Galen, a philosophy of medicine did on experiment on animals which proves the srteries contain blood. However, he was wrong about the blood forming in the liver and travels through the veins to all parts of the body.
Dissecting a human's heart 300 BCE
Herophilus of Chalcedon, publicly dissect a human's heart and determines that arteries are thicker than veins and carry blood.
The main organ 350 BCE
Aristole assumes that the heart is the main organ of the body and based on his observations the heart is a three- chambered organ.
The layout 400 BCE
Empedocles influenced Hippocrates to research about the heart and lay out $ humors-- blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Also he and his followers found out that diseaes are not because of magical causes, but from natural causes.
Arteries & Veins 500 BCE
Through different experiments and observations, Greek thinks believed that arteries are different from veins.
Jun 4, 1553
Michael Servetus, a Spanish physician and thelogian suggest that blood flows from one side of the heart to the other through the lungs.Therefore, this eliminates Galen's theory.
Artworks of Veins
For the first time ever, everyone can see what veins look like insttead of diseecting a human. The work id cslled On The Valves In Veins by Fabricius.
William Harvey, a British Physian explains that the blood is being pumped my the heart and blood circulates within the body.
Red blood cells
Tan Swammerdan, a Dutch microscopist was the first person to observe and describe red blood celld.
An Italian anatomist Marcello Malpighi observes the capillary system, the network of fine vessels that connect the arteries and the veins.
Blood transfusion on animals
The first recorded blood tranfusion in animals was performed by Richard Lower in England.
Teenage boy blood experiment
Jean Baptiste Denis, a French physician transfer a teenage boy suffering from a fever with 9 ounces of lamb's blood which worked fine.
The size of a red blood cell
Anton Van Leeuwnhoek, a Dutch microscopist discovered that the size of a red blood cell is approximately 25,00 times smaller than a fine ggrain of sand.
Fibrogen is the key protein
William Hewson, a British anatomist researched about blood coagulation and found out that fibrogen is the key protein in the clotting process.
Human to Human
Philip Syng was the first person to perform a human to human blood transfusion; however, his work is not published.
Recorded the first human to human blood transfusion
James Blundell, a physiologist performs a human to human blood transfusion and it was recorded for the first time.
Sir William Osler is the person that observes the small cell fragments from the bone marrow that makes up bulk of the colts, and it is called platelets.
3 main groups of blood
Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian physcian releases a detailed paper on his discovery of the three main bllod groups which are A,B, and C; however, he later changes it to O.
Researchers found a way to prevent blood clotting and it is by adding sodium citrate to blood.
At the New Yorker's Mount Sinai Hospital, Dr. Richard Lewishn creates a concentration of sodium citrate that can be mixed with donor blood to prevent coagulation.
Dr. Oswald Robertson collect and store type O blood with citrate glucose solution to create the first blood depot that can be stored and delivered during the WWI War.
Blood service at home
At home in London, Percy Lan Oliver operates a blood donor service. He recuits volunteers and before they donate blood, everyone are screened for diseases and tested for blood type.
1st blood transfusion at the hospital
The first to establish a system of facilities to collect and store blood for the transfusions at the hosiptials are the Soviets.
Storing citrated blood
Anesthesiologists at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN are the first to begin storing citrated blood for transfusion with a hospital setting in the US.
Separate and perserve blood plasma
Drs. Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener found the Rh blood group, through experiments with the RBC of Rhessus monkeys. In addition, during the WW2 Dr. Chareles Drew uses a technique to separate and perserve blood plasma.
The American Assiociation of Blood Banks is a natinal network of blood banks that was formed by serveral blood banks joined together.
Plastic bags for blood
Instead of storing blood in a fragile glass container, Dr. Carl W. Walter, develops a plastic bag for the collection of blood.
Structure of hemoglobin
Dr. Max Perutz uses the x-rays and found out the structure of hemoglobin, the protein with RBC that carries oxygen.
A way to stop bleeding
Dr. Judith Pool discovered that slowly thawed frozen plasma yields deposits hign in factor VII and the deposit is called Cryo. Cryo can be given to hemophiliacs to stop bleeding and this means a person doesn't have to travel to the hospital to be treated.
The FDA tests the blood and found out that a substance on the surface of the hepatitis B virus that starts the production of antibodies. Soon, they dicovered that many blood donors were infected; therefore, the tests is a mandatory by FDA.
Gay-related Immunodeficiency Disease
Dr. Bruce Evatt found out that they Gay- related Immunodeficiency Disease may be blood borne, which he shows his theory to the US Public Health Service.
Dr. Robert Gallo discovered the virus that causes AIDS which he calls the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus.
When many Americans got AIDS from blood transfusion the first screening shows that the HIV antibodies were present.
1987-2002 Donors were infected
Due to many infected donor donating blood, people are required to take several screen tests to detect if they have the virus HCV or HIV.
Illustrations on tomb 2500 BCE
A way to treat patients is by the method bleeding. People found out due to the illustrated tomb in Memphis, Egypt.