Jan 1, 1300
- The Renaissance was a cultural movement that emphasized new styles (looked back to the Classics such as Greece and Rome and new beliefts (humanism, or the belief that humankind is the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor)
- The themes emphasized by the renaissance has significant bearing on politics and commerce. Capatilism became acceptable and more common, and ruling became based on and justified by ability to advance the general well-being rather than just being heriditary.
Jan 1, 1400
Technological and Maritime Revolutions in Europe
- New technological inventions helped to establish the new world in the Early Modern Period.
- Guns and Gunpowder were adapted from the Chineese and led to expansion comercailly and politcally.
- New Ship technology was introduced to Nothern Europe such as the deep-draft, round-hulled ships that helped drive expansion and increae maritime power.
- Lastly, Cartography impoved which aided accurate expansion and helped instigate commerce.
Jan 1, 1400
- Turkik people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s.
- Conquered large part of the Balkans and was unified under Mehmed I.
- Established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.
Jan 1, 1433
China's Withdraw from the World Economy
- After the fall of the Arab Caliphate in 1258 and the various disruptions caused by the Mongols, a new oppertunity for international leadership opened up.
- For a very short timeframe, Ming China emerged as the new international leader.
- They engaged in several state-sponsored naval expeditions from 1405 through 1433 led by admiral Zheng He.
- It seemed that China under the Ming dynasty had gained the position of world hegimony, but they withdrew from the world economy in 1433.
Jan 1, 1434
Portuguese Expeditions down the West Coast of Africa
- Portugal was the 1st Western European empire to engage in foreign exploration.
- The expeditions were initiated by Prince Henry the Naviagator. He aimed to gain commercial profit and spread Christianity.
Jan 1, 1441
Development of the Atlantic System
- The “Atlantic System” was a system in which the Atlantic Ocean became an “inland sea” between which the people, products, and ideas of Europe, Africa, and the Americas constantly moved.
- Africans played an essential role in this process primarily but not exclusively through the slave trade. The growing contacts between Europeans and Africans, primarily through the slave trade, linked the destiny of Africa to the broader external trends of an emerging World Economy.
Jan 1, 1450
Development of Transcontinental Trade Network (Inclusion of the Americas)
- Around 1450, international trade increased and the Americas was included in the world economy for the first time.
- This led to globalization (or as it was called at this time proto-globalization) as contacts increased and various regions of the world became more tied together culturally and economically.
Jan 1, 1450
- Cultural and intellectual movement of Nothern Europe.
- Began later than Italian Renaissance.
- Centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany.
- Greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.
Jan 1, 1450
Rule of Ivan III
- Ivan III, also known as Ivan the Great expanded and strengthened Tsarist rule.
- He claimed decent from Rurik; responisble for freeing Russia from the Mongols after 1462.
Jan 1, 1450
The Rise of Western Europe
- In the 15th centurty, Western Europe became the most dominant region.
- The modern period’s increased contacts led to more international trade. Thus, the region that dominated the new globalized trade network was seen as the global super power, and Western Europe capitalized after the fall of the Mongols and China’s withdraw from the global trade network.
- Western Europe seized control of the international trading routes through maritime power and new technology such as the compass.
Period: Jan 1, 1450 to
UNIT III: 1450-1750 C.E.Between 1450 and 1750 C.E. the eastern and western hemispheres were linked for the first time in world history through the process of globalization. The world trade network became truly global for the first time in history.
Mar 9, 1450
Emergence of the Janissary Troops
- The Janissaries were Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies.
- They forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans.
- Legally, they were slaves, yet they translated into political influence.
Jan 1, 1453
Conquest of Constantinople
- Mehmed II conquered Constantinople.
- He destroyed what remained of the Byzantine empire and then rebuilt Constantinople with Islamic influence after sacking it.
Mar 9, 1480
Freedom of Moscow
- Moscow region is finally freed from mongol control.
