The History of Vaccines

  • Edward Jenner

    Edward Jenner
    Edward Jenner published his work on the development of a vaccination that would protect against smallpox. Two years earlier, in 1796, he had first speculated that protection from smallpox disease could be obtained through inoculation with a related virus, vaccinia or cowpox. He tested his theory by inoculating eight-year-old James Phipps with cowpox pustule liquid recovered from the hand of a milkmaid, Sarah Nelmes. Edward Jenner Video
  • Germ Theory of Disease

    Germ Theory of Disease
    Louis Pasteur proposed The Germ Theory of Disease.Contributors to this theory include Agostini Bassi, Ignaz Semmelweis and John Snow. Summary of Germ Theory Germ Theory Video
  • First Attenuated Vaccine: Chicken Cholera

    First Attenuated Vaccine: Chicken Cholera
    Pasteur discovered, by accident, that he could attenuate the bacterium responsible for chicken cholera , and then use the attenuated microbe as a vaccine. Pasteur correctly surmised that the aging process (actually, oxidation by exposure to air) had attenuated the bacteria.
  • First Attenuated Virus Vaccine for Humans

    First Attenuated Virus Vaccine for Humans
    The first live attenuated viral vaccine (rabies) was developed by Louis Pasteur, using dessicated brain and spinal tissue placede in a flask. This produced a weakened substance for inoculation.
  • Diptheria Toxin Discovered: Inactivated Pathogens

    Diptheria Toxin Discovered: Inactivated Pathogens
    The diphtheria toxin was discovered by Emile Roux. Passive serum therapies were developed through the scientific contributions of many, including Emil Von Behring who developed the first effective therapeutic serum against diphtheria and Paul Ehrlich who developed enrichment and standardization protocol, which allowed for an exact determination of quality of the diphtheria antitoxins.
  • Cholera and Typhoid

    Cholera and Typhoid
    Cholera and typhoid vaccines were first developed. These vaccines were made the same way Pasteur's Chicken Cholera Vaccine was made.
  • Bubonic Plague Vaccine

    Bubonic Plague Vaccine
    Plague vaccine was introduced, following the preparation of anti-plague horse serum at the Pasteur Institute by Alexandre Yersin. After demonstrating protection from disease in immunized animals, Yersin went to China with the vaccine to protect humans during a plague epidemic. Below is a link to the history of the Bubonic Plague.
  • Tetanus Contaminated DiphtheriaToxin

    Tetanus Contaminated DiphtheriaToxin
    In St. Louis, 13 children died of tetanus-contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. In the autumn of 1901, nine children in Camden, New Jersey, died from tainted smallpox vaccine. Efforts to ensure the purity of biological treatments by government oversight followed with the Biologics Control Act of 1902.
  • Biologics Control Act

    Biologics Control Act
    The Biologics Control Act was formed. It included the regulation of vaccine and antitoxin producers and required both licensing and inspections of manufacturers. The standards imposed by the 1902 Act resulted in bankruptcy for one-third of the companies manufacturing antitoxins and vaccines while benefiting the manufacturers already in compliance. Ten firms held licenses with the Laboratory of Hygiene following the 1902 Act. The picture is of the first Biologics Board.
  • Tetanus Toxoid

    Tetanus Toxoid
    Tetanus toxoid was introduced following the development of an effective therapeutic serum against tetanus by Emil Von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato.
  • Pertussis Vaccine

    Pertussis Vaccine
    Pertussis vaccine, a suspension of inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells, was licensed. Whooping cough proved a more difficult puzzle. French researchers Bordet and Gengou described Bordetella pertussis as the causative agent of whooping cough in 1906 . Unfortunately many of these vaccines proved ineffective.
  • Spanish Flu

    Spanish Flu
    The "Spanish flu" influenza pandemic was responsible for 25-50 million deaths worldwide and more than one-half million in the U.S. This virus was unusual because it spread so quickly, was so deadly, and exacted its worse toll among the young and healthy. Video
  • Gaston Ramon Inactivated Virus Vaccine

