History scroll

Schools of Literary Thought Timeline

By becstar
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 500 BCE

    Archaic Greece

  • 776 BCE

    Ancient Olympic Games

    Ancient Olympic Games
    Held in honour of Zeus in Olympia every four years, these were the oldest and most prestigious of all the festivals. Victors were crowned with an olive wreath. Last of these Games held in AD 392, following year they were prohibited anyway.
  • 750 BCE


    Both the Iliad and the Odyssey, the sequel, were composed around 750 BC, give or take 50 years or so, but they describe events from the Trojan War, which is traditionally dated around 1200 BC, give or take a 100 years or so. So this material by Homer is our earliest written record of athletic games, pre-dating any writings on the ancient Olympic Games for example.
  • Period: 500 BCE to 330 BCE

    Classical Ancient Greece

  • Period: 330 BCE to 146 BCE

    Hellenistic Ancient Greece

  • Period: 43 to 420


    Romans conquer Britons, Brittania a province of the Roman Empire
  • 307

    Constantine the Great

    Constantine the Great
    Reign lead to adoption of Chrisitanity as official religion of the Roman Empire
  • Period: 400 to 1350

    Middle Ages

    The period of what we broadly call the Middle Ages extends from late 400AD to 1350AD, followed by the period of the Renaissance 1350AD to the sixteenth century. This period is known as the Middle Ages since it falls between the period of antiquity and more modern times. The impact of Christianity during this period cannot be overstated. It was the dominant cultural and religious force during the Middle Ages. The Church permeated every aspect of life.
  • 405

    Vulgate - latin translation of the Bible

    Vulgate - latin translation of the Bible
    Translated by St. Jerome, became standard for the Roman Catholic Church
  • 432

    St Patrick

    St Patrick
    Begins mission to convert Ireland
  • 450

    Conquest of Briton

    Conquest of Briton
    Anglo-saxon conquest begins
  • 476

    Fall of Roman Empire

    Fall of Roman Empire
    In 400-500 BCE saw the fall of the Roman Empire. The period that immediately follows was also known as the Dark Ages. There was an initial decline in learning and civilization. It was a period of political turmoil and a power vacuum existed. Rome had been Christianised
    (Constantine was first Christian emperor in 326 AD) and in 393 AD the Olympic Games had been banned.
  • 523

    Boethius - Consolation of Philosophy

    Boethius - Consolation of Philosophy
  • 597

    St. Augustine of Canterbury

    St. Augustine of Canterbury
    Mission to Kent begins conversion of Anglo-saxons to Christianity. At the time of the reform of the Church, doctrinal theology of grace.
  • Jan 1, 658

    Caedmon's Hymn

    Caedmon's Hymn
    Earliest poem recorded in English (658-680)
  • Jan 1, 673


    Famous literature - Caedmon's hymn
  • Jan 1, 731

    Ecclesiastical History of the English People

    Ecclesiastical History of the English People
    by Bede
  • Jan 1, 750


    Unknown author, believed to be composed aroun 750
  • Apr 24, 787

    Viking Raids

    Viking Raids
    First Viking Raids on England
  • Jan 1, 871

    King Alfred

    King Alfred
    Reigned from 871 to 899
  • Jan 1, 1044

    The Invention of Gunpowder ( I have given the date of "the invention of gunpowder" as the date of when the formula for gunpowder was first recorded in 1044)

    The Invention of Gunpowder ( I have given the date of "the invention of gunpowder" as the date of when the formula for gunpowder was first recorded in 1044)
    Gunpowder is believed to have been invented in approxiametely 850 AD when it is suggested Chinese Alchemists were mixing elemental sulufr, charcoal and potassium nitrate to make artificial gold. The powder produced was called serpentine. It was employed in warfare to some effect from at least the 14th century, although the development of effective artillery took place during the 15th century, and firearms came to dominate early modern warfare in Europe by the 17th Century.
  • Jan 1, 1066

    Norman Conquest

    Norman Conquest
    William I established French-speaking ruling class in England
  • Period: Jan 1, 1095 to Jan 1, 1221


  • Jan 1, 1135

    History of the Kings of Britain

    History of the Kings of Britain
    Geoffrey of Monmout, written in Latin, gives pseudohistorical status to Arthurian and other legends
  • Jan 1, 1152

    Henry II marries Eleanor of Aquitaine

    Henry II marries Eleanor of Aquitaine
    Future Henry II marries Elanor of Aquitaine, bringin vast French territories to the English crown
  • Jan 1, 1165


    By Marie de France, in Anglo-Norman French from Breton sources (1165-1180)
  • Jan 1, 1170

    Chrietien de Troyes

    Chrietien de Troyes
    Chivalric romances about knights of the Round Table (1170-1191)
  • Jan 1, 1170

    Archbishop Thomas Becket murdered

    Archbishop Thomas Becket murdered
    Murdered in Canterbury Cathedral
  • Jan 1, 1182

    St Francis of Assisi

    St Francis of Assisi
    Born 1182
  • Jan 1, 1200


    by Layamon, approximately 1200
  • Jun 1, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    Fourth Lateran Council requires annual confession. ENglish barons force King Jonn to seal Magna Carta (The Great Charter) gauranteeing baronial rights
  • Period: Jan 1, 1300 to Jan 1, 1500

    Late Middle Ages - Historical Time period

    The Late Middle Ages is one of 3 general periods of the Medievil Era. It can be characterized as a transformation from the medieval world to the early modern one. In this period of time, a series of famines and plagues reduced the population to around half of what it was. There was also social unrest and endemic warfare. France and England experienced serious peasant uprisings as well as over a century of ittermittent conflict. The unity of the Catholic Church was also shattered.
  • Jan 1, 1321

    Divine Comedy

    Divine Comedy
    Written 1304-1321 by Dante Alighieri
  • Period: Jan 1, 1337 to Jan 1, 1453

    Hundred Years' War

  • Jan 1, 1340

    Giovanni Boccaccio

    Giovanni Boccaccio
    Writer in Naples and Florence (1340-1374)
  • Jan 1, 1340

    Francis Petrarch

    Francis Petrarch
    Active as writer (1340-1374)
  • Jan 1, 1343

    Geoffrey Chaucer

    Geoffrey Chaucer
    Geoffrey Chaucer, known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages. (1343-1400) "Time and tide wait for no men" "The guilty think all talk is of themselves"
  • Jan 1, 1348