- Russian expansion presses south.
Jan 1, 1484
Bartolome de Las Casas (Indian Rights)
- Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies.
- He opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights.
Jan 1, 1488
Portuguese Round Cape of Good Hope
- In 1488, portugual rounded the Cape of Good Hope, or the southern tip of Africa.
- They rounded the Cape of Good Hope in an attempt to find a direct route to India.
Mar 8, 1488
Portuguese Dominance of the Indian Ocean Trade
- The portuguess captured the Indian Ocean trade system, or the old sea route of the previous era that was domined by the Arabs and Indians.
- They dominated this trade network through technological innovations such as gunnery and other superior weapons.
Jan 1, 1492
Columbus's First Expediton (Spain's First Involvement)
- Feeling threatened by the new Portuguesse holdings on trade, Spain engaged in attempts to find new routes to the east.
- Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand sponsored the voyages of Christopher Columbus as the first Spanish attempt at finding a route to the East.
- Columbus never made it to India, but he founded the America's, discovereing a new hemispher to Western Europe.
Mar 8, 1492
Establishment of the Great Circuit (Columbian Exchange)
- The Columbian Exchange was a trade wrote the connected the four continents of Noth America, South America, Europe, and Africa.
- The trade was typically conducted in a circuit.
- Europe provided domesticated animals (horse), and wheat to the Americas; Africa provided sugar cane, slaves, coffe, and fruit to the Americas (primarly slaves); and the Americas provided sweet potatoes, corn, cash crops to Europe and Aftica.
Mar 9, 1492
Fall of Granada
- 1492 marked the yar of the fall of Granada, the last Muslim kingdom of Spain.
Jan 1, 1494
Treaty of Tordesillas
- Treaty signed between Castille and Portugal.
- Clariffied spheres of influence and rights of possesion in the New World.
- Reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal.
- Granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain.
- Treaty signed between Castille and Portugal.
Jan 1, 1499
Development of Asain Sea Trading Network
- Tading network which consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; Indian zone based on cotton textiles; and China which was based on paper, porcelain, and silks.
Jan 1, 1500
- Trade and manufacturin gexpanded rapidly.
- A more commercial economy was developed.
Mar 9, 1500
First Printing Press
- Johannes Gutenberg was the first person to introduce movable type into Western Europe.
- He is credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamplets.
Mar 8, 1509
Colonial Expansion Under Vasco de Balboa
- Vasco de Balboa was the first Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509.
- This instigated further conquests of the Aztec and Inca empires by other captians.
Jan 1, 1514
Battle of Chaldiran
- Site of battle between safavids and Ottomans in 1514.
- Safavids were severly defeated by the Ottomans.
- This checked Westernm Advance of the Safavid empire.
Jan 1, 1517
95 Theses (Martin Luther)
- Martin Luther posted 95 reasons for wanting to split with the Catholic Church.
- He publicaly protested the Catholic Church's selling of indulgences.
- He announced that the state should control the church.
- He said that the bible should be translated into venacular so that the common people could read it.
Jan 1, 1517
- General wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church.
- Began with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs such as selling indulgences in 1517.
- Included various faiths that opposed the Catholic Church.
Jan 1, 1519
Claiming of the Philippines (Frist Circumnavigation of the Globe)
- Spanish captain Ferdinand Magellan circumnaviaged the globe for the first time in world history and allowed Spain to claim the Philippines.
Jan 1, 1519
Expeditons of Hernan Cortes
- Around 1519, Hernan Cortes marched to the Aztec capital of Tenochititlan and defeated the huge empire with only a few hundred soldiers with gunpowder and most importantly disease (small pox).
- The collapse of the Aztec empire brought large portions of mainland Mexico under Spanish control.
Mar 9, 1524
First Ruler of the Safavid's
- Isma'il was a sufi commander who conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501.
- He was the first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor.
Jan 1, 1526
- Established by Babur in India.
