Renaissance- Kevin 8-1

Timeline created by KevinFromDGS
In History
  • 1296

    Brunelleschi Starts Building Florence Cathedral Dome

    Brunelleschi Starts Building Florence Cathedral Dome
    At the time, Brunelleschi was an amateur, he did not have any training with building, certainly not with the biggest dome in the world. The dome is built on Santa Maria Del Flore, third largest church in the world. The dome is composed of two layers, one from wood, another from rocks. The planning of this dome is composed of maths way more advanced than their time, a revolutionary​ bookmark that reflects the genius of Italy.
  • 1300

    Renaissance Starts

    Renaissance Starts
    The Renaissance, meaning rebirth, is the time between the 14th century and 17th century when ideas are reborn from the classical period. The Renaissance is the end to Europe's dark ages, when information was unknown to most of the people. The Renaissance began with the printing press, which allowed people to share information in a cheap and efficient way, ending the ignorant world. The Renaissance connects the dark ages and modernity as many of the technologies we use today come from that time.
  • Jul 20, 1304

    Birth of Francesco Petrarch

    Birth of Francesco Petrarch
    Francesco Petrarch is the father of humanism, a belief regarding to the values of humans, individually and collectively. Before his time, arts are based on the phenomenon of the natural universe, but after his time, arts were usually based on human characteristics and emotions. Petrarch was a scholar and a poet in Florence, whose most important works are the "Canzoniere" and the "Trionfi".
  • 1337

    Hundred Years' War

    Hundred Years' War
    The Hundred Years' War was fought between the House of Plantagenet(England) against the House of Valois(French) over the right to rule France. Though the duchy of Guyenne belonged to England, it remained in control of France. The French have more military infants, but ​England's army is more strategetic and more disciplined.
  • 1386

    Donatello

    Donatello
    Donatello is the second greatest Florentine sculptor after Michelangelo. His works are based on the Gothic style, he also sculpted highly emotional sculptures only inches behind of Michelangelo's "David". Donatello also created a less-famous David in 1408, it reflected the influence of sculptors​ at the time.
  • Sep 27, 1389

    Cosimo De Medici

    Cosimo De Medici
    Also known as "Father of the Fatherland", he was a famous Italian banker and politician. He is the first member of the Medici political family and served as a ruler of Florence. Much of his wealth came from his dad, Giovanni de' Medici, as the death will. He revolutionized the Renaissance and started a new dynasty.
  • 1400

    Rise of Florence

    Rise of Florence
    The Rise of Florence is a significant event in Italian history as that is when the Renaissance started in Italy. The Medici family fused it by bringing humanism, wealth, and happiness to the citizens. It also made wealth by the wool trade with China along the silk road. Signs of the Florence Renaissance include arts that are based on humans instead of god, church, and sculpture of famous god(usually nude).
  • 1400

    Rise of Rome

    Rise of Rome
    The Rise of Rome started with the Roman empire capturing many small cities of Italy. This is the second uprising of Rome after Julius Ceaser's victory of the Battle of Pharsalus. During this time, the military expansion drove economic development, which brought back enslaved people back to Rome. The hierarchy was also established, with patricians at the top and the plebeians at the bottom. The Senate was also established. Many people, including me, see​ this as the main turning point in history.
  • Jan 6, 1412

    Joan of Arc

    Joan of Arc
    Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is known as a hero for France during the Lancastrian war(third and final war of The Hundreds' war. She was captured by Anglo-Burgundian and also was assumed of being a witch during the witch trials.
  • 1415

    Brunelleschi Invents Perspectives

    Brunelleschi Invents Perspectives
    Filipino Brunelleschi is the person to recognize and integrate one point linear perspective into fine arts. linear perspective uses multiple orthogonal lines and converges them to a single point to create the close-small far-big effect. This technique could​ be seen through St. George Killing the Dragon and The Holy Trinity.
  • Oct 14, 1420

