Title

Test 1 Study Guide

  • Jan 2, 1016

    Kiev

    Kiev
    The capital of Russia during medieval times and was develped into a political and cultural center, with architecture rivaling that of Constantinople.
  • Sep 21, 1054

    Russians

    Russians
    After the death of Yaroslavthe Wise his sons fought for the throne and developed three cultural groups, Great Russians, White Russians, and the Little Russians.
  • Sep 23, 1095

    Sales of Indulgences, Nepotism, Simony

    Sales of Indulgences, Nepotism, Simony
    These were all things that Protestants did not agree with and thought were against spirituality, indulgences, for example, were a way to pay off your sins to the church and to your priest. So if you commited a crime and gave the church 20 pounds than you were forgiven by the Lord.
  • Sep 21, 1198

    Pope Innocent III

    Pope Innocent III
    This is at the top of papal power when Innocent could declare saints, dispose of benefices and create centralized papal monarchy. He strenghthened the church politically but hurt it spiritually.
  • Oct 24, 1243

    Mongols and Genghis Khan

    Mongols and Genghis Khan
    The Mongols were a strong group of people that swept across east Europe and took over Russia for quite some time. Ghenghis Khan invaded Russia in 1223 and Kiev fell to his grandson. Khan was a very powerfull leader and took lots of land in a small amount of time. He is easily one of histories greatest leaders.
  • Sep 21, 1250

    College of Cardinals

    College of Cardinals
    The purpose of this organization was to minimize political influence on the election of new popes, but it became so politicized that it failed in it's duties.
  • Sep 21, 1261

    Pope Urban IV

    Pope Urban IV
    While under his rein the papacy established its own law court which tightened and centralized the church's legal proceedings. They began taxation to fund the many crusades they would go on.
  • May 15, 1265

    Dante and the Divine Comedy

    Dante and the Divine Comedy
    Some of his comidical writings go hand in hand with Petrarch's sonnets to form the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature.
  • Period: Nov 21, 1274 to Feb 21, 1449

    Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival of the medieval church

    The church of this time fell into a spiral of problems and people started to name their own popes, to a point where there were many different popes at one time. It took quite some time, but the church had to go through a lot to get back to it's original state.
  • Jul 17, 1278

    Visconti Family

    Visconti Family
    A family who started their rule and ended it at the beginning of the Renaissance and gave off to the Sforza family to go on with lots of success.
  • Sep 21, 1294

    Pope Boniface

    Pope Boniface
    Boniface was pope during a time of war between England and France and was trying to stand against them in the taxation of his clergy. He didn't yet realize that the political powers of this nation were much further gone than the papacy.
  • Dec 2, 1304

    Francesco Petrarch

    Francesco Petrarch
    He is called "the father of humanism" because he gave up his legal proffesion and went into the field of poetry and letters. He mixes classical and christian values in his work like most humanists after him.
  • Sep 21, 1309

    Babylonian Captivity

    Babylonian Captivity
    Pope Clement V moved the papacy to Avignon to avoid confrontations with the French and Romans.
  • Apr 23, 1316

    Pope John XXII

    Pope John XXII
    He tried to restore papal independence, this goal of his would eventually lead him into war with the Visconti. He would soon make the papacy a sophisticated international agency and get ajusted to the new money system of Europe.
  • Period: May 1, 1337 to Oct 31, 1453

    The Hundred Years War and Rise of National Setiment

    The war of England and France over power would last even longer than a hundred years, and was caused by Edward III because of him claiming the Frence throne. There were many pivital battles, but the battle of Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt that affected the people in the biggest ways.
  • Sep 21, 1346

    Battle of Crecy

    Battle of Crecy
    The battle of Crecy was the first series of fights and the English dominated in Normandy. There the king seized the port of Calais. The fight would have contiued if not for the Black Death which became a forced treaty on both sides.
  • Period: Apr 30, 1348 to Nov 6, 1350

    The Black Death

    A bubonic plague that followed the trade routes from Asia into Europe and wiped out a portion of Europe. Some popular remedies for this disease were to wear aromatic amulets, to live in moderation and a temperate life, while others chose seclusion to get away from the disease. The peoples often thought that a corruption of the atmosphere caused the plague or poisonous fumes released by earthquakes. Farm Laborers quit and allowed the wages of skilled artisans to skyrocket.
  • Sep 21, 1356