    Gaston Ramon Inactivated  Virus  Vaccine
    Gaston Ramon discovers accidently that formaldehyde can be used to attenuate a virus and create a vaccine.
    Gaston's Biography and Work
  • Diphtheria Toxoid Licensed

    Diphtheria Toxoid Licensed
    Diphtheria toxoid was licensed; prepared from the inactivated bacterial toxin that has lost its toxicity but retains its antitoxin producing properties. In 1924, Gaston Ramon discovered diphtheria toxoid. Along with the discovery of antitoxins, Ramon uncovered the role of adjuvant substances of immunity.
  • BCG Vaccine Used in Newborns

    BCG Vaccine Used in Newborns
    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine was first used in newborns, having been developed by Albert Calmette and Camille Guéérin in 1921. BCG (live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG) represented the only vaccine against tuberculosis. It has become the most widely administered of all vaccines in the WHO Expanded Programme for Immunization, but has been estimated to prevent only 5% of all potentially vaccine-preventable deaths due to tuberculosis.
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine

    Yellow Fever Vaccine
    A live yellow fever vaccine (17D) was first licensed. The development of the chorioallantoic membrane for culturing viruses had led to its development. After passing the yellow fever virus through laboratory mice, Max Theiler found that the weakened virus conferred immunity on Rhesus monkeys. The vaccine was widely used begining in 1937. Below is a link to a timeline on the history of yellow fever.
  • National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis is Founded

    National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis is Founded
    President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a victim of polio, founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later known as the March of Dimes.
    History of National Institute for Infintile Paralysis/March of Dimes
  • Hepatitis A and B Discovered

    Hepatitis A and B Discovered
    Hepatitis A and B viruses were first differentiated. During WWII, 200,000 cases of “epidemic jaundice” occurred among US troops alone from 1942 to 1945 . In total, the German army and citizens suffered over 5 million cases of jaundice . Maurice Hilleman and associates are credited with this discovery.
  • Hepatitis Outbreak in Millitary

    Hepatitis Outbreak in Millitary
    Contaminated Yellow Fever Vaccine creates a hepatitis outbreak that effected 50,000 military personnel.
  • Influenza A and B Vaccine

    Influenza A and B Vaccine
    Influenza A/B vaccine was introduced to the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board. The influenza vaccine was licensed in 1945 and, following the war, was also used for civilians. n 1942, a bivalent vaccine was produced after the discovery of influenza B. It was later discovered that influenza viruses mutated leading to antigenic changes.
    History of the Flu
  • Last Smallpox Case in United States

    Last Smallpox Case in United States
    The last case of smallpox in the U.S. was reported; however, it took another two decades before the disease was eradicated globally.
    History of Smallpox
  • Largest U.S. Polio Epidemic

    Largest U.S. Polio Epidemic
    In the United States, the 1952 polio epidemic would be the worst outbreak in the nation's history, and is credited with heightening parents’ fears of the disease and focusing public awareness on the need for a vaccine. Of the 57,628 cases reported that year 3,145 died and 21,269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis. Polio Video
  • Salk Announces Polio Vaccine

    Salk Announces Polio Vaccine
    On March 26, 1953, American medical researcher Dr. Jonas Salk announces on a national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis, the virus that causes the crippling disease of polio. In 1952–an epidemic year for polio–there were 58,000 new cases reported in the United States, and more than 3,000 died from the disease.
  • Measles Virus Issolated

    Measles Virus Issolated
    In 1954, Thomas C. Peebles, MD, was working in the laboratory of John F. Enders, PhD, at Boston Children’s Hospital. Earlier, Enders had contributed to work on tissue culture that helped in the development of vaccines for polio; now, he wanted Peebles to focus on the measles.On February 8, Peebles succeeded, collecting measles virus-laden blood from 13-year-old David Edmonston. This virus would eventually be used to create measles vaccines.
    Measles History
  • Polio Vaccination Assistance Act

