AP European History

By zjttjm
  • Period: Dec 24, 1294 to Oct 11, 1303

    Papacy of Boniface VIII

    Issued bull which forbade lay taxation of the clergy with prior papal approval, angering Phillip the Fair of France.
  • Nov 18, 1302

    Unam Sanctam published

    Unam Sanctam published
    Issued by Boniface VIII; declared papal authority over sovereign rulers.
  • Nov 8, 1309

    Papacy moves to Avignon

    Papacy moves to Avignon
    Decided by Pope Clement V; Clement V wanted to escape a Rome ridden with strife, and to avoid pressure from Philip of France. Here began the sale of indulgences and the idea of purgatory.
  • Sep 9, 1321

    Death of Dante Alghieri

    Death of Dante Alghieri
    Italian poet, "Father of the Italian language“, Divine Comedy.
  • Apr 30, 1337

    Start of the Hundred Years' War

    Start of the Hundred Years' War
    A series of wars waged between the House of Valois (France )and the House of Plantagenate (England, Edward III starting the war; Henry V), for France's throne. The House of Valois was the victor.
  • Jan 27, 1343

    Pope Clement VI defines "treasury of merits"

    Pope Clement VI defines "treasury of merits"
  • Nov 7, 1347

    Black Death arrives in southern Italy

    Black Death arrives in southern Italy
    Bubonic Plague. Carried by fleas on black rats which were brought by Asian merchant ships, killing 25 to 40 percent of Europe’s population.
  • Nov 18, 1351

    Boccaccio writes the Decameron

    Boccaccio writes the Decameron
    composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348; both a stringing social commentary
  • Jun 9, 1358

    Jacquerie rebellions in France

    Jacquerie rebellions in France
    Several bloody peasant rebellions in France that started because of the heavy taxes.
  • Jan 17, 1377

    Papacy returns to Rome

    Papacy returns to Rome
    Gregory XI
  • Sep 20, 1378

    Start of Great Schism

    Start of Great Schism
  • Nov 8, 1381

    Peasants' Revolt/War

    Peasants' Revolt/War
  • Nov 8, 1410

    Council of Pisa

    Council of Pisa
    On the basis of the arguments of the conciliarists, cardinals representing both popes convened a council on their own authority in Pisa in 1409, deposed of both the Roman and Avignon popes, and elected a new pope, Alexander V.
  • Period: Nov 16, 1414 to Apr 22, 1418

    Council of Constance

  • Jun 6, 1415

    Jan Huss is burned for heresy

    Jan Huss is burned for heresy
    Czech, he supported vernacular translations of the Bible, was critical of traditional ceremonies and practices, particularly those relating the sacrament of the Eucharist, questioned the validity of sacraments performed by priests in moral sin.
  • Oct 25, 1415

    Battle of Agincourt

    Battle of Agincourt
    a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War, notable for the use of the English longbow.
  • Period: Oct 21, 1422 to Jul 22, 1461

    Rules of Charles VII of France

    The king’s legitimacy was initially contested by Henry VI of England; won the Hundred Years’ War mainly because of Joan of Arc, but did not protect her from burning as a witch.
  • May 8, 1429

    Siege of Orleans by Joan of Arc

    Siege of Orleans by Joan of Arc
    Turning point in the Hundred Years’ War;
    Joan of Arc’s first major military victory and first major French success.
  • Feb 3, 1468

    Johann Gutenberg dies

    Johann Gutenberg dies
    craftsman from Mainz, Germany who developed a printing press that made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply; printed a complete Bible which was the first full-sized book printed with movable type.
  • Jan 2, 1492

    Last Muslim region is captured

    Last Muslim region is captured
    Reconquista; the Battle of Granada followed by the Treaty of Granada, under Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus discovers America

    Columbus discovers America
    Missioned to reach Asia through the Atlantic Ocean by the Spanish, never reached Asia, but stepped onto an island in the Caribbean.
  • Nov 18, 1510