    Battle of Poitiers

    Battle of Poitiers
    The battle at Poitiers was one of the greatest English vitories becuase they routed France's noble calvary and captured their King, Jonh II the Good. They brought him back to England and caused a political breakdown in France.
  • May 9, 1360

    Peace of Bretigny

    Peace of Bretigny
    England forced this document on the French that declared an end to Deward's vassalage to the king of France and affirmed his soverignty over English territories in France. They also had to pay 3 million gold crowns for the release of King John.
  • Dec 27, 1370

    Pope Gregory XII

    Pope Gregory XII
    Reestablished the papacy in Rome and he ended the Babylonian Captivity of the church in Avignon, biblical bondage of the Israelites. After Gregory died many things went down hill for the church and all of Europe.
  • Sep 22, 1373

    Brothers of the Common Life

    Brothers of the Common Life
    A religious community designed to bring people of the same beliefs together and would be widely known through Europe and would spread through Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.
  • Period: Oct 16, 1375 to Dec 23, 1527

    The Renaissance in Italy

    A period of time where religion, culture, and politics changed to what they are today and how people handled this exciting time period.
  • Jun 12, 1380

    Grand Duke Dimitri

    Grand Duke Dimitri
    He defeated the Tatar forces and marked the begining of the decline of Mongol power, With his victory Russia was able to obtain it's land and pride.
  • Sep 21, 1384

    John Wycliff and John Huss

    John Wycliff and John Huss
    Wycliff was trying to justifie the demands of the Lollards while Huss was trying to moderate the Jussites requests, but both would agree on more than they thought. Wycliff wrote and communicated his opinions and the opinions of his people throughout his lifetime, he would preach in the vernacular, disseminate translations of the holy scripture , and go against poverty. Huss would become the follower of Wycliff in 1410 and would fight for his beleifs until his death.
  • Feb 7, 1389

    Cosimo de Medici

    Cosimo de Medici
    The wealthiest Florentine and a natural statesman that would continue his family to have complete control over Florence and to own much of the people and what they did. A political genious that changed many things like art, education, and politics.
  • Mar 4, 1394

    Henry the Navigator

    Henry the Navigator
    A Portugese explorer and trader who searched West Africa for new trade routes and was a big deporter and exporter of slaves and goods from the African towns that he explored.
  • Sep 23, 1400

    Humansim

    Humansim
    The rise of scholarship during the Renaissance and humanist interests in returing classical texts instead of focusing so intently on the religious ones. It is also a belief that there is no higher power besides us and that we must regonize that.
  • Sep 23, 1414

    The Great Schism

    The Great Schism
    The Great Schism was ended in 1414 by the Council of Constance and was a conflict between Clement VII and Urban VI that both claimed religious authority over all of Europe. This resulted in the weakening of the church and it's unity.
  • Oct 25, 1415

    Battle of Agincourt

    Battle of Agincourt
    Henry V struck Normandy while the French were in internal turmoil, the Burgandians sat on the sidelines instead of stepping in to help.
  • Sep 15, 1431

    Joan of Arc is executed

    Joan of Arc is executed
    Joan of Arc came to aid King Charles in the victory over England, in desperation the king allowed her to take some troops to battle, but she did well and achieved the first of many victories. Later she was captured and then executed by the English as a heretic.
  • Mar 16, 1449

    Conciliar Movement and Sacrosancta

    Conciliar Movement and Sacrosancta
    The conciliar theory sought to fashion a church in which a representative council could effectively regulate the actions of the pope. It was a council that was supposed to have more authority than the pope all together. The sacrosancta was a declaration that the council asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope, Martin V after three other popes.
  • Jun 30, 1449

    Lorenzo The Magnificent

    Lorenzo The Magnificent
    His brother was assasinated which made him a determined and skilled ruler for the Medici family. He ruled Florence in almost totalitarian fashion during the last, quarter of the fifteenth century.
  • Mar 7, 1450

    Venice and Merchant Oligarchy

    Venice and Merchant Oligarchy
    Venice was a small oligarchy but it had a hand full of rich and powerful merchant - artisans that helped keep it going.
  • Mar 22, 1450

    Reniassance art

    Reniassance art
    Chiaroscuro and Linear Perspective were executed by Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Raphael. Leonardo is a true master of many skills including linear perspective and chiaroscuro, within many of his pieces he included many different shadows, 3-d figures and dimensions. Michelangelo has lots of linear perspective in his sculpture of David with a symetric theme to it. Raphael is a man of great skill when it comes to chiaroscuro and linear perspective, The School of Athens is a great example.
  • Nov 13, 1450

