European History

  • Period: Nov 21, 1400 to

    re emergence of serfdom in eastern europe

    Serfdom is the status of peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century.
  • Period: Sep 1, 1434 to Sep 1, 1494


    The domination of the Medici family in Florence.
  • Period: Sep 17, 1452 to Sep 17, 1519

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Was very important artist of the renaissance, painted the Mona Lisa
  • Sep 1, 1455

    Invention of moveable type

    Made by Gutenberg, Fust, and Schöffer, made printing various texts possible
  • Period: Sep 17, 1455 to Sep 17, 1471

    War of Roses

    Houses of York and Lancaster had a civil war that negatively affected trade agriculture and domestic industry
  • Period: Nov 21, 1462 to Nov 21, 1505

    reign of Ivan III

    expanded russia
  • Sep 1, 1492


    Ferdinand and Isabella completed the reconquista (The Reconquista is the name given to a long series of wars and battles between the Christian Kingdoms and the Muslim Moors for control of the Iberian Peninsula), but many Jews remained because they aided royal power
  • Oct 17, 1492


    Columbus reaches the Americas
  • Period: Sep 17, 1500 to


    Time of artistic achievements led by Florence and Rome
  • Sep 1, 1501


    Michelangelo creates the statue of David (out of David and Goliath) which symbolizes civic independence and resistance to oligarchical tyranny
  • Sep 17, 1513

    The Prince

    Short political treatise by Niccolò Machiavelli discussing political power, how the ruler should maintain, gain and increase (political power)
  • Sep 1, 1517

    95 theses

    Martin Luther creates 95 theses that opposed indulgences (which got him excommunicated)
  • Sep 17, 1521

    Peasant revolt

    Luther's beliefs made a social impact (on all social classes) which led to peasant revolts in 1525, which he did not approve of
  • Period: Nov 21, 1533 to

    reign of ivan the terrible

    was really mean, but expanded the land for russia
  • Period: Nov 21, 1540 to

    scientific revolution

    The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
  • Sep 18, 1544

    Education of women

    Merici establishes Ursuline order for education of women
  • Sep 17, 1555

    Church break away

    Much of Northern Europe broke away from the Roman Catholic Church but Protestantism spread and became popular
  • Nov 19, 1559

    Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis

    France and Spain signed treaty, which ended the long conflict known as the Habsburg Valois Wars where Spain won
  • Period: Nov 21, 1564 to

    Life of Galileo

    formulated the law of inertia
  • Period: Nov 21, 1571 to

    Life of Kepler

    best known for his laws of planetary motion
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St Bartholomew's day massacre

    marked the resumption of religious civil war in France.
  • Dutch east india co. founded

    main purpose was trade, exploration and colonization throughout the 17th and 18th centuries
  • Period: to

    The thirty years war

    Protestant bohemian revolt over religious freedom led to war in Germany,bohemians fought for religious liberty and independence from Habsburg rule
  • Period: to

    growth of absolutism in austria and prussia

    the idea of all the power of the state belongs to the monarch
  • Birth of French Academy

    An acedemy made for learning the french language
  • Period: to

    reign of frederick the great

    made the best militaristic states, conquered lands
  • Period: to

    Reign of Louis XIV

    allowed colbert to change frances economy
  • Period: to

    growth of atlantic economy

    bc slaves
  • Period: to

    British Navigation acts

    The introduction of the legislation caused Britain's shipping industry to develop in isolation.
  • Period: to

    Jean Baptiste Colbert mercantilism

    Colbert applied concepts of mercantilism to france, making it the leading nation of the world
  • Period: to

    cossack revolt led by razin

    a Cossack leader who led a major uprising against the nobility and Tsar's bureaucracy in South Russia
  • Period: to

    construction of baroque palaces

    a classic period for art that was very popular in eastern europe
  • edict of nantes revoked

    The Edict of Nantes of 1598, had granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state.
  • Period: to