    Tomás de Torquemada

    Tomás de Torquemada
    Tomás de Torquemada is the first grand inquisitor along with the Spanish Inquisition to spread Catholicism. Torquemada influenced the decision of Ferdinand and Isabella to expel all Jews who aren't Catholic, meaning he was responsible for around 2,000 deaths. He is a Dominican friar(a member of the mendicant orders) who had a close relationship with Princess​ Isabela the First.
  • 1428

    Aztec Civilization Started

    Aztec Civilization Started
    The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican group based on three different locations, also known as a triple alliance: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan. The city of Tenochtitlan held the most military power. In Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs built the temple of the sun and moon, which was where the emperor lived. In order to worship the gods, the Aztecs have to sacrifice someone every day and cut open their body to extract their heart and blood to feed to the god. They believed that without blood, crops won't grow.
  • Oct 12, 1428

    Siege of Orléans

    Siege of Orléans
    The Siege of Orleans is the first major turning point of the Hundred Years' war between France and England. It is the first major victory the French won and the first time Joan of Arc was with the army. The siege was begun by Thomas de Montacute. After the English conquest of Maine, the border between France and England was blurred, so Thomas wanted to form a precise border by winning the land with John Talbot​ of English earl of Shrewsbury.
  • 1434

    Medici Family becomes Head of Florence

    Medici Family becomes Head of Florence
    Giovanni de Medici first bought the family into power by starting a bank and becoming the leader of Florence merchants. They were the wealthiest family during the 15th century in Europe. Cosimo de Medici, his son, became the leader of Florence in 1434. The Medici family was best known for patronaging arts, funding arts, which was an art revolution as artists could paint now without having to worry about money. They supported painters like Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, and Leonardo de Vinci.
  • 1439

    Johannes Gutenberg Invented The Printing Press

    Johannes Gutenberg Invented The Printing Press
    The invention of the printing press brought a revolution in society by bringing knowledge to the public. The printing press allowed knowledge and ideas to be mass-produced at affordable costs. Some would argue this was the starting of the Renaissance as it is when ideas were spread out in public and was influenced by everywhere in the whole Europe. This is also when the dark ages end as now, the public has control of knowledge and they stopped living under the darkness of government influence.
  • 1444

    Diego Deza

    Diego Deza
    Diego Deza was a theologian and inquisitor of Spain. He was the second grand inquisitor during the Spanish Inquisition after Tomás de Torquemada. He was a strong supporter of Christopher Columbus. He is an​ Archbishop, a high ranking Christian officer.
  • Apr 22, 1451

    Reign of Isabella de Castilla

    Reign of Isabella de Castilla
    Isabella became the head of Castilla in 1451. During the first 4 years of her term, she had to fight a civil war to keep her throne. Her most important establishment along with Ferdinand II of Aragon was the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition in 1478.
  • Mar 10, 1452

    Ferdinand II of Aragon

    Ferdinand II of Aragon
    Ferdinand II of Aragon was the king of Aragon from 1469 to 1516. He was best known for uniting the Spanish city-states into the kingdom of Spain. He also supported Columbus's expedition by funding him. He was married to the queen of Castile, Isabella, a powerful city-state located on the Iberian​ peninsula.
  • May 29, 1453

    Fall of Byzantine Empire

    Fall of Byzantine Empire
    The fall of Constantinople was the defeat of the Byzantine Empire(western Rome) by Mehmed the Conqueror. In the night of May 29, 1453, the Ottoman Turks stormed Constantinople under the reign of Constantine XI. After the defeat, Mehmed proudly rose above the Hagia Sophia, a famous Christian​ cathedral.
  • Oct 22, 1454

    Gutenberg Bible

    Gutenberg Bible
    The origin language of the Gutenberg Bible is Latin. It marked the Gutenberg Revolution, which is the mass production of books in western societies. Printed by the Gutenberg printing press, it is the first book to ever be mass produced and to spread ideas among Europe and the western cultures. It was important because it is the first time ever that more people gained access to knowledge and the first time ideas were spread all over the world instead of just a small area.
  • May 22, 1455

