Medical Investigations

  • 200

    Galen; tracheotomy

    The Greek Galen used his surgeon skills to help injured gladiators. He documented the importance of the spinal cord to the moment of limbs. He described how to cure breathing difficulties by performing a traecheotomy, a surgical opening of the trachea, or wind-pipe. He based his practice and teahings off of Hippocrates.
  • Period: 200 to

    Medical History

  • 500

    THE MIDDLE AGES 500-1500 CE

    Barber-surgeons cut hair, perform sugery; barber pole symbol popularized. Performed surgeries to treat cataracts sand practiced phlebotomy (bloodletting).
    Medical care becomes regulated. Physicians were licensed after formal training with experienced doctors.Women were not allowed to practice medicine. Frenchwoman Jacoba Felicie tried practicing medicine but then was forbidden to do so.
    Christian monasteries founded to treat the ill. Teaching encouraged followers to help the sick and needy.
  • Period: 500 to Dec 31, 1500


  • Jan 1, 900

    Rhazes doscovered difference between smallpox and measles

    The Persian Rhazes discovered the difference between smallpox and measles and wrote down his findings around 900CE. His works were used til the 1800s and he played a role in the development of medicine as a science by building on the ideas of Hippocrates.
  • Jan 1, 1010

    Aviccenna writes medical books

    Avicenna wrote The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine.
  • Jan 1, 1249

    Roger Bacon invents spectacles

    Bacon invented spectacles and this changed how things were being viewed. It help people see better and it was also used to experiment with to later make the microscope.
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Islamic hospitals; health care for the sick

    Christian and Muslim teachings encouraged care to the sick and needy. Religious instruction based on the Qur'an taught followers social responsibilities, such as providing for the poor and the healthy caring for the sick. These principles led to the founding of many Islamic hospitals. Each hospital had separate wards for different illnesses, employed trained nurses, and maintained stocks of medicine.
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Frenchwoman Jacova Felicie tries to practice medicine but is denied

    Women were not allowed to practice medicine. She defended herself by explaining that women were sometimes embarrassed to go to a male physician for treatment. The judge did not find in her favor, and she was forbidden to practice medicine.
  • Jan 1, 1489

    Leonardo da Vinci starts to dissect corpses

    This was the beginning of see what was inside the human body. Organs, muscles, tendons, arteries, and how everything worked together and was put together.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    THE RENAISSANCE 1500-1800 CE

    Printing press allows for publication of discoveries.
    Human anatomical studies allowed.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to


  • Use of scientific method begins

    The scientific method came into use in Europe. This was a major change in the way people thought about medicine and research. THe scientific method is a process used to acquire new knowledge. Instead of using guesswork or the supernatural to explain events and diseases, people began to look for the real causes of what they saw around them. The scientific method was based on observation and taking careful notes. It was not a common practice in the Middle Ages.
  • Robert Hooke - reflective microscope

    Robert Hooke built one of the first reflecting microscopes. The developments that took place during this time were made possible by inventions such as the microscope, which allowed much more accurate observation of patients and symptoms. Doctors could propose an explanation of disease and test it by experimentation and observation. Microscopes today are used to identify things such as bacteria and viruses.
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek describes bacteria

  • Francis Bacon uses microsope to discover plague fleas

  • Edward Jenner discovered 1st vaccination

  • Period: to



    Discovery of blood, cells, bacteria, protozoa, and stethoscope.
  • Louis Pasteur (microbiology) - pasteurization of milk

    His experiments became the basis for modern microbiology.
  • Joseph Lister - practice of medical asepsis

    Lister is ridiculed for insisting on the use of carbolic soap to disinfect instruments and clean hands before doctors moved to another patient. Today we call his practice - the practice of disinfecting surgical equipments and hand washing as a way to prevent the spread of infection - medical asepsis.
  • Robert Koch - discovery of pathogens

    Koch discovered that pathogens, or disease-producinf microorganisms, are the source of some diseases and proved that Lister was correct. This was the beginning of modern bacteriology.
  • Ignaz Semmelqeis shows importance of hand washing

  • John Snow stops outbreak of cholera

  • Marie Curie discovers science of radioactivity

  • Bubonic plague hits San Francisco

  • MODERN TIMES 1900-2000

    Discovery of organ transplants, x-rays, radium for cancer treatment, MRI, CAT scans.
  • Period: to


  • Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin

  • First HMO insurance

  • Salk discovers polio vaccine

  • WHO declares smallpox eradicated

  • Managed health care; growth in uninsured

  • AZT is used to combat AIDS

  • 21st CENTURY 2000-Now

    The completion of the Human Genome Project idientified a complete set of DNA, which allowes for new and completely individualized mediations and treatments.
    Scientists discover how to use human skin cells to create embryonic stem cells.
  • Period: to

    21st CENTURY

  • Steve THomas used sterie maggots for infectious wound treatment

  • Gardasil, a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer approved by the FDA

  • MIPPA (Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act) MIPPA provides incentives for practitioners who use electronic health records and e-presrcibing

  • The first FDA approved implanted AbioCor artificial hear places in a patient on June 24; patient died August 23