    Black Death

    Black Death
    Ravages Europe
  • Period: 1348 to 1352

    Black Death in Europe

    The Black Death was a plague of horrific proportions. Approximately 1/3 of Europe’s population perished in the years from 1347-1352 and ultimately the Church’s inability to show control over this event lead in part to a) a questioning of the Church’s power and b) an interest in human physiology and medicine. Dissections were allowed by the Church for the first time; treatment of the body after death changed (at least in the short term) there was an
    interest in developing a more hygienic society.
  • Jan 1, 1362

    English first used in courts and Parliament

    English first used in courts and Parliament
  • Jan 1, 1368

    Book of the Duchess

    Book of the Duchess
  • Jan 1, 1372

    Chaucer's first journey to Italy

    Chaucer's first journey to Italy
  • Jan 1, 1373

    Book of Showings

    Book of Showings
    Julian of Norwich (1373-1393)
  • Jan 1, 1375

    Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

    Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
    (1375-1400) by author unknown
  • Jan 1, 1376

    Performance of cycle drama at York

    Performance of cycle drama at York
    Earliest record of performance of cycle drama
  • Jan 1, 1380

    Translation of Bible into English

    Translation of Bible into English
    Followers of John Wycliffe begin first complete translation of the Bible into English
  • Jan 1, 1381

    People's uprising

    People's uprising
    Briefly takes control of London before being suppressed
  • Jan 1, 1385

    Troilus and Criseyde

    Troilus and Criseyde
    Chaucer (1385-1387)
  • Jan 1, 1387

    The Canterbury Tales

    The Canterbury Tales
    The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century (1387-1399). The tales are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral.
  • Jan 1, 1390

    Confessio Amantis

    Confessio Amantis
    John Gower (1390-1392)
  • Jan 1, 1398

    Johannes Gutenburg

    Johannes Gutenburg
    Johannes Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. (1398-1468) "It is a press, certainly, but a press from which shall flow in inexhaustible streams...Through it, God will spread His Word. A spring of truth shall flow from it: like a new star it shall scatter the darkness of ignorance, and cause a light heretofore unknown to shine amongst men."
  • Jan 1, 1399

    Richard II deposed

    Richard II deposed
    Deposed by his cousin who succeeds him as Henry IV
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Richard II murdered

    Richard II murdered
  • Jan 1, 1400


    Firearms were invented in the 14th century in China, after the invention of gunpowder in the 850's. These inventions were later transmitted to the Middle East and to Europe. A firearm is a weapon that launches one projectile or more at high velocity through the confined burning of a propellant. In older firearms, the propellant was typically black powder, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to

    The Renaissance - Historical Time period

    The Renaissance was a cultural movement in Europe which impacted and shaped the future. It is believed that the changes that happened in this time period led to a modern era. The Renaissance was a time of great beauty, art, creativity, curiosity, imagination and exploration. Artists such as Leonardo Da Vinci created most of their famous peices during this time, as well as writers like William Shakespeare. The Mona Lisa was created during the Renaissance.
  • Jan 1, 1401

    William Sawtre executed

    William Sawtre executed
    First Lollard burned at the stake under new law against heresy
  • Jan 1, 1410

    John Lydgate

    John Lydgate
    Active as a writer? 1410-1449
  • Jan 1, 1415

    Henry VI defeats French at Agincourt

    Henry VI defeats French at Agincourt
  • Jan 1, 1420

    My compleinte

    My compleinte
    Thomas Hoccleve
  • Jan 1, 1425

    York Play of the Crucifixion

    York Play of the Crucifixion
    Unknown author
  • Jan 1, 1431

    Joan of Arc burnt

    Joan of Arc burnt
    English burn Joian of Arc at Rouen
  • Jan 1, 1432

    The Book of Margery Kempe

    The Book of Margery Kempe
    1432-1438 written by Margery Kempe
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Printing Press

    Printing Press
    The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The printing press was invented around 1450 A.D. In the early 1450's the end of the middle ages was causing massive and rapid cultural changes in Europe. These changes fueled a growing need for the fast and inexpensive production of large quantaties of written documents. Gutenburg borrowed money from local businesses and banks to work on developing a technology that could address this serious economic demand.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Second Shepherd's Play

    Second Shepherd's Play
    Wakefield mystery cycle (1450-1475)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1455 to Jan 1, 1485

    Wars of the Roses

  • Jan 1, 1470

    Sir Thomas Malory

    Sir Thomas Malory
    In prison working on Morte Darthur
  • Jan 1, 1475

    Robert Henryson

    Robert Henryson
    Active as a writer
  • Jan 1, 1476

    Printing press in England

    Printing press in England
    William Caxton sets up first printing press in England
  • Jan 1, 1480

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Ferdinand Magellan
    Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. Magellan's expedition of 1519–1521 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth, although Magellan himself did not complete the entire voyage, being killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines. (1480-1521)
  • Nov 10, 1483

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther
    Martin Luther was a German monk, priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. (1483-1546) "All who call on God in true faith, earnestly from the heart, will certainly be heard, and will receive what they have asked and desired."
  • Jan 1, 1485

    Morte Darthur published

    Morte Darthur published
    Caxton published, one of the first books in English to be printed
  • Jan 1, 1485

    Earl of Richmond (Henry VII)

    Earl of Richmond (Henry VII)
    The earl of Richmond defeats the Yorkist king, Richard III, at Bosworth Field and succeeds him as Henry VII, founder of the Tudor dynasty
  • Jan 1, 1504

    Mona Lisa

    Mona Lisa
    Leonardo da Vinci painted
  • Jan 1, 1505

    New World / Four Voyages

    New World / Four Voyages
    Amerigo Vespucci (1505-1507)
  • Jan 1, 1508

    Sistine Chapel

    Sistine Chapel
    Michaelangelo painted ceiling of the chapel -- (1508-1512)
  • Jan 1, 1509

    Death Henry VII; accession of Henry VIII

    Death Henry VII; accession of Henry VIII
  • Jan 1, 1510


    Unknown author
  • Jan 1, 1511

    Praise of Folly

    Praise of Folly
    Desiderius Erasmus
  • Jan 1, 1513

    James IV killed, succeeded by James V

    James IV killed, succeeded by James V
    James IV of Scotland killed at Battle of Flodden; succeeded by James V
  • Jan 1, 1514