    Wars of the Roses

    Wars of the Roses
    The Wars of the Roses was a war that fought to decide the keeper of the throne of England, it was fought between the house of Lancaster and the house of york. Henry VII, Earl of Richmond and a Lancastrian defeated the York leader, Richard III. This series of battles had a ​significant impact on England as the way people looked at the government had changed drastically. The Game of Thrones is based on this war.
  • 1466

    Birth of Erasmus of Rotterdam

    Birth of Erasmus of Rotterdam
    Formally called Desiderius Erasmus, Erasmus of Rotterdam was a Dutch​ Christian humanist who is the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance. He was the first editor of the New Testament, and an important figure in patristics and classical literature. He was also a great supporter of the Reformation, which was expressed both in the protestant reformation and the Catholic counter-reformation.
  • May 3, 1469

    Birth of Machiavelli

    Birth of Machiavelli
    Machiavelli is the most influential political person to the city of Florence during his time. He wrote many great books, such as "The Prince", "The Art of War", and "Discourses on Livy". He was the first person to believe​ that in order for a government to have control, fear or love must take place, and so the ultimate winner is fear. He was against the Medici family, so when Cosimo de Medici returned to the city after being exiled, he tortured Machiavelli badly.
  • 1473

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    During the 70 years of scientific revolution, many great scientific observations are made that still applies to our modern day community. Galileo made advancements in astronomy, like viewing the moon and inventing the telescope. Copernicus thought of a heliocentric solar system rather than a geocentric solar system.
  • Feb 19, 1473

    Birth of Copernicus

    Birth of Copernicus
    Copernicus is the greatest astronomer​ in history, he was the first person that known the solar system is heliocentric, that is, the sun in the middle of the solar system, with proof. He also discovered apparent retrograde motion(ARM), which is the motion of a planet opposite to the other planets in the system, for example, the spin of Uranus.
  • 1485

    The Birth of Venus

    The Birth of Venus
    The Birth of Venus is a painting made by Sandro Botticelli in the mid-1485. The art shows Venus arriving at the shore after her birth. It is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. With a dimension of 1.72m*2.78m, it took Botticelli years to make this art. It is an​ important revolution in humanism and renaissance because it is one of the first time nudity came to art, before, Christian inspiration dominated many arts, but nudity was a break to Christian domination and the birth to humanism.
  • Aug 22, 1485

    Henry Vll Becomes King

    Henry Vll Becomes King
    After the victory of the Wars of the Roses, many people saw Henry VII as a god figure, therefore choosing him to be the king of England during the late 15th century. He was significant because he is the first monarch of the House of Tudor. Before he was the king of England, he was the Lord​ of Ireland.
  • 1490

    Vitruvian Man

    Vitruvian Man
    The Vitruvian Man is one of the greatest artworks Leonardo de Vinci made. It was "the perfect man", with the perfect proportions and ratios between his parts. The art was made from the notes of Vitruvius, a 1st century BCE Roman architect. The main reason for making this art is to solve the same-area square and circle problem. He realized that since the arm span is the same as the height, a square would be the same area as the circle drawn around the same man, "solving" the century problem.
  • 1492

    Crusades End

    Crusades End
    The initiation of the Crusade is a speech made by Pope Urban II. The crusades were a series of battles fought between Christians and Moslems around the city of Jeruselum. The effects of it were that it increased the authorities of the king, before, kings were likely just a model, but after the crusades, Catholic kings were like their dads, they had to respect and listen to the king.
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columbus Set Sail

    Columbus Set Sail
    Christopher Columbus set sail off the coast of Spanish in the port of Palos on August 3, 1492, in search for a trade route to India. He believed that the earth was round, and so he went westward as eastwards will have the wrong wind and the border had to cost him a lot of money. Though what he thought was Asia, it was a whole different continent, the Americas! King Ferdinand and Isabella funded the trip along with the Nina, the Pinta, ​and the Santa Maria.
  • 1495

