils around this time. The date is an estimation, the official date is not specifically known.
Jun 24, 1497
First European sightings of Canada
John Cabot was the first European known to have reached Canada. He landed somewhere in Newfoundland.
Jacques Cartier finds Prince Edward Island
After discovery, It was first named Isle St. Jean, then was ignored by the french for 2 centuries.
Jul 24, 1534
Jacques Cartier Lands at Gaspé
Jacques Cartier was one of the first Europeans to enter the gulf of the St. Lawrence River.
Diseases start killing First Nations people.
Around 1600, Northern diseases such as smallpox, tuberculosis, measles, etc. spread around Canada, either intentionally or unintentionally.
First trade alliance between the Europeans and the First Nations people
Champlain formed a trading and military alliance with the Algonquin, Montagnais and Maleseet nations. He promised to send forces to help them defeat the Iroquois but also offered to help them make peace with their enemies.
First European settlers come to Canada
The first European settlement was built in Canada, Nova Scotia. To be more precise, Port-Royal, Acadia.
Founding of Quebec City
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain became the first person to build a fortress and claim land in what is now known as "Quebec City"
Champlain Explores Haudenosaunee Country
After entering the Haudenosaunee Country, he paddled up Rivière des Iroquois and reaching a great lake that was named after him. Only 2 days later, Champlain and his First Nations allies battled the Haudenosaunee on Lake Champlain, beginning 150 years of war between Iroquois and French.
First Missionaries come to Canada
Jesuits (Officially the company of Jesus) first come to New France as missionaries in hopes of converting first nations people to Catholicism. They were one of the first missionaries to come to Canada.
Covenant Chain agreements are established.
The Two-Row Wampum establishes the Covenant Chain, a series of agreements between the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and European representatives.
Haudenosaunee people defeat the Wendake.
After the Huron-Wendat homeland was weakened by diseases and illnesses brought by the french, the Wendake was destroyed by the Haudenosaunee.
Creation of Hudson's Bay and Claiming of Rupert's Land
King Charles II created the Hudson’s Bay Company and claimed all the land around Hudson Bay and the rivers that flowed into the bay. With this new land, The English began setting up trading posts, which allowed them to compete with the French for fur in the fur trading business.
First sightings of Niagara Falls
The first European to see the view of Niagara Falls was the French explorer, Louis Hennepin.
King William's War
There were two reasons that this war happened. 1. The treaties and agreements reached at the end of King Philip’s War (1675–1678) were not listened to and followed. 2. The French and English were fighting over control of the fur trade in North America.
The Great Peace
France and 40 first nations signed a peace treaty that ended all war and conflict at that time.
Great Peace of Montreal
Three dozen(36) Indigenous groups and the French colonial government sign the Great Peace of Montréal, A peace treaty that ended almost a century's worth of war between the Haudenosaunee and the French with their indigenous allies
Queen Anne's war
"British military aid to the colonists was devoted mainly to defence of the area around Charleston, S.C., and the exposed New York–New England frontier with Canada. English settlements were subject to brutal raids by French forces and their Indian allies." - Britannica
Signing of the Treaty of Utrecht
The Treaty of Utrecht is a peace agreement which was signed in 1713 between France and Great Britain to end Queen Anne's war.