Blood History, Yo

By Waters
  • 300

    First Human Dissection (BCE)

    Herophilus, the first Greek anatomist to openly dissect a human, predicted that veins were thinner than arteries, and that arteries carried blood.
  • Jan 1, 1250

    Discovery of Blood Flow and Circulation

    Egyptian physician and author Ibn al-Nafis discovers the flow of blood to and from the lungs, or what is described as pulmonary circulation. This discovery's date is uncertain, but was sometime during the mid 1200's
  • Jan 1, 1492

    First Attempted Blood Transfusion (humans)

    Pope Innocent was transfused with the blood of three ten-year old boys by mouth as he sank into a coma. All four of the participants died. The operation was ultimately considered unsuccessful.
  • Apr 20, 1553

    Blood Flow Theory

    Michael Servetus theorizes that blood flows from one side of the heart to the other through the lungs, not through the wall between the ventricles, This refuted Galen's theory.
  • "On the Valves in Veins"

    Paduan anatomist Fabricius publishes his work, "On the Valves in Veins, featuring the first drawings of vein valves.
  • Anatomical Treatise on the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals

    William Harvey publishes his piece called "Anatomical Treatise on the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals." In it, he explains how the blood is pumped by the heart in order to circulate within the body.
  • Heart Pumping Explained

    British physician William Harvey explains that blood is pumped by the heart and circulate throughout the body. Harvey experiments on animals and on the surface veins of arms of living subjects.
  • First Red Blood Cell Observation

    Using a microscope, Dutch biologist Jan Swammerdam observes red blood cells for the first time.
  • Capillary System

    Marcello Malphighi discovers the Capillary System using a rudimentary microscope. This is a system of vessels that connect veins and arteries.
  • First Blood Transfusion

    Jean-Baptiste Denis gives the first blood transfusion to a teenage boy suffering from a persistent fever. He gave him nine ounces of lamb's blood. He attached the lamb's carotid artery to a vein in the boy's forearm.
  • Ban on Blood Transfusion

    Because of the lack of knowledge of sanitary conditions, many things went wrong during blood transfusions around this time, which led to suing. The French Parliament banned the practice and the ban later went on to other countries, like England.
  • Red Blood Cell Size

    Anton van Leeuwenhoek predicted the red blood cell to be roughly 25,000 times smaller than a grain of sand, a much more precise description.
  • Discovery of Plasma

    William Hewson explains his research on blood coagulation which includes his success at arresting clotting and isolating a substance from plasma he names the "coagulable lymph."
  • First Published Transfusion

    James Blundell performs the first published human blood transfusion. The patient, after showing signs of improvement, died :D
  • Discovery of Platelets

    Sir William Osler observes that cell fragments from the bone marrow make up the clots formed in blood vessels; these cell fragments will eventually be called platelets.
  • Blood Letting - 2500 B.C.E

    Egyptians use bloodletting as a medical treatment. It was believed that illness was caused from having too much blood and that letting it out would cure many forms of discontent.
  • A, B, and C Blood Groups

    Karl Landsteiner publishes a paper where he details his discovery of the 3 main blood types, A, B, C. (Later renamed "O")
  • AB Blood Group

    Alfred Von Becastello and Adriano Sturli discover the 4th blood group, AB blood..
  • Cross Matching

    Ruben Otenburg performs the first transfusion using cross matching, or when you check the blood of donors and recipients for signs of compatibility
  • Sodium Citrate Prevents Thickening in Blood

    Albert Hustin and Luis Agote discover that adding sodium citrate to blood will prevent it from thickening.
  • Longer Blood Storage

    J.R. Turner creates a solution that allows blood to be stored for weeks and still be used successfully for a transfusion.
  • Blood Depot

    Dr. Oswald Robertson has the first blood depot. He collects and stores type O blood.
  • Blood On Demand

    Percy Oliver operates a blood donor service in his own home. He hires volunteers and has some on call twenty four hours a day in case blood is needed quickly.
  • Collecting and Storing Blood

    Soviets come up with several ways of collecting and storing blood, which get used for Blood Transfusions in hospitals.
  • Blood Banks Emerged, Between 1922 and 1940

    During this time period, many blood banks, or places where blood was stored for the purpose of transfusions, sprung up. They emerged throughout the world.
  • Cadaver Blood

    Dr. Serge Yudin was the first to test the use of the blood from a cadaver.Also, the soviets are the first to create a network where they store blood for transfusions.
  • Citrated Blood

    A group of anasthesiologists are the first to store and use citrated blood in blood transfusions.
  • Rh Blood Group

    Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Weiner experiment with the blood of Rhesus monkeys and discover the Rh blood group.
  • Blood Plasma for War

    Red Cross gathers civilians to donate blood plasma for those at war.
  • Plastic Bags

    Dr. Carl W. Walter uses plastic bags for the storage of blood, a much more sanitary alternative than using glass.
  • Hemoglobin Structure Discovered

    Hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells, was identified by Dr. Max Perutz using X-ray crystallography.
  • Plasma Information Disovered

    Dr. Judith Pool studied slowly thawed frozen plasma and discovered that the plasma had higher clotting power than regular plasma.
  • GRID

    A disease named GRID, later changed to AIDS, is discovered and is highly prevalent among gay men.
  • GRID, Bloodbourne

    Dr. Bruce Evatt believes that the disease prevalent among homosexual men, GRID, is bloodborne.
  • HIV Bloodstream Testing

    Blood can be tested for HIV with a "heat-treated" factor available, making it safe to receive blood without fear of contracting the HIV virus.
  • AIDS Cause Discovered

    Robert Gallo discovers the virus that causes AIDS, HIV.