    Sforza family and Ludovico

    Sforza family and Ludovico
    Sforza family ruled without constitutional restraints or serious political competition Part of Milan, it prospered as a nation. Ludovico was the Duke of Milan and from the Sforza family, He was a patron of Leonardo DaVinci.
  • Sep 21, 1452

    Girolamo Savonarola

    Girolamo Savonarola
    Italian dominican friar and preacher during the Renaissance in Florence, said to have predictied the death of Lorenzo de Medici.
  • Aug 24, 1453

    Florentine Platonic Academy

    Florentine Platonic Academy
    This was established under Cosimo de Medici and was based on the ideals of people who wanted to attend a informal gathering of influential Florentine humanists devoted to the revival of platos works.
  • Mar 9, 1454

    Amerigo Vespucci

    Amerigo Vespucci
    A Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer who first said that the Americas were not connected to Asia. With this discovery he named the Americas after himself.
  • Apr 9, 1454

    Treaty of Lodi

    Treaty of Lodi
    Peace agreement between Milan, Naples, and Florence which established boundaries for all of these to follow and not go beyond.
  • Mar 14, 1466

    Erasmus

    Erasmus
    Gained a lot of fdame with his educational and religious reforms that were spread by the printing press. He was a devoted Catholic that wanted major reforms in the church before anyone else.
  • Sep 22, 1468

    Johann Gutenberg

    Johann Gutenberg
    Invented the first printer with moveable type that would transform Europe and the world allowing works of literature to be duplicated and spread all across the lands with high demand.
  • Mar 4, 1473

    Thomas Wolsey

    Thomas Wolsey
    Wolsey was an English political figure and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, when Henry VIII became King Wolsey also became the kings almoner. He became extremely powerful in the church and was promoted to Lord Chancellor.
  • Sep 22, 1478

    Thomas More

    Thomas More
    Humanist who wrote the well known book Utopia which can easily rival some of shakspeares work and was about an imaginary society based on reason and tolerance that overcame social and political injustice.
  • Oct 2, 1478

    Baldassarre Castiglione Book of the Courtier

    Baldassarre Castiglione Book of the Courtier
    This book containes a practical guide for hte nobility at the court of Urbino, and embodies the highest ideals of Italian humanism. It illustrates the rediscovered knowledge of the past as a model and a challenge to the present.
  • Sep 23, 1480

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Ferdinand Magellan
    A Portugese explorer who organized the first Spanish expedition to the East Indies that resulted in the first circumnavigation of the World.
  • Nov 10, 1483

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther
    A German friar who dedicated himself to the Catholic faith, but then diagreed greatly with the indulgences and the difficulties of priests staying pure. He posted 95 theses on these opinions of his and the papacy responded by excommunicating him and then he lived the rest of his life starting a new religion named Protestantism.
  • Sep 23, 1484

    Ulrich Zwingli

    Ulrich Zwingli
    He headed the reformation in Switerland, and he successfully petitioned for the end of clerical celibacy. Later he oppossed the sales of indulgences and religious superstitions. He also allowed the right to marry in the Protestant views.
  • Jan 1, 1485

    Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell

    Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell
    They were sympathizers who would help Henry VIII declare himself the supreme ruler over Europe. They enabled him to take charge of the Church of England and put an end to Catholic interferences and his policies.
  • Oct 23, 1491

    The Society of Jesus and the Ignatius of Loyola

    The Society of Jesus and the Ignatius of Loyola
    The society of jesus was a Christian male religious congregation of the Catholic Church and they called themselves the Jesuits. Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish knight and a theologian who was the founder of the society of jesus.
  • Nov 11, 1491

    Martin Bucer

    Martin Bucer
    He was a Strasburg reformer who influenced Calvin and his future decisions as a leader. He was forced to exile during the Augsburg Interim, and would help draft the religious texts of the English Reformation.
  • Feb 23, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    This is the year that Christopher Columbus will discover the Americas. He set out on a journey and would conquer new land, bring back supplies and riches, and start a cultural movement within the Americas that was sometimes devastating to the natives.
  • Sep 23, 1492

