A war between the Muslims and the Christians for holy land. Crusades brougt crossbows in warfare, advances in trade between italian cities and the Holy Land, and an increase in the power of European kings. 1096-1291
Aug 27, 1300
Michelangelo Begins painting Sistine Chapel
He Painted this picture for 4 years in the Sistine Chapel in Rome. His paintings were momumental and very different from the art in the Middle Ages. Michelangelo was forced by the pope to paint the Sistine Chapel.
Aug 27, 1300
A sustained period of renewed interest and remarkable developments in art, literature, science, and learning. It thrived in Italy due to its thriving cities, increased trade and wealthy merchant class. It lasted from 1300s till 1550.
Sep 11, 1337
100 Years War Begins
A fight between England and France. It wasnt just one war it was many. Manly battles were fought in france.
Aug 25, 1347
Black Death Begins In Europe
Arrived by trade ships from china. The rats with fleas spread the desease. Millions and millions of people died so they had to dig trenches full of bodies.
Sep 5, 1368
Ming Dynasty in China
A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang and his rebel army overthrew the last Mongol emporer. Khu took the name Hongwu and founded the Ming dynasty. Ming China lasted nearly 300 years until 1644. 1368-1644
Oct 13, 1405
Voyages of Zheng He
The Chinese admiral Zheng He led 7 voyages through the Indian Ocean. Visited ports in Southeast Asia, India, Persia, Arabian Peninsula, and Africa. The ships were like traveling cities. 1405-1433
Sep 11, 1431
Joan of Ark burned at the stake
Burned at the stake. She was 19. Captured by the french. Becomes a saint.
Oct 3, 1453
Ottomons conquer Constantinople
A great chieftain arose and found the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomons conquered all the land around but failed to get Constantinople. In 1453 they led a major land and sea assualt against Constantinople. Mehmed made Constantinople his capital which became Islam.
Sep 9, 1455
Johannes Gutenburg - Printing Press
Was the first person to create the printing press with metal plates. The first thing he published was the bible. The explosion of printed material quickly spread Renaissance ideas.
Sep 3, 1492
1st Voyage of Columbus
Christopher Columbus set out to reach Asia by sailing across the Atlantic. They went on for a month before finding land that turned out to be the carribean island.
Oct 9, 1492
Jews, Gypsies, & Moors expelled from Spain
Homes were destroyed and abandoned, mosques were converted into churches, people were becoming poor. By the seventeenth century the Moors had become Spanish citizens some were real christians but they had to leave anyway. In 1492 that the Moorish Kingdom of Granada surrendered to Ferdinand V and Isabella causing the expulsion.
Sep 23, 1497
Da Gama Lands in India
On the way Da Gama stopped at many African ports learning that many muslim merchants were actively trading. The journey took mre than 10 months but him and his crew made it to Calicut in India.
Sep 9, 1500
Slave trade across Atlantic
A shortage of labor in America led to the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. European planters needed large amounts of workers on their plantations. Milions of Africans were forcibly taken to the Americas. 1500-1800
Sep 19, 1500
Copernicus Publishes Heliocentric Theory
Nicolaus Copernicus recognized that the geocentric theory was wrong about the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. He came to conclude that the sun was near the center of the solar system and the earth revovles around the sun.
Oct 9, 1501
East of the Ottomans they were Persian Muslims. They were in conflict with the Ottomans and other Muslims related to Islams split. The founder was 14, Esma'il. He took control of Iran and part of Iraq.In 1588 Abbas became shah (king) and produced a golden age in Safavid culture. 1501-1722
Sep 23, 1502
Naming the New World
America was found by Christopher Columbus an explorer. Later South America found and was named after an explorer Amerigo Vespucci. He decided that what Columbus thought was a known land was actually America.
Aug 29, 1503
Da Vinci paints the "Mona Lisa"
The mona lisa tries to capture the complexity of the human spirit with its mysterious smile. Da Vinci fills over 20,000 pages with notes recording his ideas. 1503-1506
Sep 11, 1517
Martin Luther 95 Theses
This was the year that Martin Luther made his complaints about the church public. He thought selling indulgences was sinful, and critisized the power of the pope and the wealth of the church. He wrote them in latin and posted them on the church door. The thesis were published and was spread across Europe.
Sep 19, 1519
Magellan Starts His "Around the World Trip"
He set out with 5 ships and 250 men. The journey was long and difficult and was killed in a fight at the Philippines. His crew carried on and only 18 survivors made it to Spain becoming the first people to sail completely around the world.
