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History of Medicine

  • 400

    Loss of Medical Science

    Loss of Medical Science
    Due to the Crusades and other various events, the knowledge of the Greeks and Romans and medical science was lost.
  • Period: 400 to Jan 1, 1400

    Dark and Middle Ages

    Medicine was only practiced in monasteries and convents.
    Only herbal medicine was used.
    Many plagues and epidemics occured (bubonic plague, smallpox, diphtheria, syphillis, and tuberculosis).
  • Period: Jan 1, 1000 to Jan 1, 1099

    First Schools of Medicine Established

    The very first school of medicine was established in Salerno, Italy.
  • Jan 1, 1315

    First Human Dissection Recorded

    First Human Dissection Recorded
    The first recorded human dissection done in public was done by Mondino de Luizzi.
  • Jan 1, 1348

    Black Plague

    Black Plague
    A pandemic of the black plague (bubonic plague, black death) killed 3/4 of Europe's population.
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Regulations for Midwifes

    Regulations for Midwifes
    The first regulations and rules for midwifes were recorded.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance brought back the rebirth of science and stimulated physicians and scholars to start to scientifically study medicine.
  • Jan 1, 1436

    Printing Press

    Printing Press
    Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press. This invention allowed information to be passed throughout the world much easier than by word of mouth or written hand.
  • Jan 1, 1489

    Corpse Dissection

    Corpse Dissection
    Leonardo da Vinci started to dissect corpses he took from graves.
  • Jan 1, 1510

    Father of Modern Surgery

    Ambroise Pare starated using ligatures to stop bleeding and bind arteries. He stopped using boiling oil to cauterize wounds. He also started the accpetance of using artificial limbs.
  • Jan 1, 1523

    Fallopian tubes and Tympanic membrane

    Gabriel Fallopius first discoverd the fallopian tubes and the tympanic membrane in the ear.
  • Gunpowder Invented

    Fathullah Shirazi created the first recorded gunpowder.
  • First Studies of Heart/Blood/Arteries Conducted

    First Studies of Heart/Blood/Arteries Conducted
    William Harvey published "An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals" which is the start of describing the heart, etc.
  • First Bacteria Viewed

    First Bacteria Viewed
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek was, a cloth merchant, used glass lenses to view pond water -- which was filled with bacteria.
  • Blood Cells Discovered

    Blood Cells Discovered
    Anton van Leeuwenheok discovered blood cells.
  • Mercury Thermometer

    Mercury Thermometer
    Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first mercury thermometer.
  • Bifocals

    Benjamin Franklin invented the first pair of bifocals. He may/may not be the very first inventor, but due to correspondance that was found, he definately created them independantly.
  • Appendectomy

    Claudius Aymand completed the first appendectomy.
  • Declaration of Independence

    The United States of America declared independence from Great Britain.
  • Smallpox

    The vaccination against smallpox was developed. Now, we have completed irradicated smallpox from the planet! Weew!
  • Stethascope Invented

    Stethascope Invented
    Rene Laennec invented the first stethoscope in France. It looked like a common ear trumpet.
  • Hand Washing!

    Ignaz Semmelweis discovered that medical students didn't wash their hands between working in the lab and delivering babies. That lead to many deaths of babies and mothers. So if they washed their hands, the number of deaths went down.
  • First Female Doctor

    First Female Doctor
    Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States. She also inspired Florence Nightingale to start nursing schools.
  • First Syringe

    First Syringe
    Gabriel Pravaz and Alexander Wood were the first to develop a syringe with a needle fine enough to pierce the skin
  • Heredity

    Gregor Mendel established the patterns of heredity.
  • First Nursing SChool

    First Nursing SChool
    Florence Nightingale started the first nursing school. It made nursing be acknowleged as an honorable profession and brought forth respect for nurses.
  • Pasteurization

    Louis Pasteur, with the help of Claude Bernard, completed the first pasteurization of milk. They discovered heating the milk prevented the growth of bacteria.
  • First Use of Antiseptic during surgery

    First Use of Antiseptic during surgery
    Joseph Lister was the first doctor to figure out that using an antiseptic during surgery was necessary and prevented infection in the incision!
  • X-Rays

    Wilhem Rontgen was the first scientist to study and use x-ray technologies. He didn't invent them or discover them but he was the first to use them.
  • Creation of the Telephone

    Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone which changed communication forever.
  • Father of the Automobile

    Karl Benz, a German mechanic, created and patented the first modern automobile.
  • American Red Cross