    Clerical immorality and absenteeism

    Clerical immorality and absenteeism
    The oath taken by priests or of higher religious authority that meant that you would have no sexual relations or emotional in order to stay a loyal servant to God. Absenteeism is when a Bishop is ordaned of a church and does not ever step into that church until his death (in extreme cases).
  • Sep 24, 1492

    William Tyndale

    William Tyndale
    He became the chief minister to Henry VIII and guided the royal response to English Protestantism. He is well known for translating the bible to English and was killed for heresy. He made a big impact on the english language including inventing some words that we still use like Passover.
  • Sep 21, 1495

    League of Venice

    League of Venice
    The pope formed an alliance known as the League of Venice and it was used for authority against other nations who didn't fully agree to the terms and conditions of the pope.
  • Feb 24, 1500

    Charles V and Diet of Augsburg

    Charles V and Diet of Augsburg
    The diet of which the Imperial Diet would hold meetings in the German city of Augsburg. Charles V who attended these meetings was the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and he was much against the Protestant Reformation. The Diet was directed to approve of battles and other things that fell to there feet.
  • Sep 21, 1505

    Ivan the Great

    Ivan the Great
    He would bring all of northern Russia under Moscow's control and end Mongol rule. Moscow then replaced Kiev as the political and religious center of Russia.
  • Jul 10, 1509

    John Calvin

    John Calvin
    He was the leader of the Calvinists who believed in divine predestination which means that every decision you make has already been decided for you and you just have to live it out according to God. They believe in the unity of the church and state and stressed the sovereignty of God over all creation.
  • Dec 24, 1509

    Henry VIII

    Henry VIII
    He was a king with many wives, but first he married Catherine of Aragon and could not produce a male heir which was not acceptable to him. So he converted himself to Anglicanism in order to divorce her and marry many others until a male heir was produced.
  • Feb 18, 1516

    Mary I and Catholic Restoration

    Mary I and Catholic Restoration
    Mary was the queen of England and Ireland and was called "bloody mary" because of her executions of Protestants. Mary was very loyal to her Roman Catholic faith and decided to try to restore the kingdom to the Catholic teachings that she lived by.
  • Period: Feb 25, 1517 to

    The Protestant Reformation

  • Mar 31, 1519

    Henry II and Henry IV

    Henry II and Henry IV
    Henry II favored the persecution of the Huguenots while his much later heir would go to wipe this behavior towards the Huguenots out of Europe. They had many different ideals but they were seperated by more than 200 years which means that the ideals of France changed with the times.
  • Apr 13, 1519

    Catherine de Medicis and January Edict

    Catherine de Medicis and January Edict
    Catherine had a much different view on her Protestant bretheren, so much to accept them and seek them out as allies. The January Edict stated that Protestants could have the freedom to worship outside towns and hold synods.
  • Sep 24, 1520

    Huguenots

    Huguenots
    French Protestants who were persecuted under Henry II and it would continue until Henry IV in 1789. These peoples were greatley influenced by the bible and would go on to live by it and would be persecuted for a majority of their medieval existance.
  • Apr 24, 1533

    Netherlands and William of Orange

    Netherlands and William of Orange
    He was a ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands and the founder of the branch House of Orange - Nassua. He was the main leader of the Dutch result against the Spanish causing the Eighty years war.
  • Sep 7, 1533

    Elizabeth I and the Act of Supremacy

    Elizabeth I and the Act of Supremacy
    She was the Queen of England and was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The Act of Supremacy was first passed by her father in 1534 but then she changed it by trying to make herself the head of the church and by changing 9 other things/definitions.
  • Sep 7, 1533

    Elizabeth , Pirates, and the Execution of Mary Queen of the Scots

    Elizabeth , Pirates, and the Execution of Mary Queen of the Scots
    Elizabeth I was a half sister to Mary I, she didn't agree with her sister's decision to restore Catholism so she undid it and would then pass the Act of Supremacy that would make her supreme governor of religious and secular affairs. Mary Queen of the Scots was executed by Elizabeth because she believed that she was a threat. The pirates of this age would do anything for money including Elizabeth hiring them to help her defeat the Spanish Armada.
  • Feb 14, 1545

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    This was a council that was dominated by Italians and they would make reforms in internal church affairs like selling of church offices. They strenghthen the authority of local bishops and required new rules to be visible and accessible to their congregation.
  • Jul 30, 1546

