A war between Christians and Muslims over holy land. Several crusades and continued from 1095-1291. This is important because it brought many changes including the cross bow, increased trade, and increased King's powers.
Aug 29, 1300
Began in Italy because of trade, cities, and merchants. Humanism became an idea where people started thinking moe about themselves. The renaissane is important because many changes came about during the time period.
Sep 5, 1337
100 year war begins
Put France and England kings at war. King of England claimed he was the next king of France. This is important because England recognized the France was to strong for them to be attacked. Joan of Arc comes into play during this time. 100 years war is a debated name
Aug 25, 1347
Black Death began in Europe
Wiped out 1/3 of European. Carried by fleas on rats which were on trade ships. that's why it spread all over. This is important because trust in the church lessened and the social classes changed dramatically.
Sep 19, 1368
Ming Dynasty China
Founded after Mongols were over-thrown. Dynasty lasted near 300 years until 1644.During Ming dynasty taxes were reduced and agriculture trade was increased.
Sep 3, 1431
Joan of Ark burned at stake
Joan wasn't even 20 (19) and she saved France. She is well known and is one of the patron saints. It's important because France was saved and Dauphin was crowned king. Charged with heiracy. Became a saint in 1920.
Oct 1, 1453
Ottomans conquer Constantinople
Big trigger that shows europeans to go West. Takes away from Catholics. Used massive gun powder cannons to destroy wall and after 2 months Constanople fell.
Sep 9, 1455
johannes gutenberg- printing press
Was important because it allowed news and ideas to be spread more quickly. First book printed was bible. Made books more used.
Sep 17, 1492
1st voyage- Columbus
Didn't expect the world to be so large so expected expedition to be shorter. He and his crew sailed for a month before finding land. Believed he had found Asia when in fact he had discovered San Salvador.
Oct 15, 1492
Jews, gypsies, and moors expelled from spain
During the catholic era more than 100,000 jews along with thousands of gypsies and moores were forced from Spain. During this time Jews were captured and taken out on boats and dumped into the ocean. Thousands of them died trying to reach safety.
Sep 17, 1498
Da Gama lands in India
On the way Gama stopped at many African ports. After 10 months he and his crew reached/landed India. On another expedition claimed land now known as Brazil.
Sep 15, 1500
Copernicus Heliocentric Theory
Pointed out that the movement of the Earth, sun, and moon was not explained. Discovered that the Earth revolves around the sun. This is important because it showed that the sun was the center of the solar system, not the Earth.
Sep 23, 1500
slave trade across Atlantic
Americans needed many workers to run lantations. american idians had been used before european diseases killed millions. Africans were forced to america to work. 1500-1800
Oct 9, 1501
Conflict soon became apparent between Safavid's and other muslims. The result was the Islam split. Safavid's vs. Other muslims aka Shia vs. Sunnis. 1501-1722
Oct 9, 1502
Naming New World
Amerigo Vespucci sailed along the east coast of South America and conclused America wasn't part of Asia but new land. After hearing this news, America was named after Amerigo but female-d the name. This discovery lead to the discovery of the Pacific ocean.
Sep 5, 1503
Painting tried to capture a human spirit with mysterious smile. Continues to be admired today. It's important because it represents the time period and causes the admirer to ask many questions. 1503-1506
Sep 29, 1505
voyages of zheng he
1505-1533. Chinese Muslim Admiral. Led 7 voyages around Indian Ocean. Went as far as Africa. To show China's power he sailed in fleets of 300 ships.
Aug 27, 1508
Michelangelo begins painting Sistine Chapel
The chapel's ceiling was 47 feet high and took four years to paint. The scenes painted depicted events and people from the bible. This is important because it's a monument and is known as one of the world's greatest masterpieces. 1508-1511
Sep 11, 1517
martin Luther 95 theses
Nailed 95 complaints of the church to the church doors. The complaints were printed and word spread. This is important because the people's view of the church shifted.
Sep 15, 1519
Magellan starts "around the world" trip
Set sail to the west to search for asia. 5 ships, 250 men. after months reached the phillipines and died in battle against natives. in 1522, the 18 survivors reached spain.