    Glorious Revolution in England

    meant to overthrow king of england (James 2) with the dutch
  • Period: to


    a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.
  • Period: to

    growth of book publishing

    more common people could read nowadays
  • Period: to

    expansion of rural industry in europe

    w open field system
  • Period: to

    height of atlantic slave trade

    more work being done for less money (by slaves)
  • Period: to

    War of the Spanish Succession

    The war started with a surprising Austrian offensive by Prince Eugen in Italy in 1701 and an Anglo Dutch offensive on the lower Rhine and Meuse under Marlborough in 1702.
  • Peter the great founds St Petersburg

    became the new russian capital
  • Peace of Utrecht

    series of peace treaties that concluded the war of the war of the spanish succussion
  • Period: to

    growth of prussian military

    due to frederick the great
  • attendance at elementary schools mandatory in prussia

    frederick the great wanted the state of prussia to be elite above other states in knowledge too
  • Period: to

    rococo style in art and decoration

    was very popular with wealthy people and nobles
  • Period: to

    growth of european population

    due to sex out of marriage and more marriages
  • Period: to

    gov't-run foundling homes established

    where they would kill and take care of children
  • Period: to

    last of the bubonic plague in europe

    stemming back from the middle ages
  • Period: to

    reign of maria theresa in austria

    She was the only woman ruler in the 650 history of the Habsburg dynasty.
  • Period: to

    enlightened absolutists

    a political ideology that held that a monarch should have complete power
  • Period: to

    illegitimacy explosion

    The sharp increase in out-of-wedlock births
  • Period: to

    wesley preaches revival in england

    John Wesley was an Anglican divine and theologian who, with his brother Charles Wesley
  • Period: to

    rise of economic liberalism

    Economic liberalism is the ideological belief in organizing the economy on individualist lines, meaning that the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals and not by collective institutions or organizations.
  • Manual on the art of childbirth

    written by madame du coudray
  • Rousseau, the social contract

    the social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment
  • Period: to

    reign of catherine the great

    Under her reign, Russia expanded its territories and modernized,
  • Louis XV orders jesuits out of france

    the jesuits were followers of jesus who promoted his grace
  • Period: to

    american revolution

    America fought for their independence from england
  • Smith, Wealth of Nations

    the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith
  • Declaration of Pillnitz

    designed to assist the pro-royal faction in the revolutionry government against the republicans rather than threaten a war
  • Period: to

    Republic of Virtue

    period in french history marked by dominance of maximilien Robespierre. many proponents based by writings of jean-jaques rousseau, idea associated with dechristianization of france
  • French First Republic

    established bynational convention, reign of terror, founding of directory (govt of France during penulitimate stage of france)
  • Sept. Massacres

    A waves of killings in paris and other cities during the frendh revolution, fear that foreign armieswould attack Paris and the inmatesof the city's prisons would revolt and massacre the people
  • National Convention

    Proclaimed France a republic in 1792, purpose to provide a new constitution after the overthrow of monarchy
  • War of Austria

    Austria and Prussiawere not naturl allies given recent european history, but at pillnitz they reached agreement and put out a declaration.
  • Constitution of 1793

    June of 1793, committee produced a republican constitution,provided for universal male suffrage but was suspended indefinitely bc state of emergency, committee continued to govern using reason that govt would be "revolutionary Peace"
  • Execution of King Louis XVI

    executed by Guillotine, was taken to the place of execution (Place de Revolution) accompanied by a priest
  • Committee of Public Safety

    Established by Robespieree, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses, instigated the reign of terror
  • Jenner performs first smallpox first smallpox vaccination

    they would inject smallpox in people who were not infected
  • Napoleon

    Napoleon defeats austrian armies in italy and returns triumphant to paris.
  • Nap. seizes power

    Napoleon overthrows the directory and seizes power
  • Nap the emperor

    Nap crowns himself emperor
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Nap. defeats Austria and Russia at the battle of austerlitz
  • british slave trade abolished

    slave trading was baaaaaaaad
  • June 1812

    Napoleon invades russia with 600000 men retreating disastrously during the late fall and winter