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Eric Wagner

  • Period: Oct 3, 1337 to Oct 3, 1453

    Hundred Years' was

    The Hundred Years' War was a time of rapid military evolution. Weapons, tactics, army structure and the social meaning of war all changed, partly in response to the war's costs, partly through advancement in technology and partly through lessons that warfare taught.
  • Period: Oct 3, 1346 to Oct 3, 1353

    Black Death in Europe

    75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1348–50 CE. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, recent analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe indicates that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, probably causing several forms of plague.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1350 to Oct 6, 1450

    height of the hanseatic league

    The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe. It stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (13th to 17th centuries).
  • Period: Oct 6, 1350 to

    The European Renissance (Began: Florence Italy)

    The Renaissance, was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1350 to Oct 6, 1450

    Political Chaos in Germany

    German Revolts over a hundred year period in the 14th and 15th centuries were significant, because they called attention towards the fragmentation and disillusionment of the Holy Roman Empire at the time, while paving the way for the Protestant Reformation, and reform of the Catholic Church. The German people were heavily suppressed, and taxed by the church, and highly ignored by their prince, and their King, Charles V.
  • Oct 3, 1358

    Jacquerine Uprising in France

    Jacquerine Uprising in France
    The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France in the summer of 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt, which was suppressed after a few weeks of violence, centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. This rebellion became known as the Jacquerie because the nobles called peasants as "Jacques".
  • Oct 3, 1378

    Ciompi revolt in Florence

    The Revolt of the Ciompi was a popular revolt in Florence 1378 by wool carders known as ciompi, who rose up to demand a voice in the commune's ordering.The ciompi were a class of labourers in the textile industry who were not represented by any guild. They were among the most radical of the lower-class groups.
  • Period: Oct 3, 1378 to Oct 3, 1417

    Great Schism Divides Papacy

    The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1418. Several men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). The rival claims to the papal chair hurt the reputation of the office. The Western Schism is sometimes called the Great Schism, although this term is also applied to the East–West Schism of 1054.
  • Oct 3, 1381

    Wat Tyler's Rebellion in England

    Wat Tyler's Rebellion in England
    The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the 1340s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years War, and instability within the local leadership of London.
  • Oct 3, 1386

    Union of Lithuania and Poland

    Union of Lithuania and Poland
    The term Polish–Lithuanian Union refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
  • Oct 6, 1390

    Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales

    The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century, during the time of the Hundred Years' War. The tales (mostly written in verse, although some are in prose) are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1397 to Oct 6, 1494

    The Medici Bank

    The Medici Bank (1397–1494) was a financial institution created by the Medici family in Italy during the 15th century. It was the largest and most respected bank in Europe during its prime. There are some estimates that the Medici family was, for a period of time, the wealthiest family in Europe. Estimating their wealth in today's money is difficult and imprecise, considering that they owned art, land, and gold. With this monetary wealth, the family acquired political power initially in Florence
  • Period: Oct 6, 1408 to Oct 6, 1415

    Jan Hus in Bohemia

    a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical Reformation, Hus is considered the first Church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli.
    He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics.
  • Period: Oct 3, 1414 to Oct 3, 1418

    Council of Constance ends the Great Schism: and Bunrs Hus

    Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund of Hungary, who was "King of the Romans" and heir to the Bohemian crown, was anxious to put an end to religious dissension within the Church. To put an end to the papal schism and to take up the long desired reform of the Church, he arranged for a general council to convene on 1 November 1414.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1414 to Oct 6, 1417

    Council of Constance

    The Council of Constance is the 15th century ecumenical council recognized by the Roman Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418. The council ended the Three-Popes Controversy, by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining Papal claimants and electing Pope Martin V.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1420 to Oct 6, 1434

    Hussite Revolt

    After the Council of Constance lured Jan Hus in with a letter of indemnity, then tried him for heresy and put him to death at the stake on 6 July 1415,[1] the Hussites fought the Hussite Wars (1420–1434) for their religious and political cause.
    Among present-day Christians, Hussite traditions are represented in the Moravian Church, Unity of the Brethren, and the refounded Czechoslovak Hussite churches.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1452 to Oct 6, 1519