    John Knox

    John Knox
    John Knox was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who brought reformation to the church in Scotland. He was educated at the University of St Andrews and was ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1536. (1514-1572) "No one else holds or has held the place in the heart of the world which Jesus holds. Other gods have been as devoutly worshipped; no other man has been so devoutly loved."
  • Jan 1, 1516


    Thomas More
  • Jan 1, 1517

    The Tunning of Elinour Rumming

    The Tunning of Elinour Rumming
    John Skelton
  • Jan 1, 1517

    Martin Luther's 95 theses

    Martin Luther's 95 theses
    Beginning of the Reformation in Germany
  • Period: Oct 31, 1517 to

    The Reformation - Historical Time Periods

    The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of several other Christian churches, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. It began in the 15th century and ended around 1700.
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Cortes invades Mexico

    Cortes invades Mexico
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Circumnavigation of the Globe

    Circumnavigation of the Globe
    One of the most noted of Portuguese-born explorers was Ferdinand Magellan who instigated and organized the first circumnavigation of the globe from 1519 to 1522. Sailing for the King of Spain, he set out with the objective of finding a route to the Orient by sailing westward around the southern tip of South America. Part of his legacy, especially in adding new place names to previously unmapped areas of the world, is reflected in this early eighteenth-century map of Magellanica.
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Magellen begins his voyage around the world

    Magellen begins his voyage around the world
  • Jan 1, 1521

    Pope Leo X names Henry VIII "Defender of the faith"

    Pope Leo X names Henry VIII "Defender of the faith"
  • Jan 1, 1525

    English translation of New Testament

    English translation of New Testament
    William Tyndale
  • Jan 1, 1528

    The Courtier

    The Courtier
    Baldassacre Castiglione
  • Jan 1, 1529

    More - Lord Chancellor

    More - Lord Chancellor
  • Jan 1, 1532

    The Prince

    The Prince
    Niccolo Machiavelli (written 1513)
  • Jan 1, 1532

    Henry VIII

    Henry VIII
    Divorces Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn; Elizabeth I born; Henry declares himself head of the Church of England (1532-1534)
  • Jan 1, 1535

    More beheaded

    More beheaded
  • Jan 1, 1537

    Establishment of Calvin's theocracy at Geneva

    Establishment of Calvin's theocracy at Geneva
  • Jan 1, 1542

    Roman Inquisition

    Roman Inquisition
    James V of Scotland dies; succeeded by infant daughter Mary
  • Jan 1, 1543

    On the revolution of the Spheres

    On the revolution of the Spheres
  • Jan 1, 1547

    Death of Henry VIII; accession of Protestant Edward VI

    Death of Henry VIII; accession of Protestant Edward VI
  • Jan 1, 1547

    Book of Homilies

    Book of Homilies
    Unknown author
  • Jan 1, 1549

    Book of common prayer

    Book of common prayer
  • Jan 22, 1552

    Sir Walter Raleigh

    Sir Walter Raleigh
    Sir Walter Raleigh was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England. (1552-1618) "Whosoever, in writing a modern history, shall follow truth too near the heels, it may happily strike out his teeth."
  • Jan 1, 1553

    Death Edward VI, Bloody Mary

    Death Edward VI, Bloody Mary
    Failed attempt to pur portestant Lady Jane Grey on throne; accession of Catholic Queen Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon
  • Jan 1, 1555

    Archbishop Carnmer, former archbishops Latimer and Ridley burned at the stake

    Archbishop Carnmer, former archbishops Latimer and Ridley burned at the stake
  • Jan 1, 1557

    Songs and Sonnets

    Songs and Sonnets
    By Tottel, (printing poems by Wyatt, Surrey and others)
  • Jan 1, 1558

    Mary dies; Elizabeth I

    Mary dies; Elizabeth I
    Catholic Mary (bloody Mary) dies; succeeded by Protestant Elizabeth I (daughter of Anne Boleyn)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1558 to

    Elizabethan Era - Historical Time periods

    The Elizabethan era was the time of Queen Elizabeth I's reign (1558–1603). Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. The symbol of Britannia was first used in 1572 and often thereafter to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated Spanish foe.
  • Jan 1, 1563

    Acts and Monuments

    Acts and Monuments
    By John Foxe
  • Feb 15, 1564


    Galileo Galilei, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. (1564-1642) "We cannot teach people anything; we can only help them discover it within themselves."
  • Feb 26, 1564

    Cristopher Marlow

    Cristopher Marlow
    Christopher Marlowe was an English dramatist, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era. Marlowe was the foremost Elizabethan tragedian of his day. (1564-1593) "Hell hath no limits, nor is circumscribed In one self place, for where we are is hell, And where hell is there must we ever be."
  • Apr 23, 1564

    William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare
    William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwrighter, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's most distinguished dramatist. (1564-1616) "O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?"
  • Jan 1, 1565

    Gorbodue (first English blank-verse tragedy)

    Gorbodue (first English blank-verse tragedy)
    By Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville (acted in 1561)
  • Jan 1, 1567

    Mary Queen of Scots forced to abdicate

    Mary Queen of Scots forced to abdicate
    Succeeded by her son James VI; Mary imprisoned in England (1567-1568)
  • Jan 1, 1567

    Translation of Metamorphoses

    Translation of Metamorphoses
    Arthur Golding translated Ovid's text
  • Jan 1, 1570

    Elizabeth I excommunicated by Pope

    Elizabeth I excommunicated by Pope
    Excommunicated by Pope Pius V
  • Jan 1, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of French Protestants

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of French Protestants
  • Jan 22, 1572

    John Donne

    John Donne
    John Donne was an English poet, a humorist who uses ridicule and irony and sarcasm, lawyer and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. (1572-1631) "No spring nor summer beauty hath such grace as I have seen in one autumnal face."
  • Jan 1, 1575

    Mystery plays last performance

    Mystery plays last performance
    At Chester
  • Jan 1, 1576

    The Theater

    The Theater
    James Burbage's playhouse, The Theater, built in London
  • Period: Jan 1, 1577 to Jan 1, 1580

    Drake's circumnavigation of the globe

  • Jan 1, 1578


    By John Lyly
  • Jan 1, 1579

    The Shepheardes Calender

    The Shepheardes Calender
    By Edmund Spencer
  • Jan 1, 1580


    By Montaigne
  • Irish rebellion crushed

    Irish rebellion crushed
  • Sir Walter Raleigh

    Sir Walter Raleigh
    Earliest attempts to colonize Virginia in 1584-1547
  • Mary, Queen of Scots, executed

