The Egyptians used bleeding to treat their patients. patients were depicted in tombs as bleeding from the foot or neck.
Empedocles 450-400 BCE
Empedocles believes that the organ or sense is the heart. He theorizes that the four elements: earth, fire, air, and water are what comprises all matter.
Hippocrates 400 BCE
Becuase of the ideas of Empedocles, Hippocrates suggestes that the body is made of blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.
Aristotle 350 BCE
Aristotle believes that the heart the center of all the organs in the body. After dissecting animals, he guesses that the heart is made up of three chambers.
Herophilus 300 BCE
Herophilus is the first to dissect human parts publicly. He believes that the arteries carry blood.
Period: 130 to 200
Galen C. 130-200 CE
Galen becomes one of the most important physicians in history. He proves that blood is in arteries by dissecting and experimenting. He suggested that blood came from the liver and traveled through a system of arteries and veins.
Feb 18, 1250
Ibn al-Nafis C. mid 1200s
Ibn al-Nafis discovers the pulmonary circulation.
Feb 18, 1553
Michael Servetus suugests that blood flows from on side of the heart to the other side and into the lungs.
Fabricius publishes his work featuring the first drawings of vein valves.
William Harvey publishes DE MOTU CORDIS and explains that blood circulates all over the body and is pumped by the heart.
Jan Swammerdam is thought to be the first person to look and describe red blood cells in blood.
Marcello Malpighi observes the capillary system.
Richard Lower performs the first recorded blood tranfusion in animals.He revives a dog with another dog's blood.
Jean-Baptiste Denis tranfuses blood using 9 ounces of lamb's blood to a teenage boy with persistent fever. He continues to transfuse blood on other patients until Antoine Mauroy died.
Richard Lower and Edmund King
They give Aurthur Coga a transfusion of blood in which he recovered from nicely.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Leeuwenhoek observes red blood cells and approximated their size being "25,000 times smaller than a fine grain of sand"
William Hewson researches about blood coagulation. He manages to isolate fibrogen, an important protein in the clotting process.
Philip Syng Physick
He was the first to perform a human to human blood transfusion but he never published his work.
James Blundell was the first to record the human to human blood transfusion. He inject the patient with blood. After showing some improvement, the patient died.
Sir William Osler
Sir William Osler looks at small cell fragments in the bone marrow. He then determines that they make up the bulk of clots formed in blood vessels. These fragments would later be called platelets.
Karl Landsteiner discovers that blood has types. He classifies them as A, B, and C (later called O) blood. He studies the agluttination of blood.
Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli
Dr. Landsteiner's colleagues discover another type of blood: AB.
Dr. Ludvig Hektoen
He suggests that donors and recipients check for blood imcompatibility before transfusing. (Cross Matching)
Dr. Reuben Ottenberg
He performs the first blood transfusion using the help of cross matching. From then on, he continues to use it in 128 cases, all of which were safe and efficient.
Albert Hustin of Brussels and Luis Agote of Buenos Aires
They both find out the adding sodium citrate to blood will keep it from clotting.
Dr. Richard Lewisohn
Dr. Richard Lewisohn uses sodium citrate concentration in the blood he was using to transfuse to prevent coagulation. The patient was not harmed.
Dr. Richard Weil
He discovers that blood that has sodium citrate in it can be refrigerated for days and taken out with still a good condition.
Francis Peyton Rous and J.R. Turner
Both Rous and Turner worked together mixing sodium citrate and glucose to create a solution that can be added to blood so the blood can be stored for weeks. The blood will still be good after weeks.
Dr. Oswald Robertson
Dr. Robertson collects and stores O type blood with citrate-glucose solution to aid with the casualties in World War I. He establishes the first blood depot.
Dr. Bernard Fantus
He coined the term blood bank which is a blood donation, collection, and preservation facility.
Dr. Karl Landsteiner and Dr. Alexander Weiner
They experiment with monkeys and they discover that the blood contains an Rh blood group along witht he anti-Rh antibody.
Dr. Paul Beeson
In his report, he links jaundice in seven cases to blood or plasma transfusions to tranfusion transmitted hepatitis.
Dr. Carl W. Walter
Dr. Walter develops a blood bag to collect blood in because it is stronger and cannot be contaminated.
Dr. Max Perutz
Dr. Perutz discovers the structure of the hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen.
A syndrome appears called GRID (Gay-related Immunodeficiency Disease). It is later renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
Dr. Bruce Evatt
Dr. Bruce Evatt develops a theory that AIDS is a syndrome that is blood borne. He presents his theory at a meeting of a group of the U.S. Public Health Service.