    Raphael paints the School of Athens

    Raphael paints the School of Athens
    in the pope’s room in Apostolic Palace in Vatican.
  • Nov 8, 1512

    Michelangelo completes the Sistine Chapel

    Michelangelo completes the Sistine Chapel
  • Nov 8, 1513

    Machiavelli writes The Prince

    Machiavelli writes The Prince
    a political guidebook that examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it by suggesting that most people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther posts "Ninety Five Theses"

    Martin Luther posts "Ninety Five Theses"
  • Nov 18, 1517

    Ottoman Empire takes Mecca & Medina

    Ottoman Empire takes Mecca & Medina
  • Nov 8, 1518

    Hernan Cortez lands in Mexico

    Hernan Cortez lands in Mexico
    marched inland to claim new lands for Spain.
  • Nov 18, 1521

    The Diet of Worms

    The Diet of Worms
  • Nov 8, 1527

    The Diet of Vesteras

    The Diet of Vesteras
  • Oct 11, 1531

    Death of Ulrich Zwingli

    Death of Ulrich Zwingli
  • Oct 11, 1531

    Second Battle of Kappel

    Second Battle of Kappel
  • Jan 25, 1533

    Henry VIII & Anne Bolyne marry

    Henry VIII & Anne Bolyne marry
  • Jul 12, 1536

    Erasmus of Rotterdam dies

    Erasmus of Rotterdam dies
    a Dutch proponent of religious toleration, and enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists“. Called for reform within the church while recognizing the papal authority.
  • Jul 12, 1536

    Death of Desiderius Erasmus

    Death of Desiderius Erasmus
  • Sep 8, 1540

    John Calvin returns to Geneva after exile

    John Calvin returns to Geneva after exile
  • Sep 27, 1540

    Papal recognition of the Jesuit Order

    Papal recognition of the Jesuit Order
  • May 24, 1543

    Death of Nicholas Copernicus

    Death of Nicholas Copernicus
  • May 24, 1543

    Death of Nicholas Copernicus

    Death of Nicholas Copernicus
  • Dec 20, 1543

    Publication of Copernicus' On the Heavenly Spheres

    Publication of Copernicus' On the Heavenly Spheres
  • Period: Dec 13, 1545 to Dec 4, 1563

    The Council of Trent

  • Nov 8, 1549

    Act of Uniformity passed in England

    Act of Uniformity passed in England
  • Oct 27, 1553

    Death of Michael Servetus

    Death of Michael Servetus
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
  • Period: Nov 17, 1558 to

    Reign of Elizabeth I of England

  • Period: Dec 5, 1560 to May 30, 1574

    Reign of Charles IX of France

  • Aug 8, 1570

    Peace of St-Germain-en-Laye

    Peace of St-Germain-en-Laye
  • Oct 7, 1571

    The Battle of Lepanto

    The Battle of Lepanto
  • Aug 23, 1572

    St. Bartholomew Day's Massacre

    St. Bartholomew Day's Massacre
  • Period: Oct 2, 1572 to Oct 8, 1576

    "Spanish Fury" sweeps Habsburg Holland

  • Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

    Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada by the English

    Defeat of Spanish Armada by the English
  • Death of Catherine de Medici

    Death of Catherine de Medici
  • Henri III assassinated

    Henri III assassinated
  • Presentation of the play Richard III

    Presentation of the play Richard III
  • The Edict of Nantes

    The Edict of Nantes
  • Hampton Court Conference

    Hampton Court Conference
  • Publication of first part of Don Quixote

    Publication of first part of Don Quixote
  • Publication of Bacon's The Advancement of Learning

    Publication of Bacon's The Advancement of Learning
  • Publicatin of Kepler's The New Astronomy

    Publicatin of Kepler's The New Astronomy
  • Publication of Galileo's Starry Messenger

    Publication of Galileo's Starry Messenger
  • Publication of Galileo's Starry Messenger