- The name is taken from the supposed Mongol desvent of Babur, but there is little indicatipon of any Mongol influence in the dynasty.
- Became weak after rule of Aruangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Mar 1, 1527
Life of Machiavelli
- Niccolo Machiavelli was one of the most influential authors of the Italian Renaissance.
- He is most widely known for his realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power in his works on political theory.
- He also bolstered realism with Greek and Roman examples; and based his works on the concept of humanism which is the focus on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor.
Mar 9, 1533
Life of Ivan IV
- Also known as Ivan the Terrible.
- Confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of the boyers.
- Contined his policy of Russian expansion.
Jan 1, 1534
French Reach Canada
- French explorers crossed the Atlantic first, reaching Canada, which they claimed.
- From Canada, the French engaged in various expeditions and pressed down from Canada into the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi Valley.
Jan 1, 1534
Church of England
- The Church of England (Anglican Church) was a form of protestantism set up in England after 1534.
- It was established by Henry VII with himself as head, at least in part ot obtain a divorce from his first wife.
- The Anglican Church became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death.
Jan 1, 1535
Conquests of Francisco Pizarro
- Francisco Pizarro led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535.
- By 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish.
Jan 1, 1541
The Birth of Calvanism
- Jean Calvin, a French Potestant, stressed the doctorine of predestination and created Calvanism.
- He established the center of this new branch of Christianity at the Swiss Cantin of Genevea.
- The faith ecouraged ideas of wider acces to government and wider public eduction.
Mar 9, 1543
Copernicus's Heliocentric Theory
- Copernicus discredited the belief that the Earth was the center of the universe.
- The heliocentric theory or the belief that the Earth is not the center of the universe but rather the sun is important because it set other scientific advances in motion and led to a new way of thinking.
Mar 9, 1545
- The Catholic Reformation was the restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to the Protestant Reformation.
- Established councils that revived Catholic doctirine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
Jan 1, 1556
Rule of Humayan-Son and successor of Babur, expelled from India in 1540, but restored Muhgal rule by 1556.
- he died shortly there after.
Mar 9, 1573
End of Ashikaga Shogunate
- Ashikaga Shogunate was a dynasty originating from one of the plethora of Japanese daimyo which governed Japan from 1338 to 1573, the year in which Oda Nobunaga deposed Ashikaga Yoshiaki from office and unified Japan. The heads of government were the shoguns. Each was a member of the Ashikaga clan.
Rule of Abbas the Great
- Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629.
- Extended Safavid domain to greatest extent and created slave regiments based on captured Russians who monopolized firearms with Safavid armies.
- Additionally, he incorporated Western Military technology.
Shift in Dynamism From Iberian Peninsula to Nothern Europe
- In 1588, the British defeated the massive Spanish Armada.
- From this point onward, the British, the Dutch, and the French gained hegimony over sea warfare.
- Reflected resentment against the poor and uncetainties about religous truth.
- Resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650.
- Common in protestant areas.
Japan's invasion of Korea
- Invasion launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering Joseon Dynasty Korea and Ming Dynasty China.
Edict of Nantes
- Grant of tolerance to Protestant in France in 1598.
- Granted only after lenghty civil war between Catholic and Protestant Fractions in France.
Politcal Change in Western Europe
- As feudalism declined in Western Europe, new political forms gained ground.
- Both absolute and parliamentry monachries emerged in Europe.
Dutch Settlement of the Southern Tip of Africa and the Indonesian Islands
- The Dutch sent many sailors and ships to Southeast Asia and Africa, and they obtained the Indonesian Islands and established a settlement on the southern tip of Africa in order to provide a relay station for its new East Indies trading empire.
- Like the English, and unlike the countries of the Iberian peninsula, colonization and colonial administration over government and commerce was conducted by a trading company known as the Dutch East India Company.
Tokugawa Shogunate established
- The Tokugawa Shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family.