    Polio Vaccination Assistance Act
    The Polio Vaccination Assistance Act was enacted by Congress, the first federal involvement in immunization activities. It allowed Congress to appropriate funds to the Communicable Disease Center (later the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to help states and local communities acquire and administer vaccine
  • Inactivated Polio Vaccine Licensed

    Inactivated Polio Vaccine Licensed
    The first polio vaccine was licensed -- an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) pioneered by Dr. Jonas Salk.
  • The Cutter Laboratory Incident

    The Cutter Laboratory Incident
    The Cutter polio vaccine incident began on April 25, 1955, when polio was reported in a vaccine recipient. One day later, five more cases were reported. All cases had received vaccine produced by Cutter Laboratories. Polio was reported in 94 vaccinees and in 166 close contacts of vaccinees. On April 27, the Laboratory of Biologics Control requested that Cutter Laboratories recall all vaccine and the company did so immediately.
  • Asian Flu

    Asian Flu
    Maurice Hilleman and his colleagues at WRAIR identified a new influenza A virus, Type A2, Asian influenza, that caused a pandemic.Hilleman noticed news reports of a severe influenza in Hong Kong. The number of cases and their description led him to think that a new type of influenza was emerging and that a pandemic threatened.Worldwide, from 1957-1958, about 2 million people died from Asian flu, with about 70,000 deaths in the United States.
    Asian Flu Pandemic
  • Oral Polio Vaccine

    Oral Polio Vaccine
    Oral polio vaccine types 1 and 2, developed by Dr. Albert Sabin and grown in monkey kidney cell culture, were licensed for use in the U.S.
  • Vaccination Assistance Act

    Vaccination Assistance Act
    President John F. Kennedy signed the the Vaccination Assistance Act into law. It allowed the CDC to support mass immunization campaigns and to initiate maintenance programs.
  • First Live Measels Vaccine

    First Live Measels Vaccine
    The first live virus measles vaccine (Rubeovax by Merck) was licensed. Other live virus measles vaccines were eventually licensed (M-Vac by Lederle, Pfizer-vax Measles-L by Pfizer, and generic vaccines by Lilly, Parke Davis, and Philips Roxane).
  • Federal Immunization Grant Program

    Federal Immunization Grant Program
    The Federal Immunization Grant Program was established. The grants, authorized under section 317 of the Public Health Service Act, were made to states to provide funds to purchase vaccines and to support basic functions of an immunization program. The only vaccines available at the time were DTP, polio, and smallpox.
    History of Financing Immunizations
  • Inactivated Measels Vaccine

    Inactivated Measels Vaccine
    Inactivated measles vaccine (Pfizer-vax Measles-K by Pfizer and a generic vaccine by Lilly) were licensed in the U.S. These vaccines were eventually withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1967.
  • Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine

    Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine
    Trivalent oral polio vaccine was licensed. The vaccine development began in 1957 by Albert Sabin to improve upon the killed Salk vaccine.
  • Rubella Epidemic in U.S.

    Rubella Epidemic in U.S.
    A rubella epidemic swept the U.S. resulting in 12.5 million cases of rubella infection, an estimated 20,000 newborns with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), and excess fetal and neonatal deaths in the thousands.
    History of Rubella and Rubella Vaccinations
  • U.S. Public Health Service Formed

    U.S. Public Health Service Formed
    The Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) to the U.S. Public Health Service was formed to review the recommended childhood immunization schedule and note changes in manufacturers' vaccine formulations, revise recommendations for the use of licensed vaccines, and make recommendations for newly licensed vaccines.
  • Measles Eradication Program in U.S.