    Mary, Queen of Scots, executed
    Tried for treason and executed - cousin of Queen Elizabeth (1586-1587)
  • Tamburlaine (acted)

    Tamburlaine (acted)
    Marlow's Tamburlaine acted. Shakespeare begins career as actor and playwright (1587-1590)
  • Failed invasion of the Spanish Armada

    Failed invasion of the Spanish Armada
  • A brief and true report of ... Virginia

    A brief and true report of ... Virginia
    By Thomas Hariot
  • The Principal Navigations ... of the English Nation

    The Principal Navigations ... of the English Nation
    By Richard Hakluyt
  • Arcadia

    Written by Sir Philip Sidney (posthumously published)
  • The Faerie Queene

    The Faerie Queene
    By Spenser, The Faerie Queene books 1-3
  • Astrophil and Stella

    Astrophil and Stella
    By Sir Philip Sidney, published in 1591
  • John Donne

    John Donne
    Earliest poems circulating in manuscript
  • George Herbert

    George Herbert
    George Herbert was a Welsh-born English poet, orator and Anglican priest. Being born into an artistic and wealthy family, he received a good education that led to him gaining prominent positions at Cambridge University and Parliament. (1593-1633) "Living well is the best revenge."
  • Raleigh's voyage to Guiana

    Raleigh's voyage to Guiana
  • The defense of Poesy

    The defense of Poesy
    By Sidney, published 1595
  • The Faerie Queen (books 4-6)

    The Faerie Queen (books 4-6)
    Spenser, the Faerie Queene, books 4-6 (with 1-3)
  • Every Man in His Humor

    Every Man in His Humor
    By Ben Jonson
  • Globe Theater opens

    Globe Theater opens
  • Discovery of Heliocentrism

    Discovery of Heliocentrism
    Heliocentrism refers to the Earth and planets revolving around a stationary Sun at the center of the Solar System. Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center. The notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun had been proposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos. However many argue that Aristarcchus's heliocentricism appears to have attracted little attention until Capernicus revived and elaborated it in the 16th Century.
  • Elizabeth I dies

    Elizabeth I dies
    Succeeded by James VI of Scotland (as James I). inaugurating the Stuart dynasty
  • Doctor Faustus (Play)

    Doctor Faustus (Play)
    The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus, commonly referred to simply as Doctor Faustus, is a play by Christopher Marlowe, based on the Faust story, in which a man sells his soul to the devil for power and knowledge. Doctor Faustus was first published in 1604, eleven years after Marlowe's death and at least twelve years after the first performance of the play.
  • Othello

    By William Shakespeare
  • King Lear

    King Lear
    By William Shakespeare
  • The Advancement of Learning

    The Advancement of Learning
    By Francis Bacon
  • Gunpowder Plot

    Gunpowder Plot
    Failed effort by Roman Catholic extremists to blow up Parliament
  • Volpone

    By Ben Jonson
  • The Masque of Blackness

    The Masque of Blackness
    By Francis Bacon
  • Macbeth

    Macbeth is a play written by William Shakespeare. It is considered one of his darkest and most powerful tragedies. The play is set in Scotland and dramatizes the corrupting psychological and political effects produced when its protaginist, the Scottish lord Macbeth, chooses evil as his path to fulfill his hunger for power. The Play is believed to have been written between1603 and 1607.
  • Founding of Jamestown colony in Virginia

    Founding of Jamestown colony in Virginia
  • Galileo observing heavens with telescope

    Galileo observing heavens with telescope
  • Sonnets

    By William Shakespeare
  • Let me not to the marriage of true minds

    Let me not to the marriage of true minds
    Let me not to the marriage of true minds was a sonnet (Sonnet 116) written by William Shakespeare. Its structure and form are a typical example of the Shakespearean sonnet. The poet begins by stating he should not stand in the way of true love. Love cannot be true if it changes for any reason. Love is supposed to be constant, through any difficulties. In the sixth line, a nautical reference is made, all in all alluding that love should also not fade with time, but that true love lasts forever.
  • King James Bible

    King James Bible
    Authorised version
  • The Tempest

    The Tempest
    By William Shakespeare
  • The First Anniversary

    The First Anniversary
    By John Donne
  • Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum

    Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum
    By Aemilia Lanyer
  • The Second Anniversary

    The Second Anniversary
    By John Donne
  • Death Prince Henry

    Death Prince Henry
  • The tragedy of Mariam

    The tragedy of Mariam
    By Elizabeh Cary
  • The Duchess of Malfi

    The Duchess of Malfi
    By John Webster
  • Death Shakespeare

    Death Shakespeare
  • Beginning of the Thirty Years War

    Beginning of the Thirty Years War
  • African Slaves

    African Slaves
    First African slaves in North America exchanged by Dutch frigate for food and supplies at Jamestown
  • Pilgrims land at Plymouth

    Pilgrims land at Plymouth
  • Donne appointed dean of St. Paul's Cathedral

    Donne appointed dean of St. Paul's Cathedral
  • The Countess of Montgomery's Urania, Pamphilia to Amphilanthus

    The Countess of Montgomery's Urania, Pamphilia to Amphilanthus
    By Mary Wroth
  • The Anatomy of Melancholy

    The Anatomy of Melancholy
    By Robert Burton
  • Andrew Marvell

    Andrew Marvell
    Andrew Marvell was an English metaphysical poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678. As a metaphysical poet, he is associated with John Donne and George Herbert. (1621-1678) "But at my back I always hear Time's winged chariot hurrying near."
  • Death James I; accession Charles I

    Death James I; accession Charles I
    Charles I marries Henrietta Maria
  • Essays

  • Charles I dissolves Parliament

    Charles I dissolves Parliament
  • Validictation: forbidding mourning

    Validictation: forbidding mourning
    "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning" is a metaphysical poem written by John Donne. According to Donne's biographer Izaak Walton, Donne composed it for his wife, Anne More, in 1611, when Donne was about to embark on a trip to France and Germany. It was first published in the 1633 collection Songs and Sonnets, two years after Donne's death. This poem is written with an ABAB rhyme scheme in iambic tetrameter.
  • The Temple