Time of Troubles
- Followed the death of Russian Tsar Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century.
- Boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority.
- Ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
Rule of Akbar
- Son and successor of Humayan.
- Oversaw the building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India.
- Pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes.
- Attempted to create new religon to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
English Settlement of Noth AmericaBeggining in 1607, the British colonized the East Coast of North America.
- They differed from most others in their explorations by establishing companies to control their colonization.
- These companies, such as the British East India Trading Company, held monopoly over the trade and conducted in political rulings of the areas they were assigned to by Britain.
Christianity Banned in Japan
- During the early part of the 17th century, the shogunate suspected that foreign traders and missionaries were actually forerunners of a military conquest by European powers. Christianity had spread in Japan, especially among peasants, and the shogunate suspected the loyalty of Christian peasants towards their daimyō, severely persecuting them.
- He felt they disrupted the harmony of his rule.
English Civil War
- Conflict from 1640 to 1660.
- Featured religous disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy.
- Ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of the previous king.
Japan's Self-Imposed Isolation
- Initially, Jap was open to Western missionaries, gunnery, and shipping. -The feudal wars brought about interest in guns in order for groups to consolidate their rules politically.
- However, gunnery threatened Samurai military dominance, and the warring lords balance of power would be destroyed. So, Japan made guns locally and opted out of importing Western gunnery.
Life of Sir Isaac Newton
- English scientis who wrote the Principia.
- Drew together astronomical and physical observations and wider theories into a neat framework of natural laws.
- Established the principles of motion and defined forces of gravity.
Thirty Years War
- War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweeden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain.
- Ended in 1648, after great destruction with the treay of Westphalia that granted the right ot individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion.
- Period of emprirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations.
- Reuslted in change in traditional beliefs of the Middle Ages.
Construction of the Taj Mahal
- Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India.
- Orignally built as a manusoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtz Mahal.
Russia's Most Influential Ruler ( Peter I)
- Peter I, also known as Peter the Great, led the first westernization effort in history.
- His policies focused only on particluar aspects of Western society and left out a large segment of the Russian population.
- He continued conquest and expansion; and he invested in the mining and metallurgurical intdustries increasing the Russian Economy's success substaintially.
Gold Rush in Brazil
- Gold rush in Brazil sparked by the discovery of Minas Gerais where gold strikes were discovered.
- Economomic theorists that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imporsts from other natiuons and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues.
Age of Enlightment
- Intellectual movement cetered in France during the 18th century.
- Featured scientifc advance, application of scientific methods to study human society, and the belief that rational laws could descirbe social behavior.
War of Spanish Succession
- Resulted from Bourbon family's succession to Spanish throne in 1701.
- Ended by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
- Resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, and grants of commerical rights ot English and French.
- Originally a Turkik nomadic group.
- Family orginated in sufi mystic group.
- Espoused Shi'ism.
- Conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran.
Rule of Catherine the Great
- German-born Russian Tsarina who ruled after the assinaiton of her husband.
- She gave appearance of enlightened rule and accepted Western cultural influence.
- She maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Mass Consumerism in Western Europe
- Refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services spreading below elite levels, along with a grwoing economic capacity to afford some of these goods.
"Seven Years War
- Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763.
- Resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, and English siezures of colonies in India and North America.
Treaty of Paris
- Arranged in 1763, following the Seven Years War.
- Granted New France to England in exchange for return of French sugar island in Caribbean.
- During the reign of Catherine the Great, cossack Emelian Pugachev claimed to be the legitimate tsar and led a rebellion.
- He was crushed by Russian forces.
Partion of Poland
- Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
- Eliminated Poland as independent state, and was part of Russia's expansion of influence in Eastern Europe.
LIfe of Alexis Romanov
- The Russain heir to the throne at the time of the Russian revolution and the youngest member of the royal family at the time of their execution.
Rule of Babur
- Founder of the Muhgal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warirors.
- Led first invation of India.