    Measles Eradication Program in U.S.
    CDC announced the first national measles eradication campaign. Within 2 years, measles incidence had decreased by more than 90% compared with prevaccine-era levels.
  • WHO Calls for Global Eradication of Smallpox

    WHO Calls for Global Eradication of Smallpox
    The World Health Assembly called for global smallpox eradication.Before 1967, the smallpox eradication strategy relied on mass vaccination. However, this strategy was ineffective in densely populated regions where containment measures proved more effective.WHO created posters to publicize the disease.
    History of Smallpox Erradication
  • WHO Launches Global Smallpox Eradication Program

    WHO Launches Global Smallpox Eradication Program
    The Global Smallpox Eradication Program was launched by WHO. During the first year of the program, 44 countries, 31 of which had endemic smallpox, reported 217,218 cases.
  • Mumps Virus Vaccine Licensed

    Mumps Virus Vaccine Licensed
    Mumps virus vaccine live (MumpsVax by Merck) was licensed. The vaccine was developed by Maurice Hilleman who isolated a wild type virus from his daughter, Jeryl Lynn, who was recovering from mumps. It became known as the Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus.
  • Hong Kong Flu Pandemic

    Hong Kong Flu Pandemic
    In 1968 a new flu virus was detected in Hong Kong. The first cases in the United States were detected as early as September 1968. Deaths from this virus peaked in December 1968 and January 1969. Those over the age of 65 were most likely to die. The number of deaths between September 1968 and March 1969 was 33,800, making it the mildest flu pandemic in the 20th century. The same virus returned in 1970 and 1972.
  • Routine Smallpox Vaccination Discontinued in U.S.

    Routine Smallpox Vaccination Discontinued in U.S.
    CDC recommended discontinuation of routine vaccination for smallpox in the U.S. following a greatly reduced risk of disease.
  • Combo Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine Licensed

    Combo Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine Licensed
    Combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR by Merck) as well as combined measles and rubella vaccine (M-R-Vax by Merck) were licensed; the vaccine was developed by Maurice Hilleman and colleagues at Merck.
    MMR Vaccine Info
  • Rotavirus Discovered

    Rotavirus Discovered
    Ruth Bishop, Geoffrey Davidson, Ian Holmes, and Brian Ruck identified rotavirus in the cytoplasm of mature epithelial cells lining duodenal villi and in feces. Rotaviruses have now been shown to cause 40-50% of severe acute diarrhea in young children worldwide in both developing and developed countries, and > 600 000 young children die annually from rotavirus disease.
  • Expanded Programme on Immunization Started

    Expanded Programme on Immunization Started
    The Expanded Programme on Immunization was created within WHO, in response to poor immunization levels in developing countries (less than 5% of children in 1974). The following vaccines are used by the Expanded Programme on Immunization: BCG, polio, DTP, measles (often MMR), yellow fever (in endemic countries), and hepatitis B.
  • First Eboal Outbreak

    First Eboal Outbreak
    Occurred in Yambuku Zaire and surrounding area. Disease was spread by close personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals/clinics.
    History of Ebola
  • National Childhood Immunization Initiative

    National Childhood Immunization Initiative
    Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Secretary of the Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare (later Health and Human Services) launched the National Childhood Immunization Initiative with a goal of achieving 90% vaccination levels among all children.
    Information on the initiative
  • Last Smallpox Case

    Last Smallpox Case
    The last case of naturally-acquired smallpox occurred in the Merca District of Somalia. It was a man by the name of Maow Mallin. The picture is of him in 1977. Below is a video about Maow.
  • First Pneumococcal Vaccine

    First Pneumococcal Vaccine
    The first pneumococcal vaccine was licensed, containing 14 serotypes (of the 83 known serological groups) that comprised 80% of all bacteremic pneumococcal infections in the U.S.
    Pneumoccal Disease
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine

    Yellow Fever Vaccine
    Yellow fever vaccine (YF-Vax by Connaught) was licensed in the U.S.
  • Last Case of Poliovirus in U.S.

