Henry the Navigator, was an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and the Age of Discoveries in total. He was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents
Period: Mar 4, 1394 to
Ch. 19-20 World History
Jul 17, 1402
Yonglo becomes Ming Emperor
The Yongle Emperor followed traditional rituals closely and held many popular beliefs. He did not overindulge in the luxuries of palace life, but still used Buddhism and Buddhist festivals to help calm civil unrest.
Jul 11, 1405
Zheng He captains his first voyage
These voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China
Period: Jan 1, 1408 to
World History-Brinley Linton
May 10, 1408
Donatello creates his David statue
David was portrayed after his victory, triumphant over Goliath. Donatello's Davids are depicted standing over Goliath's severed head.
Jan 10, 1440
Johan Gutenberg invents the Printing Press
Ideas to be spread faster. Instead of writing by hand page after page, multiple pages could be printed easily. Also,
Jan 1, 1453
The Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was important to the development of Western Europe
May 29, 1453
Fall of Constantinople to the Turks
It lead to the destruction of the worlds greatest empire.
May 6, 1488
B.Dias reaches Cape of Good Hope
The first modern rounding of the cape in 1488 by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a milestone in the attempts by the Portuguese to establish direct trade relations with the Far East.
May 10, 1488
B Dias reaches Cape of Good Hope
The first European to reach the cape was the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, who named it the "Cape of Storms" (Cabo das Tormentas).
Jan 2, 1492
Ferdinand & Isabella end war with Muslims
Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects and for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus' 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the "New World".
Aug 3, 1492
Christopher Columbus spots land in North America
Though Columbus was not the first European explorer to reach the Americas, Columbus' voyages led to the first lasting European contact with the Americas.
Jul 2, 1494
Spain agrees to Treaty od Tordesillas
The treaty was ratified by Spain (at the time, the Crowns of Castile and Aragon), 2 July 1494 and by Portugal, 5 September 1494
May 20, 1498
Vasco da Gama lands in India
Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama becomes the first European to reach India via the Atlantic Ocean when he arrives at Calicut on the Malabar Coast.
Period: Mar 26, 1500 to
Apr 26, 1500
Nicolaus Copernicus beings studying planetary movement
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who put forth the theory that the Sun is at rest near the center of the Universe, and that the Earth, spinning on its axis once daily, revolves annually around the Sun. This is called the heliocentric, or Sun-centered, system
Jun 11, 1502
Amerigo Vespucci charts New World coast
Colloquially referred to as the New World, this second super continent came to be termed "America", deriving its name from the feminized Latin version of Vespucci's first name
Jan 1, 1503
Leonardo DaVinci starts with the Mona Lisa
The Mona Lisa was the worlds most famous painting.
Feb 11, 1504
H. Cortez lands on Mexican Coast
He led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Apr 10, 1508
Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
The ceiling's various painted elements form part of a larger scheme of decoration within the Chapel, which includes the large fresco, The Last Judgment on the sanctuary wall, also by Michelangelo, wall paintings by several leading painters of the late 15th century.
Aug 15, 1509
Raphael paints School of Athens
The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous mural paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael
Mar 23, 1513
Machiavelli writes The Prince
Machiavelli originally wrote Principe Statue of Machiavelli (The Prince) in hopes of securing the favor of the ruling Medici family, and he deliberately made its claims provocative.
Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses
All Saints' Church in Wittenberg, Saxony, in the Holy Roman Empire, where the Ninety-Five Theses famously appeared, held one of Europe's largest collections of holy relics.
Mar 10, 1520
Suleiman I exercised great power as sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power.
Sep 5, 1529
Portugal agrees to the treaty of tordesillas
The treaty was ratified by Spain (at the time, the Crowns of Castile and Aragon), 2 July 1494 and by Portugal, 5 September 1494
Feb 11, 1532
F. Pizzaro meets Atahualpa
Pizarro meets with the Inca emperor Atahualpa, 1532.
Period: Mar 5, 1533 to
Jul 24, 1535
Jacques Cartier claims land in Canada
More than 200 Iroquois from Stadacona (Québec) were on the peninsula to fish. Initially trusting and cordial, relations were tarnished when Jacques Cartier claimed possession of the territory on July 24
May 19, 1536
Anne Boleyn is executed
Anne was killed because of her miscarige. The king wanted a son and Anne was carrying one.
Oct 12, 1537
Edward VI is born
He was King Henrys first born son
Apr 19, 1541
Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuit order
Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyolas devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by the absoulute obedience to the Pope/
Jan 16, 1547
Ivan the Terrible came to the throne when he was only three years old
His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres.
Jul 19, 1553
Mary I becomes queen
Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after the short-lived Protestant reign of her half-brother.
Nov 17, 1558
Elizabeth I becomes queen
Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance.
Mar 10, 1579
The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands united and declared their independence from Spain
In 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II.
Prince Henry inherited the throne when both Catherine and her last son died
Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen very shortly after Arthur's death.
English East India Company is founded
This time they succeeded, and on 31 December 1600, the Queen granted a Royal Charter to "George, Earl of Cumberland, and 215 Knights, Aldermen, and Burgesses" under the name, Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies.
Johannes Kepler mathematically proves Copernicus and Brahe
At the age of 27, Kepler became the assistant of a wealthy astronomer, Tycho Brahe, who asked him to define the orbit of Mars. Brahe had collected a lifetime of astronomical observations, which, on his death, passed into Kepler’s hands.
