Blood History

  • Jun 1, 1200

    Pulmonary circulation

    Pulmonary circulation
    Eminent Cairo discovers the pulmonary circulation which is the flow of blood to and from the lungs.

    Fabricius publishes his work ON THE VALVES IN VEINS, featuring the first drawings of vein valves.
  • Jan Swammerdam

    Jan Swammerdam
    Jan Swammerdam was thought to be the first person to observe and describe red blood cells.
  • Red blood cells

    Jan Swammerdam is the first person to observe and describe red blood cells.
  • capillary system

    capillary system
    Marcello Malpighi observed the capillary system, where the vessels connect the arteries and the veins.
  • First blood transfusion in animal

    Richard Lower performs the first blood transfusion in animals. With a crude syringe he connected the jugular vein of a dog he's bled to the neck artery of second dog, reviving the former.
  • Jean-Baptiste Denis

    Jean-Baptiste Denis
    Jean-Baptiste Denis transfuses a teenage boy suffering from a persistent fever with nine ounces of lamb's blood. He also did this to several other patients.
  • Banned all transfusions

    The French Parliament banned all transfusions involving humans. This happened because Dr. Denis sued Antoine Mauroy's widow in 1668 for making false statements about his reputation.
  • Fine grain of sand

    Fine grain of sand
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek describes red blood cells even more and says they are 25,000 times smaller than a fine grain of sand.
  • Unpublished human-to-human blood transfusion

    Philadelphia physician Philip Syng Physick performed the first human-to-human blood transfusion, although his work was not published.
  • James Blundell

    James Blundell
    James Blundell performed the first recorded human-to-human blood transfusion. His patient was injected with 12 to 14 ounces of blood from several donors because he was suffering from internal bleeding. The patient died after showing improvement.
  • Platelets

    Sir William Osler discovered our platelets. He observed that small cell fragments from the bone marrow make up the clots formed in blood vessels.
  • A, B, C/O

    A, B, C/O
    Karl Landsteiner discovered a regular pattern of reaction when he mixed the serum and red cells of an initial set of six blood specimens. Red cells agglutinate when serum from group A is mixed with the red cells of group B. Group "B" serum causes the red cells of group "A" to agglutinate, but the red of a third group, "C," never clump when mixed with group A and B. He named these three main human blood groups -- A, B, and C, which he later changes to O.
  • AB

    Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli find a fourth blood group. AB, that causes agglutination in the red cells of both groups "A" and "B."
  • Cross matching

    Cross matching
    Dr. Reuben Ottenberg performs the first transfusion using cross matching. He uses this procedure in 128 cases, eliminating transfusion reactions.
  • Sodium citrate

    Albert Hustin of Brussels and Luis Agote of Buenos Aires discover that adding sodium citrate to blood will prevent it from clotting.
  • Dr. Richard Weil

    Dr. Richard Weil discovered that citrated blood can be refrigerated and stored for a few days and then successfully transfused.
  • Citrate-glucose solution

    Citrate-glucose solution
    Citrate-glucose solution was made to allow blood to be stored for a few weeks and still remain viable for transfusion. Francis Peyton Rous and J.R. Turner developed this at the Rockefeller Institute in New York.
  • Dr. Serge Yudin and the Soviets

    The efficacy of transfusing humans with cadaver blood was first tested by Dr. Serge Yudin.
    The Soviets are the first to collect and store blood for use in transfusions at hospitals.
  • Mayo Clinic

    Mayo Clinic
    Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, are the first to begin storing citrated blood and utilizing it for transfusions within a hospital.
  • Dubbed fractionation

    Edwin Cohn is able to separate out the different proteins in liquid plasma. Plasma is mixed with the solvent ethyl alcohol and centrifuged. Cohn and his team are able to isolate the plasma components fibrinogen, gamma globulin, and albumin.
  • Anti-Rh

    Drs. Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener discover the Rh blood group. They identified the antibody to be anti-Rh.
  • Blood donor service

    Blood donor service
    The first civilian blood donor service to collect blood plasma for the war effort center opens in New York and the Red Cross collects over 13 million units of blood over the course of the war.
  • American Association of Blood Banks

    American Association of Blood Banks
    Directors of independent, community blood banks join Red Cross blood centers to form a national network of blood banks called the American Association of Blood Banks.
  • Blood collection

    Dr. Carl W. Walter develops a plastic bag for the collection of blood. He creates a stronger and more portable container using plastic, which revolutionizes blood collection.
  • Structure of hemoglobin

    Structure of hemoglobin
    Dr. Max Perutz is able to see the structure of hemoglobin through the use of x-rays, the protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen.
  • Powder's clotting power

    Drs. Kenneth M. and Edward Shanbrom produce a highly concentrated form of Factor VIII which resulted in powder's clotting power to be 100 times stronger than raw plasma, easily stored in a portable vial, and can be injected with a syringe by the hemophilia patient
  • Antihemophilic Factor

    Dr. Judith Pool discovered that slowly thawed frozen plasma yields deposits high in Factor VIII or Antihemophilic Factor.
  • Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B
    Dr. Baruch identified a substance on the surface of the hepatitis B virus that triggers the production of antibodies. This lead to the development of a test to detect the presence of hepatitis B antibodies, thereby identifying infected donors.
  • AIDS

    The first cases of a syndrome called GRID (Gay-related Immunodeficiency Disease) are mostly reported by gay men. It is later renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
  • Dr. Bruce Evatt

    Dr. Bruce Evatt
    When hemophiliacs also begin to develop GRID, Dr. Bruce Evatt began to suspect that it may be blood borne and presents his theories at a meeting of a group of the U.S. Public Health Service.
  • LAV

    Dr. Luc Montagnier's isolate the virus that cause AIDS and label it LAV (lymphadenopathy-associated virus).

    Dr. Robert Gallo identified the virus that causes AIDS, which he calls HTLV III (human T-cell lymphotropic virus).
  • ELISA test

    The first blood-screening test detects the presence or absence of HIV antibodies is licensed by the U.S. government. The test is universally adopted by American blood banks and plasma centers.
  • Tests that screen for indirect evidence of hepatitis

    Tests that screen for indirect evidence of hepatitis
    The Human T-Lymphotropic-Virus-I-antibody (anti-HTLV-I) test; the hepatitis C test; the HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies test; the HIV p24 antigen test; and Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAT) directly detects the genetic material of viruses like HCV and HIV.