    Last Case of Poliovirus in U.S.
    The last cases of wild type 1 poliovirus occurred in the U.S. among unvaccinated Amish persons and members of other religious groups who did not accept vaccination. The source of the outbreak was determined to have been brought over to the U.S. from the Netherlands by members of an unvaccinated religious group.
  • Smallpox Eradicated

    Smallpox Eradicated
    The World Health Assembly certified the world free of naturally-occurring smallpox. Smallpox was transmitted from person to person via infective droplets during close contact with infected symptomatic people. Vaccine administered up to 4 days after exposure provided protective immunity and was preventing infection and lessening the severity of the disease.
    The last known natural case was in Somalia in 1977.
  • First Official Reporting of HIV

    First Official Reporting of HIV
    The CDC reports information in its weekly Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report about an illness that seems to be attacking the human immune sysyem. The illness would become known as AIDs. Below is alink to an informational timeline about HIV and AIDS.
  • Hepatitis B Viral Vacccine: First Sub Unit Vaccine

    Hepatitis B Viral Vacccine: First Sub Unit Vaccine
    The FDA licensed Hilleman’s human-blood-derived hepatitis B vaccine, Heptavax-B. It was the first subunit viral vaccine developed in the United States. Hilleman transformed the hepatitis B surface protein, discovered by Baruch Blumb.
  • First Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine

    First Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine
    Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB by Merck) was licensed. Using recombinant DNA technology, Merck scientists developed a hepatitis B surface antigen subunit vaccine.It was the first vaccine produced using recombinant DNA technology.
  • National Childood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986

    National Childood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986
    The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 was enacted by Congress. The Department of Health and Human Services established the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, co-administered by FDA and CDC, to accept all reports of suspected adverse events, in all age groups, after the administration of any U.S.-licensed vaccine.
  • WHO Passes Resolution to Eradicate Polio

    WHO Passes Resolution to Eradicate Polio
    The World Health Assembly (the ministers of health of all member states of the WHO) passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000.
  • National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

    National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
    The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP) was established to provide compensation following a vaccine-related adverse event that resulted in injury or death. NVICP was intended to serve as an alternative to civil litigation. The law established a Vaccine Injury Table that provided a list of compensable vaccination events and, for each, an associated time period requirement.
  • Enhanced Polio Vaccine Licensed

    Enhanced Polio Vaccine Licensed
    An enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Ipol by Pasteur Méérieux Vaccins et Serums) was licensed
  • Last Polio Case in Western Hemisphere

    Last Polio Case in Western Hemisphere
    The last case of indigenous polio in the Western Hemisphere occurred in a 5-year-old boy, Luis Fermin Tenorio, in Pichanaqui, Peru. Here is a picture of him.
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine

    Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus vaccine inactivated (JE-Vax by Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University [BIKEN]) was licensed. JE is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. WHO acts as a facilitator for the development of new JE vaccines that are safer, require fewer doses, and are more suitable for public health use, in particular, in disease-endemic developing countries.
    Japanese Encephalitis
  • Vaccines for Children Program Established

    Vaccines for Children Program Established
    The Vaccines for Children Program was established after passage of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993. Federally-purchased vaccines under this program were made available to children from birth through 18 years of age who met one of the following requirements: Medicaid-enrolled, without health insurance, and American Indian or Alaskan native. Also, children with health insurance that did not cover the costs of immunization.
  • First Harmonized Childhood Immunization Program

    First Harmonized Childhood Immunization Program
    The ACIP, American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Association of Family Physicians issued the first "harmonized" childhood immunization schedule, combining recommendations of all three national groups. The first schedule appears in the image.
    Link to All Childhood and Adult Immunization Schedules
  • Varicella virus vaccine, live (Varivax by Merck) was licensed for the active immunization of persons 12 months of age and older.aricella Virus Vaccine