    The Temple
    By George Herbert
  • Poems

    By John Donne
  • Galileo forced to recant Copernican theory

    Galileo forced to recant Copernican theory
    Forced by the Inquisition to recant the Copernican theory
  • Lycidas

    By John Milton
  • Long Parliament called

    Long Parliament called
    1640-1653: Archbishop Laud impeached
  • First Civil War

    First Civil War
    (1642 - 1646), Parliament closes the theaters
  • Accession of Louis XIV of France

    Accession of Louis XIV of France
  • The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce

    The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce
  • Archbiship Laud executed

    Archbiship Laud executed
    Royalists defeated at Naseby
  • Second Civil War: "Pride's Purge"

    Second Civil War: "Pride's Purge"
    Purge of Parliament
  • Trial/execution of Charles I

    Trial/execution of Charles I
    Republic declared. Milton becomes Latin Secretary (1649-1659)
  • Leviathan

    By Thomas Hobbes
  • Period: to

    Anglo-Dutch War

  • Cromwell made Lord Protector

    Cromwell made Lord Protector
  • Death of Cromwell; son Richard made Protector

    Death of Cromwell; son Richard made Protector
  • Restoration Charles II to throne

    Restoration Charles II to throne
    Royal Society founded, reopening of the theaters
  • Samuel Pepys begins his diary

  • Charles II marries Catherine of Braganza

    Charles II marries Catherine of Braganza
  • Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    Requires all clergy to obey the Church of England. Chartering of the Royal Society
  • Hudibras, part 1

    By Samuel Butler
  • The Great Plague of London

    The Great Plague of London
  • The Great Fire

    The Great Fire
    Fire destroys the City of London
  • Paradise List (in 10 books)

    Paradise List (in 10 books)
    By John Milton
  • Dryden becomes poet laureate

    Dryden becomes poet laureate
  • Paradise Regained

    Paradise Regained
    By John Milton
  • Test Act

    Test Act
    Requires all officeholders to swear allegiance to Anglicanism
  • Paradise Lost (in 12 books)

    Paradise Lost (in 12 books)
    By John Milton
  • Death of Milton

    Death of Milton
  • "Popish Plot"

    "Popish Plot"
    Inflames anti-Catholic feeling
  • Pilgrim's Progress, part

    By John Bunyan
  • To his coy mistress

    To his coy mistress
    To His Coy Mistress is a metaphysical poem written by the English author and politician Andrew Marvell (1621–1678) either during or just before the Interregnum. This poem is considered one of Marvell's finest and is possibly the best recognized carpe diem poem in English. Although the date of its composition is not known, it may have been written in the early 1650s. At that time, Marvell was serving as a tutor to the daughter of the retired commander of Oliver Cromwell’s army, Sir Thomas Fairfax
  • Charles II dissolves Parliament

    Charles II dissolves Parliament
  • Poems

    By Andrew Marvell (published posthumously)
  • Death of Charles II

    Death of Charles II
    James II, his Catholic brother, takes the throne
  • Principia Mathematica

    By Sir Isaac Newton
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    James II exiled and succeeded by his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange (1688-1689)
  • An Essay concerning Human Understanding

    By John Locke
  • Period: to

    Age of reason - Historical Time Period

    The Age of reason (Also known as the Age of enlightenment) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in the 17th and 18th centuries, which began first in Europe and later in the American colonies. Its purpose was to reform the way of thinking using reason, to challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thoughts, skepticism and intellectual interchange and completely opposed any kind of superstition.
  • War of the Spanish Succession begins

    War of the Spanish Succession begins
  • Death of William III

    Death of William III
    Succession of Anne (Protestant daughter of James II)
  • Act of Union with Scotland

    Act of Union with Scotland
  • Tories take power

    Tories take power
  • Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession

    Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession
  • Death of Queen Anne

    Death of Queen Anne
    George I (great-grandson of James I) becomes the first Hanoverian king. Tory government replaced by Whigs.
  • South Sea Bubble collapses

    South Sea Bubble collapses
  • Robert Walpole comes to power

    Robert Walpole comes to power
  • George I dies. George II succeeds

    George I dies. George II succeeds
  • Sextant (Replacing Compass)

    Sextant (Replacing Compass)
    A sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the object's altitude. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight and it is an essential part of celestial navigation. The sextant was invented by John Hadley.
  • Licensing Act censors the stage

    Licensing Act censors the stage
  • Walpole Resigns

    Walpole Resigns
  • Charles Edward Stuart's defeat

    Charles Edward Stuart's defeat
    At Culloden, ends the last Jacobite rebellion
  • Robert clive seizes Arcot

    Robert clive seizes Arcot
    The prelude to English control of India
  • Beginning of Seven Years War

    Beginning of Seven Years War
  • William Blake

    William Blake
    William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. (1757-1827) "To see the world in a grain of sand, and to see heaven in a wild flower, hold infinity in the palm of your hands, and eternity in an hour."
  • James Wolfe's capture of Quebec

    James Wolfe's capture of Quebec
    Ensures British control of Canada
  • George III succeeds to the throne

    George III succeeds to the throne
  • Captain James Cook voyages to Australia and New Zealand

    Captain James Cook voyages to Australia and New Zealand
  • Automobile

    The history of the automobile typically begins as early as 1769, with the creation of steam engined automobiles capable of human transport. In 1806, the first cars powered by an internal combustion engine running on fuel gas appeared, which led to the introduction in 1885 of the ubiquitous modern gasoline- or petrol-fueled internal combustion engine. Cars powered by electric power briefly appeared at the turn of the 20th century but disappeared from use until the turn of the 21st Century.
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

  • The American War of Independence

    The American War of Independence
    The American War of Independence (1775-1783) in the United States, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, but gradually grew into a world war between Britain on one side and the newly formed United States, France, Netherlands and Spain on the other. The main result was an American victory and European recognition of the independence of the United States, with mixed results for the other powers.
  • Jane Austen

    Jane Austen
    Jane Austen was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. (1775-1817) "Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously. A person may be proud without being vain. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves; vanity, to what we would have others think of us."
  • Gordon Riots in London

    Gordon Riots in London
  • William Pitt becomes prime minister

    William Pitt becomes prime minister
  • Captain Arthur Phillip arrived in Australia