    Publication of Galileo's Starry Messenger
  • Defenestration of Prague

    Defenestration of Prague
  • Battle of White Mountain

    Battle of White Mountain
  • Publication of Bacon's Novum Organum

    Publication of Bacon's Novum Organum
  • Period: to

    Rule of Pope Urban VIII

  • Period: to

    Reign of King Charles I of England

  • Battle of Breitenfeld

    Battle of Breitenfeld
  • Death of King Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden

    Death of King Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden
  • Condemnation of Galileo's work by the Catholic Church

    Condemnation of Galileo's work by the Catholic Church
  • Peace of Prague

    Peace of Prague
  • Publication of Descartes's Discourse

    Publication of Descartes's Discourse
  • Publication of Descartes' Discourse

    Publication of Descartes' Discourse
  • Short Paliament

    Short Paliament
  • Period: to

    Long Parliament

  • Publication of Augustinus

    Publication of Augustinus
  • Period: to

    Reign of Frederick William Hohenzollern of Prussia

  • Death of Cardinal Richelieu

    Death of Cardinal Richelieu
  • Period: to

    Rule of Louis XIV of France

  • Treaty of Westphalia

    Treaty of Westphalia
  • Period: to

    The 'Fronde' Revolt

  • Period: to

    Reign of William III of Orange

  • Publication of Hobbes' Leviathan

    Publication of Hobbes' Leviathan
  • Publication of Hobbes' Leviathan

    Publication of Hobbes' Leviathan
  • Period: to

    Era of Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth

  • Death of Cardinal Mazarin

    Death of Cardinal Mazarin
  • Publication of Cavendish's Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy

    Publication of Cavendish's Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy
  • Publication of Pascal's Pensees

    Publication of Pascal's Pensees
  • Treaty of Dover

    Treaty of Dover
  • Foundation of Paris Foundling Hospital

    Foundation of Paris Foundling Hospital
  • Death of Margaret Cavendish

    Death of Margaret Cavendish
  • Death of Margaret Cavendish

    Death of Margaret Cavendish
  • Death of Gian Lorenzo Bernini

    Death of Gian Lorenzo Bernini
  • Papal Plot against Charles II

    Papal Plot against Charles II
  • Peter 'the Great' becomes Tsar of Russia

    Peter 'the Great' becomes Tsar of Russia
  • Siege of Vienna by the Ottomans

    Siege of Vienna by the Ottomans
  • Period: to

    Reign of James II

  • Revocation of Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of Edict of Nantes
  • Publication of Newton's Principia Mathematica

    Publication of Newton's Principia Mathematica
  • Arrival in England of William III of Orange

    Arrival in England of William III of Orange
  • Publication of Locke's Two Treatises on Government

    Publication of Locke's Two Treatises on Government
  • Publication of Locke's Two Treaises on Government

    Publication of Locke's Two Treaises on Government
  • Publication of Locke's Letter Concerning Toleration

    Publication of Locke's Letter Concerning Toleration
  • Period: to

    The Great Northern War

  • Period: to

    War of Spanish Succession

  • Jethro Tull invents the seed drill

    Jethro Tull invents the seed drill
  • Maria Winkelmann discovers a comet

    Maria Winkelmann discovers a comet
  • Foundation of Saint Petersburg

    Foundation of Saint Petersburg
  • Death of Jacques-Benigne Bossuet

    Death of Jacques-Benigne Bossuet
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
  • 'Pragmatic Sanction' published & violated

    'Pragmatic Sanction' published & violated
  • Treaty of Rastatt

    Treaty of Rastatt
  • Gold payments stopped in France in aftermath of 'Mississippi Bubble'

    Gold payments stopped in France in aftermath of 'Mississippi Bubble'
  • Patriarchate abolished in Russian Church

    Patriarchate abolished in Russian Church
  • Publication of Algarotti's Newtonianism for Ladies