    Varicella virus vaccine, live (Varivax by Merck) was licensed for the active immunization of persons 12 months of age and older.aricella Virus Vaccine
    Varicella virus vaccine, live (Varivax by Merck) was licensed for the active immunization of persons 12 months of age and older.Varicella is commonly known as checken pox.
    Information on Varicella and Varicella Vaccine
  • International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

    International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
    The Interational AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) was launched, calling for the speedy development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine for use worldwide. The Initiative created the Scientific Blueprint for AIDS Vaccine Development. History of Aids Vaccine Research
  • First AIDS/HIV Vaccine begins Phase 3 Trial

    First AIDS/HIV Vaccine begins Phase 3 Trial
    The first vaccine for the prevention of HIV/AIDS (Aidsvax) entered Phase III trial, the first large-scale human trial of an HIV vaccine. The trial involved more than 5,400 volunteers from the U.S., Canada, and the Netherlands.
  • The Children's Vaccine Program Established

     The Children's Vaccine Program Established
    The Children's Vaccine Program was established at WHO's Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) with a $125 million gift from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The program's goal was to provide vaccines to children in the developing world and to accelerate research and development of new vaccines.
  • Oral Rotavirus Vaccine for Infants

    Oral Rotavirus Vaccine for Infants
    Rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, tetravalent (RotaShield by Wyeth) was licensed for use in infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.
  • Lyme Disease Vaccine

    Lyme Disease Vaccine
    Lyme Disease Vaccine (Recombinant OspA), (LYMErix by SmithKline Beecham) was licensed for use in persons ages 15 to 70 years. Just 3+ years later, on February 25, 2002, GlaxoSmithKline announced that the company would no longer manufacture or distribute LYMErix because of insufficient sales of the vaccine.
  • ACIP Witdraws Rotavirus Vaccine

    ACIP Witdraws Rotavirus Vaccine
    ACIP voted to withdraw their recommendation for rotavirus vaccine after investigating reports of intussusception (a type of bowel obstruction that occurs when one part of the intestine folds into an immediately adjoining part) in infants within the first two weeks of receipt of the vaccine. Intussusception was found to occur at a rate of approximately 1 case for every 5,000 children vaccinated
  • Western Pacific Polio Free

    Western Pacific Polio Free
    The Western Pacific Region of the world was certified as polio-free.
  • Gates Donates 70 Million to Produce Meingitis Vaccine

    Gates Donates 70 Million to Produce Meingitis Vaccine
    The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation earmarked $70 million to develop and produce meningitis vaccines tailored for children and adults living in Africa.
  • Europe Polio Free

    Europe Polio Free
    The European Region of the world was certified as polio-free
  • Smallpox Vaccination after 911

    Smallpox Vaccination after 911
    President Bush announced a major smallpox vaccination program to protect the nation against the threat of potential biological warfare. The first phase of the program was targeted to 450,000 public health and healthcare personnel, however, the program stalled, with fewer than 40,000 health care workers and emergency responders vaccinated.
  • First Nasally Administered Flu Vaccine

    First Nasally Administered Flu Vaccine
    The first nasally administered influenza vaccine (FluMist by MedImmune) was licensed. This live influenza A and B virus vaccine was indicated for healthy, non-pregnant persons ages 5-49 years.
    Nasal Delivery of Vaccines
  • 80 Million in Grants to Find AIDS Vaccine

    $81 million was awarded by NIAID through four new contracts to support development of candidate HIV vaccines. The awards were part of NIAID's HIV Vaccine Design and Development Teams program, a public-private partnership that seeks to accelerate HIV vaccine development. The contract recipients were AlphaVAx Human Vaccines, Inc. (Durham, NC), Epimmune, Inc. (San Diego, CA), Novavax, Inc. (Columbia , MD), and Progenics Pharmaceuticals (Tarrytown, NY).
  • Safety Review Committee Rules on Vaccine and Autism