Oct 9, 1526
Mughal Empire begins
After Babur returned to India and defeated the Dehli rulers. The Mughal Empire was one of the best civilizations in history. Babur died shortly after his defeat and passed rule to his grandson Akbar the Great.
Sep 17, 1532
Pizzaro invades the Inca Empire
Went to Peru after hearing of the Inca's wealth. The empire had weakened due to Small Pox and the Spanish took of the empire after killing the emporer and the Inca army. Pizzaro converted the capital to christianity and took their fortunes.
Sep 25, 1534
Henry VIII founds anglican church
Breaks away from catholic church and founds his own church that he becomes head of. Henry shared land with nobles that supported the split from the church. during this he annulled his arriage,
Oct 9, 1545
Council of Trent
Met on and off until 1564.Its delegates examined the criticisms made by Protestants about Catholic practices. Rejected the Protestants’ emphasis on self-discipline and individual faith.
Sep 25, 1556
Phillip II rules Spain
Charles V gave his rule 1/2 to hs brither and then 1/2 his son took over (Phillip). he ruled netherlands, spain, sicily colonies in america.Charles V lived the rest of his life unfulfilling his dream of an unified empire.
Sep 23, 1558
Elizabeth I becomes queen
Passed laws that favored Protestantism. She refused to marry as she felt it would limit her freedom. People often questioned her though.
age of enlightenment
Also known as age of reason. Reason was seen as the best way to understand the truth. The conclusion was that reason could be used to solve all human problems.
Jamestown, colony in Virginia, founded
Was the first English colony. Gold, silve, and a river route to the Pacific was hoped to be found. They found marshes and impure water. 80% died within the first winter.
Louis XIV becomes King of France
After King Louis XIII died, the next year crown was passed to son. Reign had long lasting effect on France. Became king at young age with his mother at his side.
qing dynasty in china begins
last imperical rule in china for 3500 years. China became prosperous and became the largest it's ever been. Manchu rulers maintained traditions and customs
Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathan
About Hobbes's view on the government. His experience of the violence of the war caused him to be persuaded that people were greedy. Hobbes thought the government needed more order, agreed that people's freedoms should be exchanged for the agreement of peace and safety.
Oliver Cromwell rules england
Was a member of parliment and lead the roundhead forces. Rose to leadership by leading the army. In 1646 the king surrendered after seeing his army was outmatched by cromwell's.
Peter I becomes czar
sister believed him to be too young so she ruled for him until he reached the age of 17. Attacked a black sea port ending disasterous. This bad ending insoired him to build a navy.
Catherine The Great rules Russia
After husband became czar, many nobles became infuriated by his rule. The new czar was murdered and Caterine gained rule. Catherine worked to expand Peter's westernized ideas and even built a statue of him.
U.S. Constitution is ratified
Was a large part James Madison's work. US constitution was to show that the government works to serve the people and seperated the government into 3 branches. The Bill of Rights was added 3 years later.
french revolution begins
Resentment against the French fueled anger in 1780s. The French had an unequal structure of government and society; putting the king on top. France was also in debt and that affected much of the country.
Reign of Terror begins
Many people were concerned about the coure the Revolution was taking. Many French even criticized it.Some revolutionary leaders worried they would lose control. Many took extreme actions to prevent a counter revolution.
napoleon becomes Emperor
Nappoleon wanted to make his power permanent. French voters supported Napoleon. Right as the pope was going to crown Napoleon, Napoleon took the crown and placed it on his own head. This showed no one gave him his authority-he tookmit from himself.
Napoleon defeated @ Waterloo
Napoleon's troops vs. British troops led by Duke of Wellington. June 8th 1815, the armies met at Waterloo, a Belgain village. fight started late morning and lasted all day until Napoleon and the french army was drove away when the british allies the Prussians came to their aid.
Tokugawa Shogunate Ends
Past emporer had won a battle and then passed throne to Tokugawa. During rule, he largely controlled the diamyo. Required dismyo to live away from families part of the year as hostages. Under his rule, the social structure became even more harsh.