    Leonardo Da vinci "Renaissance Man"

    painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1473 to Oct 6, 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Polish scientist Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the planets instead revolved around the sun. Although his model wasn't completely correct, it formed a strong foundation for future scientists to build on and improve mankind's understanding of the motion of heavenly bodies.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1475 to Oct 6, 1564

    Michael Angelo

    Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo (Italian pronunciation: , was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal
  • Period: Oct 6, 1485 to

    Rise of the Tudor dynasty

    The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin, descended from Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr, that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship of Ireland, later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry VII, a descendant through his mother of a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster.
  • Oct 6, 1492

    Vasco De Gama

    Setting off in July 1497, da Gama's expedition took advantage of the prevailing winds by sailing south down the coast of Africa, then veering far out into the Atlantic and swinging back in an arc to arrive off the southern African coast. This established a route still followed by sailing vessels.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Italian wars begin/Treaty of Tordesillas

    Italian wars begin/Treaty of Tordesillas
    Signed at Tordesillas Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands invaded by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Spain).
  • Oct 6, 1495

    Last Supper

    Last Supper
    he Last Supper is the final meal that, according to Christian belief, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians especially on Maundy Thursday. Moreover, the Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Rise of Absolutism and Constitutionalism

    Rise of Absolutism and Constitutionalism
  • Oct 6, 1500

    Rise of princes in Germany

    Rise of princes in Germany
    The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals, leadership, and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches.
  • Oct 6, 1503

    Mona Lisa

    Mona Lisa
    The Mona Lisa (La Gioconda or La Joconde) is a half-length portrait of a woman by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, which has been acclaimed as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world."
  • Oct 2, 1509

    Henry VIII

    Henry VIII
    Henry VIII ascends English throne. Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
  • Oct 4, 1516

    Erasmus publishes Greek New Testament; More, Utopia

    Erasmus dedicated his work ironically, to Pope Leo X., and he justly regarded this work as his chief service to the cause of a sound Christianity. Immediately after he began the publication of his Paraphrases of the New Testament, a popular presentation of the contents of the several books. These, like all the writings of Erasmus, were in Latin, but they were at once translated into the common languages of the European peoples, a process which received the hearty approval of Erasmus himself.
  • Oct 2, 1517

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther
    Turks conquer Egypt, control Arabia. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses denouncing church abuses on church door in Wittenberg—start of the Reformation in Germany.
  • Oct 2, 1519

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Ferdinand Magellan
    He left Spain in 1519 with five ships and about 260 men. At first he did not tell his men where they were going because he thought they would be too frightened to obey him.
  • Oct 4, 1520

    Zwingli breaks from Rome

    It was at the Great Minster that Zwingli stated what is called the Zurich Reformation with sermons that were based on the Bible. Zwingli soon converted the city’s council to his points of view. The council pushed the city into becoming a stronghold of Protestantism and Zurich’s lead was followed by Berne and Basle.
  • Oct 2, 1521

    Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

    Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
    The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs in 1521, led by Hernando Cortes, was a landmark victory for the European settlers. Following the Spanish arrival in Mexico, a huge battle erupted between the army of Cortes and the Aztec people under the rule of Montezuma. The events that occurred were crucial to the development of the American lands and have been the subject of much historical debate in present years.
  • Oct 4, 1522

    Luther composes 95 thesis

    Luther composes 95 thesis
    he Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences (Latin: Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum), commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses, was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.
  • Oct 4, 1525

    German Peasants war

    German Peasants war
    The German Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt was a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, 1524–1525. It failed because of the intense opposition of the aristocracy, who slaughtered up to 100,000 of the 300,000 poorly armed peasants and farmers. The survivors were fined and achieved few if any of their goals.
  • Oct 2, 1527

    Holy Roman Empire attack Rome

    Holy Roman Empire attack Rome
    Troops of the Holy Roman Empire attack Rome, imprison Pope Clement VII—the end of the Italian Renaissance. Castiglione writes The Courtier. The Medici family expelled from Florence.
  • Oct 4, 1527