    The Last Supper

    The Last Supper
    The last supper is one of the western world's most recognizable painting. It is made by Leonardo de Vinci in the late 15th century. The scene shows the apostles, Jesus' friends eating Jesus' last supper before he got crucified by the betrayer, Judas. To today, this painting is stored by the Convent of Santa Maria Delle Grazie in Milan, Italy at its finest refractory​.
  • Jul 8, 1497

    Vasco da Gama's expedition

    Vasco da Gama's expedition
    Vasco da Gama's expedition was the first expedition that helped ​entire Europe find a trade route to India. He was the first person to reach India by sea from Europe. This new discovery leads Portugal to remain in contact with Asia and Africa, preventing isolation. When he set out, his two main goals are to establish a spice trade for money and to conquer and be the king of Jerusalem. He was funded and appointed by the Portuguese government to seek a trade route by sea to India​ for trade.
  • 1501

    Sculpture of David Began(Michelangelo)

    Sculpture of David Began(Michelangelo)
    David is the most famous work by Michelangelo. It is a revolution in arts, as in before, nudity is banned by the Catholic church, and all the arts focused on the gods and religious figures, but after this art, it opened the door to nudity and humanism(arts in which focused on humans instead of religious figures). The art is funded by Cosimo de Medici. David, a young shepherd boy, fought confidently against the big Goliath, and still won. This shows courage and confidence to Florentine people.
  • 1503

    Mona Lisa

    Mona Lisa
    Mona Lisa is the most visited painting in the world. No arts could have the level of intensity and detail as of the Mona Lisa. The painting is not famous during Vinci's time, but things happened that allowed this art to be famous. Napoleon put this art in his bedroom because she looked so beautiful to him. Picasso was suspected of stealing this art, and it's these two things that gave it fame. Some would say hidden messages in her eye, but in reality, it is just one of Vinci's small painting.
  • 1508

    Michelangelo paints Ceiling of Sistine Chapel

    Michelangelo paints Ceiling of Sistine Chapel
    The ceiling of Sistine Chapel is painted by Michelangelo. The ceiling is painted at the commission of Pope Julius II. There are 9 panels on the ceiling, the most famous include the last judgment and the creation of Adam. The 9 panels are about the 9 most important things that happened in the Bible, which revolutionized the story of the bible. The 9 events are taken from "The Book of Genesis". This ceiling took Michelangelo 4 years, from 1508 to 1512.
  • 1509

    Henry Vlll Becomes King

    Henry Vlll Becomes King
    Henry VIII was the king of England from 1509 to his death in 1547. He married 6 times and was best known for marrying to the Catherine of Aragon. He succeeded his father Henry VII, becoming the second Tudor monarch of England. He was best known for marrying many wives and deciding to execute the majority of them. He brought England into the Protestant Reformation.
  • 1509

    Raphael paints The School of Athens

    Raphael paints The School of Athens
    Raphael, along with Da Vinci and Michelangelo, was one of the great 3 artists during the Renaissance. His most famous work, The School of Athens shows many influential thinkers living at different times all coming to under one roof to share their knowledge. In the middle, Aristotle and Plato are talking. Aristotle talked about reality is what we can sense, while Plato was talking about true reality is eternal and unchanging, the ​reality is just a shadow.
  • 1516

    Thomas More Publishes Utopia

    Thomas More Publishes Utopia
    Utopia is similar to George Orwell's 'Animal Farm', it states Europe's political disruption at his time without directly mentioning it. was Europe during the 16th century. It also criticized Europe's religious hypocrisy. The book contrasts the idea of utopia, a perfect society where this is no competition, to the state of Europe. Utopia also promotes the idea of humanism, as Thomas More is a humanist.
  • May 31, 1517

    Martin Luther posts 95 Theses

    Martin Luther posts 95 Theses
    The "Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences"(also known as ninety-five theses) was a book that was nailed to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church. It explains the idea of integrating rather than accusing, providing the fundamental principals of our modern day societies. The book is also the underlying symbolic foundation of the Protestant Reformation, some would even say the book started the Reformation of the Christian faith.
  • 1519