Dutch east India Company is founded
In 1602 the Dutch government followed suit, sponsoring the creation of a single "United East Indies Company" that was also granted monopoly over the Asian trade. The charter of the new company empowered it to build forts, maintain armies, and conclude treaties with Asian rulers.
Don Quixote de la Mancha
Don Quixote is considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon. As a founding work of modern Western literature, and one of the earliest canonical novels, it regularly appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published. It has had major influence on the literary community, as evidenced by direct references in Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers and Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Henry Hudson is last seen
Hudson discovered a strait and immense bay on his final expedition while searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied. The mutineers cast Hudson, his son and 7 others adrift; the Hudsons, and those cast off at their side, were never seen again.
William Shakespeare dies
Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century.
Beginning of the Thirty Year’s War
he Thirty Years' War was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history.
James I Died
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death.
15. Galileo publishes his many findings in Dialogue Concerning the Twp Chief World Systems
Galileo considered his theory of the tides to provide the required physical proof of the motion of the earth. This theory was so important to him that he originally intended to entitle his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems the Dialogue on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea.The reference to tides was removed by order of the Inquisition.
Frederick William inherited the title of elector of Brandenburg
Frederick William was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia and thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "The Great Elector" because of his military and political prowess.
Cromwell abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords
The Council's duties were to act as the executive of the country's government in place of the King and the Privy Council. It was to direct domestic and foreign policy and to ensure the security of the English Commonwealth.
The Dutch prince William of Orange became king of England
From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland; it is a coincidence that his regnal number (III) was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".
Thomas Hobbes outlines the social contract in Leviathan
Hobbes's ideal commonwealth is ruled by a sovereign power responsible for protecting the security of the commonwealth and granted absolute authority to ensure the common defense.
La Salle claim Mississippi River for Spain
From Lake Michigan, the party moved south across Illinois and encountered the Mississippi River. From the first expedition, La Salle would have known that the position on the Mississippi was far north of the Ohio. He likely deduced that both rivers flowed South to the river reported by De Soto.
Isaac Newton published his laws of gravity in Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
he Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics, also Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which Kepler first obtained empirically.
Parliament drafted a Bill of Rights
It was the earliest expression of human rights law at the federal level in Canada, though an Implied Bill of Rights had already been recognized
John Locke justifies rebellion in Two Treatises on Government
The Two Treatises begin with a Preface announcing what Locke hopes to achieve, but he also mentions that more than half of his original draft, occupying a space between the First and Second Treatises, has been irretrievably lost.
Peter embarked on the “Grand Embassy”, a long visit to western Europe
The "Grand Embassy", although failing to complete the mission of creating an anti-Ottoman alliance, continued. While visiting the Netherlands, Peter learned much about life in Western Europe.
Peter began building a new city on Swedish lands occupied by Russian troops
Saint Petersburg was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 of May 1703. In 1703 he began building a new city on Swedish lands occupied by Russian troops.
Voltaire is exiled to England
Fearing an indefinite prison sentence, Voltaire suggested that he be exiled to England as an alternative punishment, which the French authorities accepted.
Frederick the Great beings his reign in Prussia
During his own reign, Frederick William I did much to centralize and improve Prussia. He replaced mandatory military service among the middle class with an annual tax, established primary schools, and resettled East Prussia.
Maria Theresa succeeded her father, five months after Frederick II became king of Prussia
She started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it.
Denis Diderot publishes the first volumes of his Encyclopedia
In 1750 an elaborate prospectus announced the project, and in 1751 the first volume was published. This work was unorthodox and advanced for the time.
Seven Years' War begins
The Seven Years' War was a war that took place between 1754 and 1763 with the main conflict being in the seven-year period 1756–1763.
George III becomes the King of Great Britain
His life and reign, which were longer than any other British monarch before him, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia.
The start of the Partition of Poland
The First Partition of Poland was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793
Catherine the Great puts down the serf Rebellion
An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernise Russia along Western European lines. However, military conscription and economy continued to depend on serfdom, and the increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs. This was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev's Rebellion of cossacks and peasants.
Louis became king
Louis XVI was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution.
Declaration of Independence is signed
The Declaration of Independence is the usual name of a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as 13 newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they formed a new nation, the United States of America.
Delegates at the Constitutional Convention sign the Constitution
In all, 55 delegates attended the Constitutional Convention sessions, but only 39 actually signed the Constitution. The delegates ranged in age from Jonathan Dayton, aged 26, to Benjamin Franklin, aged 81, who was so infirm that he had to be carried to sessions in a sedan chair.
New Netherlands becomes New York
Ironically, the English explorer Henry Hudson brought the region to the attention of the Netherlands in 1609 by sailing into New York Bay and up the river that would eventually bear his name.
Joseph II abolishes serfdom in Austria
Joseph abolished serfdom in 1781. Later, in 1789, he decreed that peasants must be paid in cash payments rather than labor obligations. These policies were violently rejected by both the nobility and the peasants, since their barter economy lacked money. He also abolished the death penalty in 1787, and this reform remained until 1795.
First slave revolts in Hispaniola
The Haitian Revolution was a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Republic of Haiti. The Haitian Revolution was the only slave revolt which led to the founding of a state.