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History of Blood

  • 200

    CE, Galen becomes one of the most influential physicians of all time

    CE, Galen becomes one of the most influential physicians of all time
    Galen is responsible for discovering that arteries contain blood, veins and arteries are two different things, and Blood forms in the liver. His ideas were the basis for anatomy for many centuries.
  • 300

    First public dissection on humans

    BCE, Herophilus of Chalcedon becomes the first person to publicly dissect a human body. He discovers that arteries are a lot thicker than veins and both carry blood.
  • 350

    Aristole believes the heart is the central organ

    BCE, Aristole did many animal dissections to back up his theory and concluded that the heart was a 3 chamber organ in animals and humans as well.
  • 400

    BCE, Empedocles believes that the organ of sense is the heart

    Not only did he believe in this theory of the heart but he also came up with the theory that all matter is made from the four elements which are fire, earth, water and air.
  • 400

    Hippocrates comes up with humoral theory

    Hippocrates comes up with humoral theory
    BCE, Hippocrates believed that there were 4 humors in the body: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Whenever one of these humors would become unbalanced is when disease would appear. Also believed sickness came from natural causes instead of magical ones.
  • 500

    Alcmaeon of Croton discovers veins and arteries are not the same

    Alcmaeon of Croton discovers veins and arteries are not the same
    BCE, Alcmaeon of Croton was very well known for his animal dissections and through all of his dissections he finally came to the conclusion that arteries and veins were not the same thing.
  • Feb 18, 1200

    Pulmonary circulation is discovered

    Pulmonary Circulation is the process of blood flowing to and from the lungs, it was discovered by Eminent Cairo
  • First drawings of vein valves

    First drawings of vein valves
    Fabricius writes "ON THE VALVES IN VEINS" which gives the very first drawings of vein valves ever.

    William Harvey publishes his book and in it, it explains that blood is actually pumped by the heart and blood gets circulated throughout the body.
  • Jan Swammerdam observes red blood cells

    Jan Swammerdam becomes the first person to observe and describe red blood cells.
  • Capillary system first observed

    Capillary system first observed
    Marcello Malpighi uses a rudimentary microscope and observes the capillary system which is the a network of vessels that connct the arteries and veins
  • First animal blood transfusion recorded

    Richard Lower does the first recorded blood transfusion on animals with two dogs.
  • Multiple successes with blood transfusions

    Jean Baptiste Denis helps a boy with a fever by transfusing sheep blood into him, does multiple other transfusions until the death of
    Antoine Mauroy.
    Dr. Richard Lower does transfusions of sheep blood for 20 shillings.
  • French Parliament bans any transfusions that involve humans

    This decree was put into effect after Dr. Denis sued Antoine Mauroy's widow for ruining his reputation. Same actions also take place in England and Rome
  • Fibrogen is discovered

    Fibrogen is discovered
    William Hewson writes in his book "EXPERIMENTAL ENQUIRY INTO THE PROPERTIES OF THE BLOOD" about discovering a substance in plasma that would eventually be known as Fibrogen which is the main protein that helps in the clotting process.
  • Philip Syng Physick techinally is the first person to do a human to human transfusion

    He is not credited for this however because it was not recorded and is only known becuase of a footnot in a medical journal.
  • First recorded human to human blood transfusion is done

    James Bundell performs the first recorded human to human blood transfusion. His patient suffering from internal bleeding at first seemed like they were recovering but then died.
  • Platelets are discovered

    Platelets are discovered
    Sir William Osler discovers platelets when he notices small cell fragments that make up most of the clots in blood vessels
  • Blood types A,B, and O are found

    Karl Landsteiner discovers 3 different types of blood types: A,B,O. Also type O used to be called type C before he changed it.
  • Blood type AB is found

    Karl Landisteiner's students Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli discover blood type AB during their research. Type AB was noticed because aggulation was found in both groups A and B.
  • Dr.Rueben Ottenberg does first transfusion using cross matching

    128 cases are done after that using the same cross matching method and this pretty much ends any possible blood transfusion reactions that would usually end in death.
  • Dr. Ludvig Hektoen reccomends cross matching

    After this reccomendation, Dr. Ottenberg tries his cross matching idea and this is what ends the bad reactions to blood transfusions
  • Sodium citrate is discovered to prevent clotting in blood

    Albert Hustin and Luis Agote are credited for discovering that adding sodium citrate to blood will stop it from clotting up, Hustin would later publish their discovery in april of 1914.
  • Right amount of sodium citrate that wont harm a patient when injected is solved

    Dr. Richard Lewisohn figures out that .2 percent of sodium citrate can be injected into a patients blood without it harming them, anymore than that would hurt the person.
  • Finding that citrated blood can be refrigerated and still used later

    Dr. Richard Weil is responsible for figuring out that citrated blood can be put in the fridge for a few days and still safely be transfused later.
  • Citrate-glucose solution keeps blood safe for weeks now

    Francis Peyton Rous and J.R. Turner create a citrate-glucose solution that allows for collected blood to remain fine for weeks and still be able to be used for transfusions. later.
  • First blood depot

    Dr. Oswald Robertson is credited fpr creating the first blood depot after he adds citrate-glucose to type O blood and stores it prior to a battle during WWI
  • Structure of hemoglobin is closely examined

    Structure of hemoglobin is closely examined
    Dr. Max Perutz uses X-ray crystallography to take a closer look at the structure of Hemoglobin, which is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.
  • A highly concentrated form of Factor VIII is created

    This substance was created by both Dr. Kenneth M. Brinkhous and Dr. Edward Shanborm. It was 100 times stronger than raw plasma and could easily be injected in a hemophilia patient with a syringe, making it wanted much more than just using raw plasma.
  • Substance found in hepatitis B that triggers production of antibodies

    It was discovered by Dr. Baruch Blumberg that there was a substance on the surface of the virus Hepatitis B that would trigger the production of antibodies. This discovery then leads to the creation of a test that can tell whether there are Hepatitis antibodies in a person or not.
  • First cases of AIDS arise

    Aids was orginally called GRID (Gay-related Immunodeficiency Disease) because it was common among gay men but it was later realized that this disease did not only affect gay men and so it was later re-named to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
  • Virus that causes AIDS is found

    Virus that causes AIDS is found
    Robert Gallo discovers the AIDS virus which he calls HTLV III which means human T-cell lymphotropic virus. He announces this at a press conference on April 23 1984.
  • Battle over who really discovered the AIDS virus

    This argument ends in 1987 with a compromise between the US and french government saying that they share credit and will get royalites for any AIDS test kits sold.
  • ELISA test put into effect

    Many people were getting AIDS from blood transfusions so the ELISA test was created to test for the presence of HIV antibodies. Many blood banks and plasma centers quickly introduced the test into their faucilities.
  • BCE, Egyptians do bloodletting as a way to combat disease

    Through cave drawings it has been discovered that the ancient egyptians used to bloodlet to let out any diseases that person may have had. In the famous illistration found in Memphis, Egypt, it is shown a person being cut on their foot and neck.