    Ferdinand Magellan Begins Voyage

    Ferdinand Magellan Begins Voyage
    Ferdinand Magellan is a Portuguese explorer, he lead the Spanish expeditions from 1519 to 1522 when he died of stabbing when combating native tribes on Mactan, Philippines. His sailors are the first people to fully circumnavigate the whole Earth, although he died halfway through the journey. The original intention of this expedition was to find a trade route to the rich spice islands of Indonesia.
  • 1519

    Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire

    Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire
  • 1526

    Ottoman-Habsburg Wars

    Ottoman-Habsburg Wars
    This war was a significant event in history. Before this war, the Ottoman empire was expanding at an alarming rate and was going to take over Europe soon like Julius Caesar, but after this war, it resulted in the ending of the Ottoman expansion. This war is fought between the Ottoman empire and the Habsburg monarchy, which is supported by the holy romans.
  • May 6, 1527

    Sack of Rome

    Sack of Rome
    The Sack of Rome was carried out by the league of cognac because they were angry that they were paid too less. The walls of Rome were poorly defended at the time. This event humiliated Pope Clement VII badly.
  • 1532

    The Prince Published

    The Prince Published
    The Prince is one of the most influential political books in history that revolutionised the way the government should rule a just government. In it, machiavelli wrote “it is much safer to be feared than loved because ...love is preserved by the link of obligation which, owing to the baseness of men, is broken at every opportunity for their advantage; but fear preserves you by a dread of punishment which never fails.” The book also mentions a ruler's intelligence shapes the men around him.
  • 1533

    Ivan the Terrible Becomes Prince

    Ivan the Terrible Becomes Prince
    Ivan the Terrible is the first grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547. He is also the first Tsar, which is an emperor of Russia before the Russian revolution(1917). He imposed a military dominance in the country and established many conquests during his lifetime.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Schmalkaldic League. It was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was better than the other by fighting wars, but both nations wanted to end this and agree on that two religions are the same and no religion is to be better than the other.
  • 1558

    Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England

    Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England
    Elizabeth I is the queen of England and Ireland, she was the last of the five monarchs in the house of Tudor. She was famous as her reign is during the golden times, which is when England was in peace and prosperity. She encouraged people and promoted the golden age even further.
  • 1562

    French Wars of Religion

    French Wars of Religion
    The French Wars of Religion was a religious dispute between the Roman Catholics and the Huguenots of France. This war is sparked by the massacre of Vassy.
  • 1564

    Birth of Galileo Galilei

    Birth of Galileo Galilei
    Galileo Galilei was an Italian polymath mastering in astronomy, physics and engineering. He invented the telescope, which allowed us to observe our universe and objects farther than our eye limitations. He opened the gateway to modern day astronomy, scientific method, physics, and science. His most famous work was the work on Jupiter in which he discovered that Jupiter also have moons, Io, Europa, and Ganymede, and Callisto. He also discovered the rings of Saturn.
  • Apr 26, 1564

    Birth of William Shakespeare

    Birth of William Shakespeare
    William Shakespeare was the greatest writer, poet, and playwright in history. He wrote so many great plays, like Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and Hamlet, all of which are about the distinction between love and greed. His plays are around 4 categories: the comedies, the histories, the tragedies, and the romances. He revolutionised English plays by making a significant contribution to sharing stories through plays and dramas.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre is a very important event that was the turning point of the French wars of religion. A group of Catholic mob turned up and killed many Huguenots. Catherine de Medici(King Charles IX of France's mother) organized this event.
  • Spanish Armada defeated by the English

    Spanish Armada defeated by the English
    The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English under the general Sir Francis Drake. The Spanish Armada was lead by Duke of Medina Sidonia with a fleet of 130 ships to invade England. Surprisingly though, the English were able to defend themselves​ and defeat the "invincible" Spanish Armada.
  • Edict of Nantes Signed