    Charles V sacks Rome

    Charles V sacks Rome
    The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles and the League of Cognac (1526–1529)
    Pope Clement VII had given his support to the Kingdom of France in an attempt to alter the balance of power in the region, and free the Papacy from dependency.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1530 to

    IVan the Terrrible

    Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, yet given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental illness. On one such outburst he killed his groomed and chosen heir Ivan Ivanovich. This left the Tsardom to be passed to Ivan's younger son, the weak and intellectually disabled Feodor Ivanovich. Ivan's legacy is complex: he was an able diplomat, a patron of arts and trade, founder of Russia's first Print Yard.
  • Period: Oct 6, 1561 to

    Francis Bacon

    Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism.[2] His works established and popularized inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific method. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today.
  • Sep 7, 1565

    The Forming of America's Oldest City

    The city of St. Augustine, Florida was settled by the Spanish.
  • Philip II Dies

    Philip II Dies
    The Spanish Empire was in the process of declining due to the cost of fighting, the Dutch, English and French. The debt continued to mount and the an overpopulated peasant class could no longer pay the taxes required to meet the rising expenses. During this time of crisis, Phillip II got cancer and died of his illness.
  • Shakespeare’s Halmet

    Shakespeare’s Halmet
    Halmet is released, and becomes a very popular play that debuts at the Globe Theatre.
  • King James Bible is Authorized

    King James Bible is Authorized
    At Puritan urging, a new translation of the Bible, known as the King James Bible after Elizabeth's successor, James I, was authorized in 1604.
  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    Catholics attempt to kill King James I of England, and other Protestant aristocracy. On the opening day of Parliament, the conspirators blew up the House of Lords. Later became known as Guy Fawkes Day.
  • Johannes Kepler Scientific Advancement

    Johannes Kepler Scientific Advancement
    Johannes Kepler publishes findings that explain the movement of planets around the Sun in his Laws of Planetary Motion. This scientific advancement was later combined with other scientific researches to destroy the old, yet accepted, concepts of Aristotle. This particular finding by Kepler also helped to launch the scientific revolution.
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    Thrity years war

    Largely a religious war between the Protestants and Catholics. Entire regions became devastated, and many powers ended up bankrupt.
  • Pilgrims Left England

    Pilgrims Left England
    The pilgrims, a group of 102 English settlers, sail in the Mayflower to the New World.
  • Petition of Right

    Petition of Right
    Charles needed money to fund his wars, so he agreed to no imprisonment without due cause, no taxation without Parliament's consent, no putting soldiers in personal homes, no marital law during peacetime. Ignored by Parliament.
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    John Locke

    John Locke was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher. Locke's monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) is one of the first great defenses of empiricism and concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to a wide spectrum of topics.
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    Franco-Spanish Wars

    Conlifct that comes as a result of the Thirty Years War. France declared war on Spain because of territorial issues, and ended up winning the war in 1659 thanks to the Treaty of Pyrenees.
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    Supporters of King Charles fought against the Long Parliament and King Charles II and the Rump Parliament. King Charles surrenders after his Cavaliers are defeated at Naseby.
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    Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics.
  • Ukrainian Crossacks rebel

    Ukrainian Crossacks rebel
    Ukrainian Cossacks rebel, what started as a rebellion gained public support and turned into a mass movement against the Polish.
  • Charles I beheaded

    Charles I beheaded
    The end of the English Civil War occurs when Charles I is beheaded for his actions. This is significant because it ends the it ended his tyrannical reign and no king had been beheaded before.
  • Louis XIV takes power in France

    Louis XIV takes power in France
    Cardinal Mazarin dies, and Louis takes power at the age of 23
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV War of Devolution

    France fights against Spain, Dutch Republic, England, and Sweden. The war finally ends with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668, and France gets land in Spanish Netherlands.
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV Dutch War

    France against Dutch Republic, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire. France gains more land in the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comte France.
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    Louis XIV War of the League of Augsburg

    France fights against Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, Spain, and England. Peace of Rijswijk ends the war and Louis returns all of his conquests made since 1678 (except Strasbourg).