Oct 13, 1526
Mughal Empire begins
Prince Babur was a conqueror. At 11 became King. In1525 he set out to conquer India, they were outnumbered 12,000 to 100,000. They won which was marked as the beginning of a new empire.
Sep 19, 1532
Pizarro invades the Inca Empire
Pizarro had heard that of the Inca Empires wealth and wanted some for himself. The empire that he found was already weak with smallpox, killing many people including the emperor. The new emperor Atahualpa which Pizarro prisoned, stole from, and later killed him.
Sep 23, 1534
Henry VIII founds Angelican Church
When Henry broke from the Catholic Church he founded the church and served as its head. He wanted to make England independent of the pope and increase his personal power.
Oct 9, 1545
Council of Trent
Pope Paul III recognized the need to redifine the doctrines of the Catholic faith. They examined Protestants critisisms and made note of the churches wrong doings. They said the church obused its power, corruption of clergy, and they needed to train preists.
Sep 15, 1556
Philip II Rules Spain
When Charles V gave up his throne he divided the empire between his brother and his son. Philip, his son, ruled the Netherlands, Spain, Silicy, and Spain's colonies in the Americas. 1556-1598
Sep 25, 1558
Elizabeth 1 becomes Queen of England
One of her first acts as queen was to draft a new Supremacy Act in 1559, splitting England from Rome. Firmly established the Church of England.
Age of Enlightment
A cultural movement of intellectuals. It started in the late 17th-century in Europe emphasizing individualism rather than tradition. It spread across Europe to the United States, continuing to the end of the 18th century. 1600-1792
Jamestown, colony in Virginia, founded
The first English colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia, 1607. The settlers of Jamestown hoped to find gold and silver and a river route to the Pacific. All they found was marshy ground and impure water, 80% of them died that winter.
Louis XIV becomes King of France
Louis was raised to be king and was tought the skills since his childhood. He wanted fame for himself and glory for France. Historys best example of an absolute monarch, led France during a time of power and wealth.
Oliver Cromwell rules England
Supporters for Parliament were called Roundheads and the leader was Oliver Cromwell. Rose to army general, camander-in-chief. 1644 led a victory which 4000 of kings soldiers died. in 1646 the King surrendered to the Cromwells troops.
Qing Dynasty in China begins
Qing dynasty ruled from 1644-1911, it became the last dynasty in 3,500 years of imperial rule in China. Under the Qing dynasty's Manchu rulers, China grew and expanded to its largest size in history.
Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathan
Wrote his views on the government. With experience of the violence and upheaval of the English civil war, making him think people are selfesh and greedy. He believed people need government to impose order and to have an exchange between society and government called Social Contract.
Peter I (The Great) Becomes Czar
Peter became czar at age 17 and remeoved his sister from the throne to take power for himself. One of his first acts was to storm Azov, a Black Sea port held by Turks. It was a mistake but it inspired Peter to build a navy.
Catherine the Great rules Russia
Married Czar Peter III in 1761. Wanted to expand Russias territory and make Russia more European. She fell in to trouble when war broke out between Russia and Poland. Russia won gaining half of Poland and the Black Sea for sea trade. 1762-1796
The French Revolution Begins
Long-standing resentments agaisnt the French monarchy brew anger in France. The king was King Louis XVI. Influenced by Enlightenment ideals, mostly the concepts of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights. Lasted from 1789-1815
U.S. Constitution is ratified
New Hampshire became the ninth and last necessary state to ratify the Constitution of the United States making the document the law of the land. It was agreed that government under the U.S. Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789. On September 25, 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted the Bill of Rights and sent them to the states for ratification.
Reign of Terror begins
People were afraid of the Revolution course. Great Britian, Spain, Holland, Australia, and Prussia formed a coalition and made war with France. They made a revolution against the goverment that was formed from a revolution out of fear. They began series of trials and executions.
Napolean Becomes Emperor
Leader of the French armies. He lead a coup against the Directory in 1799 and declared himself leader of France. In 1802, he established the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French law. In 1804 he established the French empire.
Napolean Defeated at Waterloo
Heavy rain delayed the battle till morning. The british were led by Duke of Wellington. There were about 50,000 casualties. The battle was a defeat which ment the end of Napoleans military career and the Napoleonic Wars.
Tokugawa Shogunate ends
Shogunate is military dynasties which Tokugawa gave way to in 1368. Tokugawa Ieyasu the shogun (general) established his capital named Edo. Emporer, shogun, daimyo, samarai made up the warrior class. When Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 15th Tokugawa Shogun resigned it ended in 1867. 1603-1867