    Edict of Nantes Signed
    The Edict of Nantes was signed by King Henry IV of France, it granted Calvinists protestants rights to France. The general purpose of this treaty, though, is to promote civil unity. This treaty ended the French wars of religions and settled "peace" between the Roman Catholics and the Huguenots​.
  • William Shakespeare builds the Globe Theatre

    William Shakespeare builds the Globe Theatre
    The Globe Theatre was built in London among with his friends and family. Unfortunately, since it is destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613 and destroued all the plays, nothing is recorded, meaning we have limited knowledge on how it's built and the events happening inside of it.
  • Samuel de Champlain Set Sail From France

    Samuel de Champlain Set Sail From France
    Samuel de Champlain is the first person to reach the modern day borders of Canada. Along with his fleet from France, he settled on modern-day Quebec city. Because he founded the civilization of Canada, he is known as "the founding father of New France."
  • Macbeth

    Macbeth
    Macbeth is a tragical book written by William Shakespeare first played in 1606 at Hampton Court, London. It is about many people hungry for power that will kill each other to claim the crown of Scotland. This shows how evil we can all be when power is involved.
  • Hamlet

    Hamlet
    Hamlet is another tragical play written by William Shakespeare first played in 1609. Instead of involving the king of Scottland, it now involves the Prince of Denmark. In the play, a ghost speaks to Hamlet, claiming to be his father's spirit.
  • Cogito, Ergo Sum Published

    Cogito, Ergo Sum Published
    Translated in English as the famous "I think, therefore I am", Cogito, Ergo Sum is published in 1637 by Renés Descartes. Descartes though "I am thinking, therefore I exist" because he could not prove that he doesn't exist if he thinks, and a living person thinks, so by parallel connection, the logic exists​ that if you can think, then you exist.
  • Issac Newton Born

    Issac Newton Born
    Issac Newton is the most influential physicist in history in my opinion. He discovered the 3 laws of motion and published them in his Principia in 1687. He invented Newton's method which uses the derivative of a function to calculate the tangent, which calculates the square root of an unknown number by Euler approximation. thirdly, he invented the reflecting telescope. And lastly, the most important invention, Calculus. He made enormous contributions to limits, functions, derivatives, integrals.
  • Impressionism

    Impressionism
    impressionism are arts made out of small brush strokes, open composition, and details of light.
  • Period:
    1347
    to

    Black Death

    Black death is a bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia mostly during the mid 14th century and killed over 50 million people(60% population of Europe at the time). It is caused by flee bites on human that bite infected rats previously. In comparison, percentage of people affected in today's world would be North America, South America, Asia, Europe combined. This destructed the work effort and the sense of safety within the citizens of the dark ages. Plague doctors arised from this situation.
  • Period:
    1476
    to
    1500

    The Age of Exploration

    The Age of Exploration is the time in history when Europe started using the ocean as the main navigation tool and started to seek out to the world to find trade routes to grow the economy. This was also the beginning of globalization, the theory in which people started to interrogate about the world as opposed to only their continent. This marked the end of social isolation, as everyone is competing with each other or looking out for each other, this allowed for technological advancements.
  • Period:
    Nov 1, 1478
    to

    Spanish Inquisition

    The Spanish Inquisition was a religious Catholic group established by King Ferdinand II and Isabella of Castille, with the help of Tomás de Torquemada. During this period in history, many people were burnt down in the streets. The main reason for this religious movement was to purify Catholicism and to eliminate heresy, the group that is opposed to the Christians. Gregory IX was the pope that also co-founded the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish Inquisition lasted as long as 700 years.
  • Period:
    1501
    to
    1550

    Protestant Reformation

    The Protestant Reformation was a time in history when the Catholics were challenged to define what it means to be a Catholics and to reform the practices they had before the renaissance. There is also the counter-protestant reformation, which is the other side of the Catholics, stating their rights and counteracting against the Catholics​ to crucify them.