Eminent Cairo who is a physcian and author Ibn al-Nafis both find out and decribe pulmonary circulation. Which is the flow of blood to and from the lungs.
Feb 21, 1553
Heart to lungs
Spanish physician and theologian Michael Servetus suggests that blood flows from one side of the heart to the other via the lungs instead of through the wall between the ventricles
May 23, 1555
Andreas Vesalius criticizes Galen in the second edition of his seven volume work detailing human anatomy.
Fabricius, the anatomist from Padua, publishes his work on the valves in veins featuring the first drawings of vein valves.
British physician William Harvey publishes his masterpeice in which explains that blood is circulated throughout the body and is pumped by the heart.
Red blood cells
A twenty-one year old microscopist names Jan Swammerdan is thought to be the first to discover,observe, and desribe red blood cells.
anatomist Marcello Malpighi observes the capillary system, the network of fine vessels that connect the arteries and the veins.
In England, Richard Lower preforms the first recorded blood transfusion in animals.
French physician Jean-Baptiste Denis transfuses a teenage boy suffering from a persistent fever with nine ounces of lamb's blood
The case precipitates the French Parliament's ban on all transfusions involving humans.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch linen draper turned microscopist, says that red blood cells, guessing thier size 25,000 times smaller than a fine grain of sand.
First human to human
James Blundell preforms the first human to human blood transfusion using a syringe.
Sir William Osler observes that small cell fragments from the bone marrow make up the bulk of clots formed in blood vessels these cell fragments will come to be called platelets.
Karl Landsteiner discovers the three main human blood groups -- A, B, and C, which he later changes to O.
Fourth blood group
Dr. Landsteiner's colleagues Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli identify a fourth blood group -- AB -- that causes agglutination in the red cells of both groups "A" and "B."
Preventable blood clots
researchers Albert Hustin of Brussels and Luis Agote of Buenos Aires discover that adding sodium citrate to blood will prevent it from clotting
At the Rockefeller Institute in New York, Francis Peyton Rous and J.R. Turner develop a citrate-glucose solution that allows blood to be stored for a few weeks after collection and still remain viable for transfusion.
While serving in the U.S. Army, Dr. Oswald Robertson develops the first blood depot.
Dr. Serge Yudin is the first to test the efficacy of transfusing humans with cadaver blood.
Blood -transfusion service
physician Federico Duran-Jorda establishes the Barcelona Blood-Transfusion Service which collects blood, tests it, and sends it off to camps during the civil war.
Dr. Bernard Fantus coins the term "blood bank" to describe the blood donation, collection, and preservation facility.
Drs. Philip Levine uncover an unknown antibody in the blood of a woman who's given birth factor in the blood of the fetus, inherited from the father, triggers the antibody production in the mother.
Blood donor service
the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army and Navy, the American Red Cross agrees to organize a civilian blood donor service to collect blood plasma for the war effort
Dr. Carl W. Walter, a trained surgeon, develops a plastic bag for the collection of blood. Prior to this, glass bottles are used to store blood but they were to fragile.
As an alternative to the Red Cross blood centers being set up across the country in the postwar period, directors of independent, community blood banks join together to form a national network of blood banks called the American Association of Blood Banks.
Through the use of X-ray crystallography Dr. Max Perutz is able to unravel the structure of hemoglobin, the protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen.
Dr. Judith Pool discovers that slowly thawed frozen plasma yields deposits high in Factor VIII (or Antihemophilic Factor)
Kenneth M. Brinkhous pooled large quantities of plasma that generate vast amounts of cyro, which are then redissolved, treated, filtered, and centrifuged. The result is 100 times stronger than raw plasma.
Blood Banking industry
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Elliot Richardson transfers the responsibility of regulating the blood banking industry from the Division of Biologics Standards (DBS) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The first cases of a syndrome initially called GRID (Gay-related Immunodeficiency Disease), due to its prevalence among gay men are reported.
Bruce Evatt, a specialist in hemophilia at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention begins to suspect that the syndrome may be blood borne
Researchers at Dr. Luc Montagnier's lab at the Institut Pasteur, in France, isolate the virus that causes AIDS they locate it in the swollen lymph node of a patient
Dr. Robert Gallo of the NIH announces that he's identified the virus that causes AIDS
After dozens of Americans are infected with AIDS from blood transfusions, the first blood-screening test to detect the presence or absence of HIV antibodies
A series of more sensitive tests are developed and implemented to screen donated blood for infectious diseases: two tests that screen for indirect evidence of hepatitis