    Safety Review Committee Rules on Vaccine and Autism
    The 8th and final report of the Immunization Safety Review Committee was issued by the Institute of Medicine. The report concluded that the body of epidemiological evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between the MMR vaccine (and thimerosal-containing vaccines) and autism. Studies to Support This Fact
  • Flu Vaccine Shortage

    Flu Vaccine Shortage
    A significant shortage of influenza vaccine occurred in the U.S. (History: On August 25, 2004, as a result of routine testing required by FDA, Chiron Corporation, located in the U.K. and one of two suppliers of inactivated influenza vaccine for the U.S., identified bacterial contamination in a limited number of lots (approx 4.5 million doses) of its influenza vaccine.
  • Rubella No Longer Endemic

    Rubella No Longer Endemic
    CDC announced that rubella was no longer endemic in the U.S.
  • Heppatitis A Vaccine Reccomended For All Children

    Heppatitis A Vaccine Reccomended For All Children
    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine hepatitis A vaccination of all children older than age 1 in a two-dose schedule.
    Hepatitis A Vaccination
  • New Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    New Cervical Cancer Vaccine
    In 2006, the FDA approved the first preventive HPV vaccine, marketed by Merck & Co. under the trade name Gardasil. According to a Merck press release in the second quarter of 2007, it had been approved in 80 countries, many under fast-track or expedited review.
  • States Prepare for Avian Flu

    States Prepare for Avian Flu
    HHS announced a plan to provide $175 million to assist states in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts.
  • Avian Flu Vaccine

    Avian Flu Vaccine
    FDA approves first U.S. vaccine for humans against the avian influenza virus H5N1.
  • New Rotavirus Vaccine

    New Rotavirus Vaccine
    The Food and Drug Administration licensed another rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, for use in the United States. The recommended schedule for Rotarix involves two doses of the vaccine, given at ages 2 months and 4 months. CDC has carefully monitored incidence of rotavirus disease in the United States since 2000. Their studies show that that the number of positive test results for rotavirus was substantially lower than the median observed during 2000-2006.
  • American Measles Outbreak Continues

    American Measles Outbreak Continues
    American Measles Outbreaks Increase
    For 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received reports of 134 cases of measles in the United States, the most cases in a year since 1996. Of these cases, more than 90% had not been vaccinated or had an unknown vaccination status.Measles remains a threat throughout the world.
  • 2009 Influenza Pandemic

    2009 Influenza Pandemic
    In April 2009, an outbreak of H1N1 (swine flu) broke out in many countries across the globe. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared that a global pandemic of novel influenza A (H1N1) was underway. By then, H1N1 had spread to more than 70 countries. The researchers estimate that the pandemic virus caused 201,200 respiratory deaths and another 83,300 deaths from cardiovascular disease associated with H1N1 infections.
  • 2009 H1N1 Vaccine Approved

    2009 H1N1 Vaccine Approved
    FDA approved four vaccines against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus.
    Vaccine Information
  • Cholera in Haiti

    Cholera in Haiti
    Cholera emerged in Haiti in the aftermath of January 12, 2010, earthquake there. Notably, cholera had not been reported in Haiti since 1960. Investigations of the epidemic suggest importation of cholera by infected aid workers. The bacteria likely spread through contaminated river drinking water.
  • Gates Donates 10 Billion

    Gates Donates 10 Billion
  • Pandemic Over

    Pandemic Over
    WHO declared end to 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Pandemic Data for the World
  • Measles Outbreak in France

    Measles  Outbreak in France
    France experienced a three-year increase in incidence of measles cases from 2008 through 2011. Of the more than 22,000 reported cases during this period, 10 people died, and nearly 5,000 were hospitalized for complications. At the beginning of the outbreak, only about 89% of two year olds had received one dose of MMR vaccine, well below the target of 95%.
  • Report on Vaccine Safety

    Institute of Medicine issued the report titled "Review of Adverse Effects of Vaccines." Overall, the committee concludes that few health problems are caused by or clearly associated with vaccines.
    Report and Findings
  • Expanding HPV

