Period: 400 to Nov 20, 1500
Middle AgesIt started with the fall of the Westen Roman Empire
-> Call to Crusade
-> Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor
-> Fall of Western Roman Empire
-> Great Schism
-> Muhammad receives first revelations
-> Norman Conquest
-> Reign of Charlemagne
The Fall of the Western Roman EmpireIt had a civil administration based in thriving cities with effective control over public finances. While its legitimacy lasted for centuries and its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again.
Jan 1, 600
Dec 5, 610
Muhammad received first revelationsMuhammad is said to have been visited by the angel Gabriel who revealed to him a verse from the Qur'an. It was after this event that he proclaimed himself to be a prophet of Allah.
Jan 1, 700
Period: Nov 11, 788 to Nov 11, 814
Reign of CharlemagneKnown as Charles the Great, or Charles the First, was King of the Franks from AD 768-814.
Territory: West Frankish Kingdom, Central Kingdom of Lothairg, Status of the Church and The East Frankish Kingdom of Louis the German
Jan 1, 800
Dec 25, 800
Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman EmperorHe was the ruler of the Franks. Charlemagne had gone to Rome to help put the affairs of the church in order when he was crowned
Jan 1, 900
Jan 1, 1000
Aug 18, 1054
Great Schismis the medieval division of Chalcedonian Christianity into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church
Dec 25, 1066
Norman ConquestThe invasion and subsequent occupation of England by an army of Normans and French led by Duke William II of Normandy
Nov 27, 1095
The Call to the CrusadeThe First Crusade: Militar expedition by Roman Catholic Europe to gain the Holy Land which was taken by the Muslims
Jan 1, 1100
Jan 1, 1200
Jan 1, 1300
Period: Jan 1, 1300 to Dec 31, 1500
The RenaissanceTransition from the Middle Ages to the Modern Era
The Middle Ages provided the bases for the modern Era; thus, the Renaissance marks the transition between the two periods.
Important events of the Renassince:
-> Black Death
-> Science Update
-> Fall of Religion
Nov 21, 1300
Science UpdateThe invention of new instruments, such as the telescope, made fresh scientific discoveries possible. Above all, the printing press spread new ideas quickly and easily.
Especially significant in the Scientific Revolution were discoveries in astronomy. These discoveries would overturn the conception of the universe held by Westerners in the Middle Age.
Nov 21, 1300
Art in the RenaissanceRenaissance art the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the Renaissance, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400.
Nov 21, 1309
Fall of ReligionThe Scientific Method atracted many people that stoped beleiving in the lies of the church and started to beleive in the humanisms and the scientific method
Period: Jan 1, 1337 to Nov 10, 1429
Hundred Years WarFrance and England fought for territory. This brought as consequence the improval of warfare such as the power of monarchs
Period: Jan 1, 1347 to Dec 31, 1353
The Black DeathThis was the most ruinous natural disaster, almost 50% of the population died. The trade decreases and the ones that remained alive had a very big economic increase
Period: Nov 21, 1378 to Nov 21, 1417
The Western SchismWas a split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417
Jan 1, 1400
Dec 23, 1450
HumanismsThe dominant intellectual movement in the educated classes of Europe specialized in humanistic subjects:
-> Grammar (Chiefly Latin)
-> Rethoric (persuasive speaking and writting)
-> Moral Philosophy
Period: Apr 6, 1453 to
Age of DiscoveryPeriod in wich Europeans explored Afreca and America. It started with the fall of Constantinople.
-> World Linked trade
-> A new World
-> The triangle Trade
-> Supply of Products
-> Ptolemy's Geography
Nov 21, 1453
Fall of the Estern Roman Empire
Oct 12, 1492
A new WorldWe have an accurate abstract of the journal written by Bartolome de las Casas in the 1530s wich says that CHristopher Colombus arrived to this "unknown and exotic lands" and declared it "India".
After this new world will be conquer by the spaniards and will be named as America.
Jan 1, 1500
Period: Jan 1, 1500 to
The Scientific RevolutionA number of changes caused these philosophers to abandon their old views and develop new ones
-> The Ptolemaic System
-> Copernicus and Kepler
-> The scientific Method
Nov 21, 1512
The Triangular Tradethe transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe.
Nov 21, 1512
Supply of ProductsA classic example would be the trade of sugar (often in its liquid form, molasses) from the Caribbean to Europe or New England, where it was distilled into rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa, where they were bartered for slaves. The slaves were then brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe, e
Period: Feb 14, 1517 to
The reformationsIt started with the Martin Luther's Theses. It was the creation of new protestan catholic churches.
-> Martin Luther 95 Theses
-> The Black Death
-> The Western Schism
-> Fall of the Estern Roman Empire
-> Invention of the Printing Press
Nov 21, 1517
Martin Luther 95 ThesesThis 95 Theses are considered the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.
