B8 World History 1096-1867 By Alex Pratt Period: Jan 1, 1096 to Jan 1, 1291 Crusades are fought The beginning of the Crusades were fought over where Jesus may have lived and ministered. They took over most of the Mediterranean coast. Jan 1, 1300 Renaissance begins The Renaissance was a period when people focused on older culture. Art, music and lifestyle were all affected during this time. Jan 1, 1337 100 Years War begins The war started when King Phillip VI of France tries to conquer English territories in Southwest France. It is the longest military conflict in history. Jan 1, 1347 Black Death begins in Europe The Black Death was a plague that spread throughout Europe, originating in the Gobi Desert. It killed off 30-60% of Europe's population. Period: Jan 1, 1368 to Jan 1, 1644 Ming Dynasty in China It was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years. They mainly focused on punishment and prevention. Period: Jan 1, 1405 to Jan 1, 1433 Voyages of Zheng He Zheng He was a Chinese explorer during the Ming Dynasty. He died during or shortly after his seventh voyage. Jan 1, 1431 Joan of Arc burned at stake Joan of Arc was burned at the stake at only ninteen years of age in 1431. The charges against her were dismissed 25 years later and she was declared innocent. Jan 1, 1453 Ottomans conquer Constantinople The Ottomans were a group from the Turkish Empire. The battle lasted seven weeks. Jan 1, 1455 Johannes Gutenberg - printing press Johannes Gutenberg was a printer and publisher who introduced the printing press to Europe. His invention played a key role in the movement of the Renaissance. Jan 1, 1492 1st Voyage of Columbus Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer. Even though his first voyage was a failure, it is very significant to us today. Jan 1, 1492 Jews, gypsies and moors expelled from Spain When the king and queen issued the edict, about 200,000 jews were expelled from Spain. Thousands of people died while trying to leave. Jan 1, 1498 Da Gama lands in India Vasco da Gama left Portugal in 1497 and reached India in 1498. The Muslims did not like him and he had to fight to leave India. Period: Jan 1, 1500 to Jan 1, 1800 Slave trade across Atlantic Most of the slaves traded across the Atlantic were from Africa. The Portugese were the first to engage in the slave trade. Period: Jan 1, 1501 to Jan 1, 1722 Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire was the most significant Empire of Persia. They controlled most of Iran and its surrounding countries. Jan 1, 1502 Naming of the "new World" The New World is the name given to the Western hemisphere. It includes The Americas and Oceania. It was given the name "New World" in 1502. Period: Jan 1, 1503 to Jan 1, 1506 Da Vinci paints the "Mona Lisa" The painting is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gheradini. It has been on public display at The Louvre museum since 1797. Jan 1, 1508 Michaelangelo begins painting Sistene Chapel Michaelangelo began painting the Sistene Chapel in 1508 and finished in 1512. His amazing paintings have brought people to the chapel. Jan 1, 1517 Martin Luther posts 95 Theses The 95 Theses consisted of practices regarding baptism in the Catholic and Angelican church. It also speaks about indulgences and penance for sin. Jan 1, 1519 Magellan starts his "around the world" trip Ferdinand de Magellan finished his trip around 1522. It is said that he died during or shortly after his voyage. Jan 1, 1526 Mughal Empire begins The Mughal Empire ruled over 1,235,527 miles of Northern India. It began when the emperor Babur won the Battle of Panipat. Jan 1, 1534 Henry VIII founds Angelican Church Martin Luther's 95 Theses were nailed to the door of the church in Wittenburg in 1517. Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries and abbeys in 1536. Jan 1, 1537 Pizarro invades the Inca Empire Francisco Pizarro was born the son of a Spanish man and became a soldier in 1502. He eventually led an attack on the Inca Empire. He killed over 1,000 people. Jan 1, 1543 Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer. His theory stated that the Sun was at the center of the universe and all other planets spun around it. Period: Jan 1, 1545 to Jan 1, 1563 Council of Trent The Counci of Trent was one of the Roman Church's most important counsels. It made many changes that helped with the counter-reformation. Jan 1, 1558 Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England She was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. There have only been two Elizabeth queens in England. Jan 1, 1598 Philip II rules Spain He was the King of the Spainiards and the King of the Portuguese. He failed to stop the revolt of the Netherlands in 1566. Period: Jan 1, 1599 to Jan 1, 1658 Oliver Cromwell rules England Oliver Cromwell was an English miltitary and political leader. He has been a discussion of investigation and debate. Period: Jan 1, 1600 to Jan 1, 1792 Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment was a cultural movement that emphasized individualism. It questioned traditional customs and beliefs. Jan 1, 1607 Jamestown, colony in Virginia, founded It was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. It was swampy and marshy when it was first found. Jan 1, 1643 Louis XIV becomes King of France He is the longest ruling of any monarch in European history. He was succeeded by his five-year-old great grandson Louis XV. Jan 1, 1644 Qing Dynasty in China begins The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China. It is also the longest lasting dynasty in China, ending in 1912. Jan 1, 1651 Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathan Leviathan was a book written about society and legitimate goverment. He writes of the common wealth of succession, religion and taxation. Jan 1, 1682 Peter I (the Great) becomes Czar Peter the Great was the ruler of the Russian Empire. He was deemed as the most powerful and most successful ruler of the Russian Empire because of the expansions he made. Period: Jan 1, 1762 to Jan 1, 1796 Catherine the Great rules Russia She was claimed as a great ruler because she made Russia grow larger and stronger. It also helped them become recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. Jan 1, 1789 French Revolution begins Over 17,000 people were executed during the Reign of Terror in France. France's population dropped around this time. Jan 1, 1789 U.S. Constitution is ratified New Hampshire was the last state to ratify the Constitution. The U.S. Constitution is the oldest written constitution that is still used in the world. Jan 1, 1793 Reign of Terror begins The Reign of Terror was a time of violence after the French revolution. There were multiple people executed for being an "enemy of the revolution". Jan 1, 1804 Napoleon becomes Emperor Napoleon was the previous conqueror of Europe. He most likely died of a stomach flu in 1821 at 52 years of age. Jan 1, 1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo marked the end of his reign as French Emperor. He was exiled Saint Helena where he died from stomach cancer. Jan 1, 1867 Tokugawa Shogunate ends It was the last feudal Japanese military government. Each member was part of the Tokugawa clan.