    American Red Cross
    Clara Barton, the "Angel of the Battlefield", established the American Red Cross. The American Red Cross is an organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and education.
  • Rabies Vaccine

    Rabies Vaccine
    Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux developed the first vaccine for rabies. They used it on a young boy who had been attacked by a rabid dog.
  • Psychology

    Sigmund Freud started studying the affects of the unconscious mind and the body. He believed in psychoanalysis and now are the basis of psychology and psychiatry.
  • A, B. AB. O Blood Types Discovered

    A, B. AB. O Blood Types Discovered
    Austrian scientist, Karl Landstiener found the different blood types and recieved the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.
  • Airplanes

    Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first airplane and took the first flight ever.
  • Culture Plate

    Culture Plate
    Robert Koch developed the culture plate to identify pathogens.
  • Helicopters

    Jacques and Louis Breguet, two French brothers, constructed and took the first helicopter ride.
  • RAdium

    Marie Curie isolated radium.
  • Penicillin

    The first antibiotic drug, Penicillin, was discovered. This was the first drug that combated serious diseases like syphillus, and staphlococci and staphlycoccus bacterias. It is still used today.
  • First PC

    Hewlett-Packard is founded and begins making the first computer.
  • Period: to

    World War 2

    The Allied and Axis Powers of the world fought for 6 long years. There were many casualties all around the board.
  • Atomic Bomb

    The United States dropped the first and second Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan.
  • Polio Vaccine

    Polio Vaccine
    Jonas Salk created an altered polio virus vaccine that was administered as a shot.
  • Polo Vaccine 2

    Polo Vaccine 2
    Albert Sabin created the oral polio vaccine that was more effective than Jonas Salk's vaccine.
  • Airbags

    John W. Hetrick patented and installed the first airbags in vehicles.
  • Seat belts

    After a SAAB was released with safety belts at a carshow, seat belts became common accessories and eventually madatory in vehicles.
  • Microsurgery

    This technique of using a microscope and other instruments is used to operate on the smallest body structures and cells.
  • Human Spaceflight

    Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet, completed the first ever human spaceflight.
  • First Heart Transplant

    First Heart Transplant
    Christian Barnard performed the first human to human heart transplant. His patient only lived 18 days after the surgery, but the surgery was a huge milestone in life extension.
  • First Cellphone Call

    Martin Cooper, of Motorolla Inc, made the first cellphone call.
  • Test-tube babies

    Test-tube babies
    The first test-tube baby was born on July 25, 1978. "Test-tube babies" actually are concieved through in-vitro fertilization. Sperm and an egg are combined and then the egg is implanted in the woman's uterus.
  • Scope Surgery

    Scope Surgery
    The use of various scopes being used in surgery is becoming increasingly popular. The advantage to scope surgery is that minimal incisions need to be made.
  • HIV/AIDS Discovered

    HIV/AIDS Discovered
    HIV/AIDS is caused by sexual transmission of the disease, blood transmission, or prenatal transmission. To this day, there still is no cure, only medicines to slow the effects.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    This project is an international research project with the goal of mapping the 25,000 genes of the human genome.
  • Gene Therapy

    Gene Therapy
    The first successful gene therapy procedure was on a four year old girl with an immune system defect. The effects were only temporary but deemed successful.
  • First Cloning

    First Cloning
    Dolly the sheep was the first animal to be cloned. Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. Dolly lived only about six years.
  • Internet

    The first web browser was available to the public.
  • Period: to 410

    Ancient Romans

    The Ancient Romans began public health and sanitation systems.
  • Vaccine to Fight Cancer

    Vaccine to Fight Cancer
    The first vaccine to prevent cancer was created. This vaccine is called Gardasil.
  • Cat Gut Suture

    Cat Gut Suture
    Rhazes, an Arab physician began using animal (cat) gut as suture material.
  • Physicians Examinations and Licenses

    Arabs started to require that physicians take tests and obtain licenses before practicing medicine.
  • Cigarettes and Tobacco Smoking

    Central American's became accustomed to smoking tobacco. Through exploration, different counties adapted their own smoking techniques. Cigarette smoking and tobacco are now major concerns today.
  • First Medical Beliefs

    First Medical Beliefs
    Claudius Galen, a physician, established many of the first medical beliefs:
    1) The body is regulated by blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.
    2) Those are called humors. An imbalance in the humors lead to sickness.
    3) Described symptoms
    4) Dissected animals
    5) Determined function of muscles, kidney, and bladder