Period: Aug 3, 1524 to
The Wars of ReligionThe Hundred Years War was a series of Wars in Europe, following the protestant reformation.
-> The Radicals
-> French Wars of Religion
-> The thirty Years War
-> Peasants War
-> The 80 years War in the Low Countries
Sep 16, 1535
Ptolemiac's GeographyIt is a treatise on cartography and a compilation of what was known about the world's geography in the Roman Empire of the 2nd century. Ptolemy relied mainly on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian empire.
Sep 11, 1543
Copernicus and KeplerNicholas Copernicus published his famous book, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. Copernicus, a mathematician, felt that the geocentric system was too complicated. He believed that his heliocentric , or sun-centered, conception of the universe offered a more accurate explanation. Copernicus argued that the planets revolved around the Sun.
Nov 21, 1544
Galileo's TheoryHe was the first European to make regular observations of the heavens using a telescope. With this tool, Galileo discovered that the materials that "Heavenly Bodies" have is thge same that we can find in the earth.
Mar 9, 1568
The 80 years War in the Low CountriesIt began as a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
The Thrity Years WarSeries of Wars for supremacyin the Holy Roman Empire. The Bourbons against the Hapsburgs (Holy Roman Empire)
Absolutism and ConstitusionalismAbsolutism in France, and Constitusionalism in England.
Most important Events: (Absolutism)
-> The reign of Louis XIV (1638-1715)
-> Divine Right
-> Religion Main Events: (Constitusionalism)
-> The Stuarts: James the First (1603-1625)
-> Charles I (1625 – 1649)
-> English Civil War (1642-1649)
-> The Commonwealth (1649-1659)
-> The Restoration: Charles II (1660-1685)
-> James II (1685-1688)
-> The Glorious Revolution (1688-89)
The reign of Louis XIV (1638-1715)He was a Bourbon from France he was well aware of the growing discontent of the French population against the absolute monarchy
Newton's TheoriesIn the first book of the Principia, Newton defined the three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies, as well as objects on Earth. Crucial to his whole argument was the universal law of gravity, which explains why the planetary bodies do not go off in straight lines but instead continue in elliptical orbits about the Sun.
The EnligthemmentThe Enlightenment was an eighteenth-century philosophical movement lead by intellectuals who were greatly influenced by the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. They wanted to use the scientific method to understand better humanity
Philosophes and Their IdeasThe intellectuals of the Enlightenment were known by the French name philosophe, meaning “philosopher.” Not all philosophes were French, and few were philosophers in the strict sense of the term.
The Enlightenmentphilosophical movement lead by intellectuals who were greatly influenced by the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.
-> The Enligthemment
-> Philosophes and Their Ideas
-> Charles-Louis de Secondant, the Baron of Montesquieu
-> Denis Diderot
-> The Social World of the Enlightenment
The Social World of the EnlightenmentThe ideas of the Enlightenment were spread more easily as the eighteenth century saw the growth of publishing and of the reading public. More and more books were available to more and more people, including for the first time the middle classes and women. At the same time, magazines were developed for the general public and daily newspapers became more available.
Charles-Louis de Secondant, the Baron of Montesquieupublished his most famous work , The Spirit of the Laws, in 1748. In this study of governments, he tried to use the scientific method to find the natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings.
Louis XVII accpted the constitutional MonarchyLouis the XVII was forced to accept the constitutional monarchy so that the people were happy, apereantly.
Denis DiderotHis most significant contribution to the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts and Trades, a 28-volume collection of knowledge that he edited. The Encyclopedia was supposed to ¨change the general way of thinking¨ according to Diderot.
The Tennis Court OathIt was the reunion of trhe 3rd Estate of France wich started the rebelion.
The Storming of the BastilleThe people of the 3rd estate attacked the Bastille wich was a symbol of the absolutism. They freed the prisoners and destroyed the Bastille.
The French RevolutionThe monarchy that ruled France was eliminated in 3 years
-> 1789 Revolution begins with the Tennis Court Oath (June) and the storming of the Bastille (July)-> 1790: Louis XVI forced to accept that France became a constitutional monarchy-> 1792: France is declared a republic and the the monarchy is abolished-> 1793-1794- Reign of Terror lead by Robespierre-> 1795-1799- The Directory rules until Napoleon takes over
France is declared a republicFrance is declared a republic and the the monarchy is abolished, Louis and Mary are killed and everything goes to Robespier.
Reign of Terror lead by Robespierre1793-1794- Reign of Terror lead by Robespierre. He reigins with a very strict format and murdered many people just because he wanted.
Napoleon takes over1795-1799- The Directory rules until Napoleon takes over.