    Expanding HPV
    ACIP recommended all 11 to 12 year-old males get vaccinated against HPV.
  • Flu Vaccine and Cell Culture Technology

    Flu Vaccine and Cell Culture Technology
    FDA approved first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology (Flucelvax, Novartis). Video- How Cell Culture Flu Vaccines are Made Further Information
  • Polio Returns to Syria

    Polio Returns to Syria
    The political crisis in the Syrian Arab Republic, with its disruption of health programs and the displacement of millions of people, led to the reappearance of polio. Syria had not seen polio since 1999 prior to these outbreaks, which began in early fall 2013. The WHO launched an intensive emergency immunization drive to try to control the spread of the disease. By the end of 2013, 25 polio cases had been reported.
  • Prevnar 13 Vacccine

    Prevnar 13 Vacccine
    FDA approved use of Prevnar 13 vaccine in older children and teens (6-17 years).Prevnar 13 vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by pneumococcal bacteria. Prevnar 13 contains 13 different types of pneumococcal bacteria.
    Pneumococcal disease is a serious infection caused by a bacteria. Pneumococcal bacteria can infect the sinuses and inner ear. It can also infect the lungs, blood, and brain, and these conditions can be fatal.
  • Zika Virus Emeges

    Zika Virus Emeges
    Zika outbreaks in French Polynesia, Easter Island, the Cook Islands and New Caledonia. Retrospective analysis shows possible link to birth defects and severe neurological complications in babies in French Polynesia,
    Information on the Zika Virus
  • Southeast Asia Region Polio Free

    Southeast Asia Region Polio Free
    The World Health Organization certified the South-East Asia Region polio-free on March 27, 2014. The region includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Timor-Leste. In 2011, India was the last country of these countries to report a case of disease from wild poliovirus.
  • New Meningococcal Vaccine Approved

    New Meningococcal Vaccine Approved
    The FDA announced the approval of a vaccine for group B meningococcal disease. The vaccine (generic name meningococcal group B vaccine, trade name Trumenba, manufactured by Pfizer) was advanced on an accelerated approval regulatory pathway. Outbreaks of meningococcal group B disease on several college campuses in 2013-2014 spurred the quicker pathway. The vaccine is approved for use in individuals ages 10-25 years and is given in three-dose series.
  • West African Ebola Epidemic

    West African Ebola Epidemic
    Ebola virus disease emerged at unprecedented epidemic levels in 2014. Whereas previous outbreaks had occurred in remote areas and were contained fairly quickly, this epidemic spread to crowded urban areas where transmissions have continued. The link below contains further details about the outbreak.
  • Measles Outbreak in United States

    Measles Outbreak in United States
    The United States is experienced a large multi-state measles outbreak that started in California in December 2014 and has spread to six additional states and Mexico. The initial confirmed case-patients reported visiting Disneyland Resort Theme Parks in Orange County, CA, from December 17 through December 20, 2014. From December 28, 2014, through January 21, 2015, 51 confirmed cases of measles linked to this outbreak have been reported to CDC,.
  • Increse in Microcephaly

    Increse in Microcephaly
    Brazil reports unusual increase in cases of microcephaly - abnormally small heads - among newborns. Possibly linked to Zika.
    Zika and Microcephaly
  • Ebola Epidemic Declared Over

    Ebola Epidemic Declared Over
    The world breathed a sigh of relief as a two-year Ebola epidemic that killed 11,000 and triggered a global health alert was declared over, with Liberia the last country given the all-clear.
    The deadliest outbreak in the history of the feared tropical virus wrecked the economies and health systems of the three worst-hit west African nations after it emerged in southern Guinea in December 2013.
  • WHO Declares Public Health Emergency

    WHO Declares Public Health Emergency
    World Health Organization declares a public health emergency of international concern bevcause of Zika Virus.
  • HPV Infection Rates Decline

    HPV Infection Rates Decline