    Schmalkaldic Wars, Schmalkaldic League and the Peace of Augsburg

    Schmalkaldic Wars, Schmalkaldic League and the Peace of Augsburg
    The war of this league was led by Charles V was a short lived set of victories over the Lutheran princes and cities. The League of Schmalkaldic was a German Pretestant military federation based on an agreement made at Schmalkalden in Thuringia in 1530. The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the League in 1555.
  • Jun 9, 1547

    Edward VI

    Edward VI
    This was Henry's son would presided over the flourishing Protestantism in England. He was made king at the age of nine becasue of the sudden death of his father. He oversaw all vestiges of Catholicism and removed from churches and English life.
  • Period: Sep 24, 1562 to

    French Wars of Religion

  • Oct 7, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    Battle of Lepanto
    A fleat of the Holy League would defeate a main fleet of the Ottoman Empire in five hours of fighting off of the western coast of Greece. Lepanto was the last major naval battle in the Meditteranean, and the Ottoman Empire would no longer expand any further westward.
  • Sep 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    A massacre that was a plot against Coligny and the Huguenots. The Guise family would be the cause of this massacre and the death tole of the Huguenots was 3000, but within 3 days 20,000 would be executed.
  • May 24, 1576

    The Peace of Beaulieu

    The Peace of Beaulieu
    A peace led by Henry III and he would go on to grant complete religious and civil freedom to the Huguenots. After his death Henry IV converted to Catholisim and would later grant more rights to the persecuted Huguenots.
  • Nov 8, 1576

    Pacification of Ghent

    Pacification of Ghent
    Catholic and Protestants forces came together to end Spain for a final time, It was an alliance and a promise to help finish off the overwhelming forces of the Spanish. These combined forces suprisingly won against the spanish armies.
  • Spanish Armada outcome and long term impact on Spain

    Spanish Armada outcome and long term impact on Spain
    The Spanish Armada was the stronges naval fleet of ships that Spain owned, they faced off against England and suprisingly lost the battle. Later this expensive fleet led Spain into bankrupcy and would be the downfall of the country in Medeival times.
  • Philip II and the Spanish Armada

    Philip II and the Spanish Armada
    Philip II was a huge Catholic who believed in naval domination.Philip II, the king of Spain, order the spanish fleet called the Armada to have a war against the English. They are defeated and it is known by all of Europe and will encourage them to try to go further against the Spanish.
  • Baroque Art

    Baroque Art
    This is a european style of art, architecture and music that developed in the 17th century. Rembrandt was a Dutch painter and gave rise to new genres in paiting with the Baroque style. In Rubens art he like to emphasise mobement, color, and sensuality. Bernini was a leading sculpture of his time who designed a conflicting sculpture of David to Michelangelo. Caravaggio was another artist who could combine realism, distortion, and symbolism into his works very well.
  • Twelve years Truce and Peace of Westphalia

    Twelve years Truce and Peace of Westphalia
    This was a signed document that gave northern providence independence. While the Peace of Westphalia was a formal confirmation of the Twelve years truce put out to end the 30 years war.
  • Bohemian Period and defenestration of Prague

    Bohemian Period and defenestration of Prague
    A period in the 30 years war where Calvinists demanded more freedom for Catholic Habsburgs ruler Ferdinand. The Protestant Nobility responded by throwing two of Ferdinand's regents out a window and this action was called the defenestration of Prague.
  • Period: to

    30 years War

  • Danish Period and the Edict of Restitution

    Danish Period and the Edict of Restitution
    The king of Denmark Christian tried to bring Protestantism back to Germany but was forced to retreat by Maximilian. In 1629 Ferdinand outlaws Calvinism by issuing the Edict of Restitution.
  • Swedish Period and the Peace of Prague

    Swedish Period and the Peace of Prague
    The protestants were in need of military tactics in order to win the battle of Breitenfield which King Gustavus Adlophus would give them. But the Swedish would refuse to join the Peace of Prague agreement because it allowed the Kings to choose the official religion of there territory.
  • Swedish-French Period

    Swedish-French Period
    The Frence, Swedish, and the Spanish didn't want to fight on their own land so they decided to meet in Germany and destroy everything they could in anger to each other. After this the Religious issuees of the war became secondary to the political ones.
  • Treaty of Westphalia

    Treaty of Westphalia
    The treaty would stop Ferdinand's Edict of Restitution which German princes were acknowledged as the supreme rulers over principalities and broaden the legal status of Protestantism in the realm, but perpetuated Germany's internal division of political weakness.