    Captain Arthur Phillip arrived in Australia
    Captain Arthur Phillip (1738-1814) arrived in Australia in 1778. The First Fleet of 11 ships, each one no larger than a Manly ferry, left Portsmouth in 1787 with more than 1480 men, women and children onboard. Although most were British, there were also African, American and French convicts. After a voyage of three months the First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay on 24 January 1788. Here the Aboriginal people, who had lived in isolation for 40,000 years, met the British in an uneasy stand off.
  • Songs of Innocence and of Experience

    Songs of Innocence and of Experience
    Songs of Innocence and of Experience is an illustrated collection of poems by William Blake. It appeared in two phases. First, a few copies were printed and illuminated by William Blake himself in 1789; 5 years later he bound these poems with a set of new poems in a collection titled Songs of Innocence and of Experience Showing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul.
  • The French Revolution

    The French Revolution
    The French Revolution (1789–1799), was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a lasting impact on French history and the rest of the world, The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed within three years. French society underwent an epic transformation, as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants from the country.
  • Tyger Tyger

    Tyger Tyger
    "The Tyger" is a poem by the English poet William Blake. It was published as part of his collection Songs of Experience in 1794. It is one of Blake's best-known and most analyzed poems. The Cambridge Companion to William Blake (2003) calls it "the most anthologized poem in English." Much of the poem follows the metrical pattern of its first line and can be scanned as trochaic tetrameter catalectic. A number of lines, however—such as line four in the first stanza—fall into iambic tetrameter.
  • Factory acts are passed

    Factory acts are passed
    The Factory Acts (1802-1961) were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to limit the number of hours worked by women and children in all industries.The factory reform movement spurred the passage of laws to limit the hours that could be worked in factories and mills. The first aim of the movement was for a "ten hours bill" to limit to ten hours the working day of children. Richard Oastler was one of the movement's most prominent leaders.
  • Alexandre Dumas

    Alexandre Dumas
    Alexandre Dumas, also known as Alexandre Dumas, père, was a French writer, best known for his historical novels of high adventure. Translated into nearly 100 languages, these have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. (1802-1870) "A person who doubts himself is like a man who would enlist in the ranks of his enemies and bear arms against himself. He makes his failure certain by himself being the first person to be convinced of it."
  • William Makepeace Thackary

    William Makepeace Thackary
    William Makepeace Thackeray was an English novelist of the 19th century. He was famous for his satirical works, particularly Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of English society. (1811-1863) "If a secret history of books could be written, and the author's private thoughts and meanings noted down alongside of his story, how many insipid volumes would become interesting, and dull tales excite the reader!"
  • Charles Dickens

    Charles Dickens
    Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's most memorable fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. (1812-1870) "Happy, happy Christmas, that can win us back to the delusions of our childhood days, recall to the old man the pleasures of his youth, and transport the traveler back to his own fireside and quiet home!"
  • Pride and Prejudice

    Pride and Prejudice
    Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman living near the fictional town of Meryton in Hertfordshire, near London. To date, the book has sold roughly 20 million copies worldwide.
  • Charlotte Bronte

    Charlotte Bronte
    Charlotte Brontë was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood. Her novels are of English literature standards. She wrote Jane Eyre under the pen name Currer Bell. (1816-1855) "Life appears to me too short to be spent in nursing animosity, or registering wrongs."
  • Frankenstein

    Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by Mary Shelley about a creature produced by an unorthodox scientific experiment. Shelley started writing the story when she was nineteen, and the novel was published when she was twenty-one. The first edition was published anonymously in London in 1818. Shelley's name appears on the second edition, published in France in 1823.
  • Emily Bronte

    Emily Bronte
    Emily Jane Brontë was an English novelist and poet, best remembered for her solitary novel, Wuthering Heights, now considered a classic of English literature. (1818-1848) "I have dreamed in my life, dreams that have stayed with me ever after, and changed my ideas; they have gone through and through me, like wine through water, and altered the color of my mind."
  • George Eliot

    George Eliot
    Mary Anne Evans, better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, journalist and translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. (1819-1880) "Our dead are never dead to us, until we have forgotten them."
  • Leo Tolsoy

    Leo Tolsoy
    Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy was a Russian writer who primarily wrote novels and short stories. Later in life, he also wrote plays and essays. (1828-1910) "I sit on a man's back, choking him and making him carry me, and yet assure myself and others that I am very sorry for him and wish to ease his lot by all possible means - except by getting off his back."
  • Period: to

    The Victorian Era - Historical Time Periods

    The Victorian Era was characterised by rapid change and developments in nearly every sphere - from advances in medical, scientific and technological knowledge to changes in population growth and location. Over time, this rapid transformation deeply affected the country's mood: an age that began with a confidence and optimism leading to economic boom and prosperity eventually gave way to uncertainty and doubt regarding Britain's place in the world. It corresponds with the reign of Queen Victoria.
  • Louisa May Alcott

    Louisa May Alcott
    Louisa May Alcott was an American novelist best known as author of the novel Little Women and its sequels Little Men and Jo's Boys. (1832-1888) "Have regular hours for work and play; make each day both useful and pleasant, and prove that you understand the worth of time by employing it well. Then youth will be delightful, old age will bring few regrets, and life will become a beautiful success."
  • Mark Twain

    Mark Twain
    Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. (1835-1910) "Forgiveness is the fragrance that the violet sheds on the heel that has crushed it."
  • Thomas Hardy

    Thomas Hardy
    Thomas Hardy, OM was an English novelist and poet. A Victorian realist, in the tradition of George Eliot, he was also influenced both in his novels and poetry by Romanticism, especially by William Wordsworth. (1840-1928) "The sudden disappointment of a hope leaves a scar which the ultimate fulfillment of that hope never entirely removes."
  • The Count of Monte Cristo

    The Count of Monte Cristo
    The Count of Monte Cristo is an adventure novel by French author Alexandre Dumas. It is one of the author's most popular works, along with The Three Musketeers. He completed the work in 1844. Like many of his novels, it is expanded from plot outlines suggested by his collaborating ghostwriter Auguste Maquet.
  • The Three Musketeers

    The Three Musketeers
    The Three Musketeers (French: Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, first serialized in March–July 1844. Set in the 17th century, it recounts the adventures of a young man named d'Artagnan after he leaves home to travel to Paris, to join the Musketeers of the Guard. His friends Athos, Porthos, and Aramis are inseparable friends who live by the motto "all for one, one for all" ("un pour tous, tous pour un"), a motto which is first put forth by d'Artagnan.
  • Jane Eyre