    Publication of Algarotti's Newtonianism for Ladies
  • War of Jenkins's Ear begins

    War of Jenkins's Ear begins
  • Period: to

    War of Austrian Succession

  • Publication of L'espirit des lois by Montesquieu

    Publication of L'espirit des lois by Montesquieu
  • Hume publishes An Enquiry into Human Nature

    Hume publishes An Enquiry into Human Nature
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
  • Seven Years War begins

    Seven Years War begins
  • Voltaire's novel Candide published

    Voltaire's novel Candide published
  • Fall of Quebec to British

    Fall of Quebec to British
  • Publication of Rousseau's The Social Contract

    Publication of Rousseau's The Social Contract
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
  • Invention of Spinning Jenny

    Invention of Spinning Jenny
  • Death of artist William Hogarth

    Death of artist William Hogarth
  • James Hargreaves invents the "Spinning Jenny"

    James Hargreaves invents the "Spinning Jenny"
  • Stamp Act passed

    Stamp Act passed
  • Townshend Acts passed

    Townshend Acts passed
  • James Watt patens his steam engine

    James Watt patens his steam engine
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
  • Period: to

    Pugachev's rebellion in Russia

  • Publication of Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther

    Publication of Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther
  • Adam Smith published Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith published Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
  • Joseph II becomes emperor of Austrian Empire

    Joseph II becomes emperor of Austrian Empire
  • The Gordon Riots in Britain

    The Gordon Riots in Britain
  • Publication of the Necker Report

    Publication of the Necker Report
  • British surrender at Yorktown

    British surrender at Yorktown
  • Treaty of Paris guaranteeing US independence

    Treaty of Paris guaranteeing US independence
  • Jacques Louis David completes Oath of the Horatii

    Jacques Louis David completes Oath of the Horatii
  • Catherine the Great's "Charter of the Nobility" published

    Catherine the Great's "Charter of the Nobility" published
  • Louis XVI first calls for an 'Estates General'

    Louis XVI first calls for an 'Estates General'
  • The 'Tennis Court Oath' taken

    The 'Tennis Court Oath' taken
  • Attack onn the Bastille prison

    Attack onn the Bastille prison
  • The so-called 'Great Renunciation' of French nobles

    The so-called 'Great Renunciation' of French nobles
  • Louis XVI & his family are forced from Versailles to live in Paris

    Louis XVI & his family are forced from Versailles to live in Paris
  • Louis XVI is executed

    Louis XVI is executed
  • Publication of the Rights of Man

    Publication of the Rights of Man
  • Louis XVI & his family try to escape France

    Louis XVI & his family try to escape France
  • Mary Wollstonecraft publishes her response against Rousseau

    Mary Wollstonecraft publishes her response against Rousseau
  • 'Year One' in the French Revolutionary Calendar declared

    'Year One' in the French Revolutionary Calendar declared
  • Britain declares war on France

    Britain declares war on France
  • Period: to

    La Terreur/The Terror

  • Robespierre is executed

    Robespierre is executed
  • Publication of Schleiermacher's Speeches on Religion to Its Cultured Despisers

    Publication of Schleiermacher's Speeches on Religion to Its Cultured Despisers
  • 'Consulat' established in France

    'Consulat' established in France
  • Napoleon established ties with the papacy

    Napoleon established ties with the papacy
  • Napoleon & Josephine crowned emperor & empress of France

    Napoleon & Josephine crowned emperor & empress of France
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Battle of Austerlitz
  • Treaty of Tilsit signed

    Treaty of Tilsit signed
  • Spanish Rebellion begins

    Spanish Rebellion begins
  • Battle of the Nations/f Leipzig

    Battle of the Nations/f Leipzig
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
  • Napoleon returns to rule for '100 Days'

    Napoleon returns to rule for '100 Days'
  • Publication of (1st edition) of Shell's Frankenstein

    Publication of (1st edition) of Shell's Frankenstein