    Jane Eyre
    Jane Eyre is a novel by English writer Charlotte Bronte. It was published on 16 October 1847 by Smith, Elder & Co. of London, England, under the pen name "Currer Bell." The first American edition was released the following year by Harper & Brothers of New York. Writing for the Penguin edition, Stevie Davies describes it as an "influential feminist text" because of its in-depth exploration of the main female character's feelings.
  • Wuthering Heights

    Wuthering Heights
    Wuthering Heights is a novel by Emily Bronte, written between October 1845 and June 1846, and published in 1847 under the fictitious name "Ellis Bell." It was her first and only published novel: she died aged 30 the following year. The decision to publish came after the success of her sister Charlotte's novel, Jane Eyre. After Emily's death, Charlotte edited the manuscript of Wuthering Heights, and arranged for the edited version to be published as a posthumous second edition in 1850.
  • Universal Male Suffrage in Australia

    Universal Male Suffrage in Australia
    By the mid nineteenth century the desire for more representative and responsible government in colonial Australia permeated the community. It was fed by the ideas of the great reform movements (Chartism, Republicanism, etc.) which swept Europe, the United States of America and the British Empire, and by the colonists' spirit of practical self-reliance. The colonies of Australia began to grant universal male suffrage during the 1850s and women's suffrage followed from the 1890s onward.
  • David Copperfield

    David Copperfield
    David Copperfield is the common name of the eighth novel by Charles Dickens, first published as a novel in 1850. Its full title is The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery.
  • Period: to

    Romanticism - Historical Time Periods

    Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe. It characterized many works of literature, painting, music, architecture, criticism, and historiography in the Western civilization over a period of time from the late 18th century to the mid-19th century.
  • Robert Louis Stephenson

    Robert Louis Stephenson
    Robert Louis Stevenson was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer. His most famous works are Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. (1850-1894) "Don't judge each day by the harvest you reap but by the seeds that you plant."
  • Oscar Wilde

    Oscar Wilde
    Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. (1854-1900) "True friends stab you in the front."
  • Male Universal Suffrage in America

    Male Universal Suffrage in America
    Universal manhood suffrage is a form of voting rights in which all adult males within a political system are allowed to vote, regardless of income, property, religion, race, or any other qualification. Landless white men got voting rights by 1856, non-white men technically by 1870, and Native Americans by 1924.
  • George Bernand Shaw

    George Bernand Shaw
    George Bernard Shaw was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. He was also an essayist, novelist and short story writer. (1856-1950) "A life spent making mistakes is not only more honorable, but more useful than a life spent doing nothing."
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
    Sir Arthur Doyle was a Scottish physician and writer, most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. (1859-1930) "We can't command our love, but we can our actions."
  • The Mill on the Floss

    The Mill on the Floss
    The Mill on the Floss is a novel by George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), first published in three volumes in 1860 by William Blackwood. The first American edition was by Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York. The novel details the lives of Tom and Maggie Tulliver, a brother and sister growing up at Dorlcote Mill on the River Floss at its junction with the more minor River Ripple near the village of St. Ogg's in Lincolnshire, England. Both the river and the village are fictional.
  • The American Civil War

    The American Civil War
    The American Civil War was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 between the United States and several Southern slave states that had declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America. The war had its origin in the fractious issue of slavery, and, after four years of bloody combat the Confederacy was defeated, slavery was abolished, and the difficult reconstruction process of restoring unity and guaranteeing rights to the freed slaves began.
  • Little Women

    Little Women
    Little Women is a novel by American author Louisa May Alcott. The book was written and set in the Alcott family home, Orchard House, in Concord, Massachusetts. It was published in two volumes in 1868 and 1869. The novel follows the lives of four sisters (Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy March) and is loosely based on the author's childhood experiences with her three sisters. The first volume, Little Women, was an immediate success, prompting the composition of the 2nd book entitled "Good Wives".
  • War and Peace

    War and Peace
    War and Peace is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy, first published in 1869. The work is epic in scale and is regarded as one of the most important works of world literature. It is considered Tolstoy's finest literary achievement, along with his other major prose work Anna Karenina (1873–1877).
  • Women's Suffrage in England

    Women's Suffrage in England
    Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom was a national movement that began in 1872. Women were not prohibited from voting in the United Kingdom until the 1832 Reform Act and the 1835 Municipal Corporations Act. Both before and after 1832, establishing women's suffrage on some level was a political topic, although it would not be until 1872 that it would become a national movement with the formation of the National Society for Women's Suffrage and later the more influential NUWSS.
  • LM Montgomery

    LM Montgomery
    Lucy Maud Montgomery OBE, called "Maud" by family and friends and publicly known as L. M. Montgomery, was a Canadian author best known for a series of novels beginning with Anne of Green Gables, published in 1908. (1874-1942) "In this world you've just got to hope for the best and prepare for the worst and take whatever God sends. "
  • Universal Male Suffrage in New Zealand

    Universal Male Suffrage in New Zealand
    In New Zealand, as in Britain, the idea of Universal Male Suffrage was initially based on the possession of property. In October 1879 John Hall formed a new government and Whitaker returned to Cabinet. He introduced a new Qualification of Electors Bill, granting the vote to all adult European males after 12 months’ residence in New Zealand and six months in an electorate. This was comfortably passed on 19 December. The next election, on 9 December 1881, was the first held under the new law.
  • Compulsory education in England

    Compulsory education in England
    The 1880 Education Act finally made school attendence compulsory for students aged 5-10 in England.
  • James Joyce

    James Joyce
    James Augusta Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. (1882-1941) "Men are governed by lines of intellect - women: by curves of emotion."
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Fin

    The Adventures of Huckleberry Fin
    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (or, in more recent editions, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) is a novel by Mark Twain, first published in England in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885. Commonly named among the Great American Novels, the work is among the first in major American literature to be written throughout in vernacular English, characterized by local color regionalism.
  • Kidnapped

    Kidnapped is a historical fiction adventure novel by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson. Written as a "boys' novel" and first published in the magazine Young Folks from May to July 1886, the novel has attracted the praise and admiration of writers as diverse as Henry James, Jorge Luis Borges, and Seamus Heaney. A sequel, Catriona, was published in 1893.
  • TS Elliot

    TS Elliot
    Thomas Stearns Eliot OM was a publisher, playwright, literary and social critic and "arguably the most important English-language poet of the 20th century". (1888-1965) "Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go."
  • Tess of the D'Urbervilles

    Tess of the D'Urbervilles
    Tess of the d'Urbervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented, is a novel by Thomas Hardy, first published in 1891. It initially appeared in a censored and serialised version, published by the British illustrated newspaper, The Graphic. Though now considered an important work of English literature, the book received mixed reviews when it first appeared, in part because it challenged the sexual mores of Hardy's day.
  • Woman's Suffrage in New Zealand

    Woman's Suffrage in New Zealand
    Women's suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue in the late 19th century. Of countries presently independent, New Zealand was the first to give women the vote in modern times. The Electoral Bill granting women the franchise was given Royal Assent by Governor Lord Glasgow on 19 September 1893, and women voted for the first time in the election held on 28 November 1893 (elections for the Māori electorates were held on 20 December).
  • Universal Male Suffrage in England

    Universal Male Suffrage in England
    Universal Male Suffrage was granted from the late 19th Century to the early part of he 20th Century acroos England. In 1918 in th UK the Representation of the People Act was passed and almost all men over 21 years old, and women over 30 years old now had the right to vote. In 1928 all women and men over 21 had the right to vote.
  • Period: to

    Modernism - Historial Time period

    The central characteristic of Modernism is its rejection of tradition. It emphasises the return of the arts to their fundamental characteristics, as though beginning from scratch. This dismissal of tradition also involved the rejection of conventional expectations. Hence Modernism often stresses freedom of expression, experimentation, radicalism, and even primitivism.
  • The Hound of the Baskervilles

    The Hound of the Baskervilles
    The Hound of the Baskervilles is the third of four crime novels by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle featuring the detective Sherlock Holmes. Originally serialised in The Strand Magazine from August 1901 to April 1902, it is set largely on Dartmoor in Devon in England's West Country and tells the story of an attempted murder inspired by the legend of a fearsome, diabolical hound. In 2003 the book was listed on the BBC's The Big Read poll of the UK's "best-loved novel."
  • Woman's Suffrage in Australia

    Woman's Suffrage in Australia
    Women's suffrage in Australia began to be established during the late 19th century. In 1902, the newly established Australian Parliament passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902, which enabled women to vote and stand for election for the federal Parliament. This eradicated gender as a point of discrimination in relation to electoral rights for federal elections in Australia. By 1911, the remaining states and territories had all granted women's suffrage for state elections.
  • Francis Bacon

    Francis Bacon
    Francis Bacon was an Irish-born British figurative painter known for his bold, graphic and emotionally raw imagery. (1909-1992) "Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not; a sense of humor to console him for what he is."
  • Compulsory education in Australia

    Compulsory education in Australia
    The 1875 Education Act made it compulsory for children between the ages of seven and 13 to attend school in Australia. Full time compulsory attendance was legislated in 1915.
  • The Love song of J Alfred Prufrock

    The Love song of J Alfred Prufrock
    The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", commonly known as "Prufrock", is a poem by T. S. Eliot,which was published in Chicago in June 1915. Described as a "drama of literary anguish," it presents a dramatic interior monologue, and marked the beginning of Eliot's career as an influential poet. With its weariness, regret, embarrassment, longing, emasculation, sexual frustration, sense of decay, and awareness of mortality, "Prufrock" has become one of the most heard voices in modern literature.
  • Compulsory education in America

    Compulsory education in America
    By 1918 every state in America required students to complete elementary school. By 1929, every state in America required students to attend school.
  • Woman's Suffrage in America

    Woman's Suffrage in America
    Women's suffrage in the United States was achieved gradually, at state and local levels, during the late 19th century and early 20th century, culminating in 1920 with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
  • Period: to

    Social Realism - Historical Timeline

    Social Realism is a term that refers to the work of painters, printmakers, photographers and film makers who draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working classes and the poor, and who are critical of the social structures that maintain these conditions. While the movement's artistic styles vary from nation to nation, it almost always utilizes a form of descriptive or critical realism. Social realism represents a democratic tradition of independent socially motivated artists.
  • Doctor Faustus (Book)

    Doctor Faustus (Book)
    Doctor Faustus (in German, Doktor Faustus) is a German novel written by Thomas Mann, which begun in 1943 and was published in 1947 as Doktor Faustus. Das Leben des deutschen Tonsetzers Adrian Leverkühn, erzählt von einem Freunde ("Doctor Faustus. The Life of the German composer Adrian Leverkühn, told by a friend").
  • Terry Pratchet

    Terry Pratchet
    Sir Terence David John "Terry" Pratchett, OBE is an English author of fantasy novels, especially comical works. He is best known for the Discworld series of about 40 volumes. (1948) "Build a man a fire, and he'll be warm for a day. Set a man on fire, and he'll be warm for the rest of his life."
  • Period: to

    Post Modernism - Historical Time Periods

    Post Modernism was the era that followed modernism. It was a movement in architecture that rejected the modernist, avant garde, passion for the new. Post modernism is a general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality.
  • Man first walked on moon

    Man first walked on moon
    Apollo 11 was the name given to the mission that saw humans first step onto the moon. Neil Armstrong was the first human in recorded history to ever step foot on the moon and his famous quote is "That's one samll step for man, one giant leap for mankind". He was outside the spacecraft and on the moon for roughly two and a half hours whilst his fellow crew member (Buzz Aldrin) was on the moon for a slightly less period of time.
  • Mobile Phones

    Mobile Phones
    The first actual mobile phone was made in 1973 by Martin Cooper of Motorola and other assisting inventors who used the idea of the car phone and applied the technology necessary to make a portable cell phone possible. Mobiles were first made available to the public in 1984. Back then, they were very large, expensive instruments.
  • The Sniper

    The Sniper
    Stalingrad snipers were a legend in their time. Their patience, keen eyes and ruthlessness helped win the Battle of Stalingrad and turn the tide of the Second World War. This is the true story of a teenage sniper recruited in 1942 by Vasily Zaitsev to seek out and shoot German officers.
  • John Milton

    John Milton
    John Milton was an English poet, polemicist, a scholarly man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. "He that has light within his own clear breast May sit in the centre, and enjoy bright day: But he that hides a dark soul and foul thoughts Benighted walks under the mid-day sun; Himself his own dungeon."