Medical History Timeline

  • Period: 400 to Jan 1, 1400

    Dark and Middle Ages (400-1400 AD)

    1.) The study of medical science stopped for over 1,000 years
    2.) Medicine practiced only in onasteries and convents
    3.) Used herbal medicine
    4.) There were many plagues and epidemics-bubonis plague, smallpox, diptheria, suphills, and tuberculosis
    5.) Emphasis was placed on saving the soul and study of medicine was prohibited.
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Public Hygiene (1200's)

    First strict measures for control of public hygiene instituted.
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Human Corpse (1300's)

    First dissection of human corpse.
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Midwives (1400's)

    Midwives (1400's)
    First recorded regulations for midwives.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to

    Renaissance (1400-1650 AD)

    1.) Rebirth of Science- The Renaissance stimulated medical practice jsut as it did all other European intellectual pursuits. Physicians and scholars began to scientifically study medicine.
    2.) Medical Schools Were Built
    3.) The Printing Press Made Books Possible And Knowledge Was Shared- It is hard to believe its impact but the printing press was the information superhighway of its day.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to

    Renaissance (1400-1650 AD)

    4.) Accepted Study of the Body Dissection- The church did not permit the dissection of 'God fearing bodies' so it was often the bodies of criminals or 'sinners' that were used. Doctors learned about anatomy from watching these dissections. Sometimes the criminal was alive at the start of proceedings as part of their punishment.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1452 to Jan 1, 1564

    Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) and Andreas Vesalies (1514-1564)

    They dissected human bodies and made the first anatomical drawings. These helped in understanding the organs and systems of the human body.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Human Anatomy (1500's)

    First scientific study of human anatomy published.
  • Bacteria (1600's)

    Bacteria (1600's)
    Blood circulation first described Bacteria discovered.
  • William Harvey (1628)

    William Harvey (1628)
    William Harvey described the cirulations of blood and the pumping of the heart.
  • Anton van Leewenhoek (1666)

    Anton van Leewenhoek (1666)
    He invented the mircoscope.
  • Law for Licensed Medical Practitioners (1700's)

    First las requiring licensed medical practitioners.
  • Separate Branch of Medicine (1700's)

    Obstetrics established as a separate branch of medicine.
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit (1714)

    Gabriel Fahrenheit (1714)
    He created the first mercury thermometer.
  • Benjamin Franklin (1784)

    Benjamin Franklin (1784)
    He invented the bifocals and found that colds could be passed from person to person.
  • Guillotine (1789)

    Guillotine (1789)
    Joseph-Ignace Guillotin invented the first Guillotine. Led to possible interest in neurological connections(people still alive after getting beheaded).
  • Edward Jenner (1796)

    Edward Jenner (1796)
    Vaccination against smallpox developed.
  • Diagnostic Tools (1800's)

    Diagnostic tools, such as mircoscope, thermometer. and x-rays, invented.
  • Steam Locomotive (1814)

    Steam Locomotive (1814)
    George Stephenson designs the first steam locomotive. This relates to medicine with an easier way to transport vaccines and antibiotics and disinfectants to other locations around the nation.
  • Rene Laennec (1819)

    Rene Laennec (1819)
    He invented the stethoscope.
  • Period: to

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

    1.) Founder of modern nursing.
    2.) Established efficient and sanitary nursing units during Crimean War in 1854.
    3.)Opened Nightingale School and Home for Nurses at St. Thomas's Hospital in London (1860).
    4.) Began the professional education of nurses.
  • Period: to

    Gregory Mendel (1822-1884)

    Established principles (patterns) of heredity and dominant/recessive patterns.
  • Typewriter (1829)

    Typewriter (1829)
    W.A. Burt invents the first typewriter. This is related to medical advancements with keeping thorough track of records of patients. This helped keep ideas more organized for medical advancements with doctors opinions too (with medicine, vaccines, or remedies used to cure patients).
  • Anesthetic (1842)

    First practical anestheitic, either, introduced.
  • Period: to

    Robert Koch (1843-1910)

    "Father of Microbiology" He discovered many disease-causing orgnaisms-anthrax, tuberculosis, cholera. Developed the culture plate methold to identify pathogens and isolated the bacteria causing tubercuosis.
  • Ignaz Semmelweiss (1840's)

    Ignaz Semmelweiss (1840's)
    He identified the cause of maternal infections and instituted hand washing. Medical students would deliver babies after coming from the cadaver lad without washing their hands, causing the death of many newborn babies and mothers.
    He died from a cut during an autopsy.
  • Elizabeth Blackwell (1849)

    Elizabeth Blackwell (1849)
    In 1849, she became the first woman to qualify as a doctor in the U.S. Inspiredf Florence Nightingale to pursue nursing.
  • Period: to

    Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

    He studied the effects of the unconscious mind on the body. He dertermined that the mind and body work together. His studies were the basis of psychology and psychiatry.
  • Dorthea Dix (1861)

    Dorthea Dix (1861)
    Superintendent of female nurses of the army (1861).
  • Sink (1864)

    Sink (1864)
    The first sink was invented in 1864 by John Roughley. This relates to medical advancements with caring more about personal hygiene and disinfecting wounds.
  • Joseph Lister (1865)

    Joseph Lister (1865)
    He was the first doctor to use antiseptics and disinfectants during surgery to prevent infection in the incision.
  • Clara Barton (1881)

    Clara Barton (1881)
    "Angel of the Battlefield" Founded the American Red Cross in 1881.
  • Germ Therapy (1882)

    Germ therapy introduced. Established by Lousi Pasteur and Robert Koch.
  • Rabies Vaccine (1885)

    Rabies vaccine discovered
  • Louis Pasteur (1885)

    Louis Pasteur (1885)
    Rabies vaccine proved that microorganisms caused disease and discovered that heating milk prevented the growth (kill) of bacteria (pasteurization).
  • First Automobile (1885)

    First Automobile (1885)
    Karl (Carl) Benz invented the first gasoline powered automobile. Led to the first ambulance and quicker transportation to hospitals.
  • Electric Chair (1887)

    Electric Chair (1887)
    Alfred P. Southwick invented the first electric chair. Led to lethal injection(more humane ways of killing people).
  • William Roentgen (1895)

    William Roentgen (1895)
    Willhelm Roentgen invented the x-rays. This discovery allowed doctors to see inside the body to discover what was wrong with the patient.
  • Blood Types (1900's)

    Blood Types (1900's)
    Major blood types (O, A, B, and AB) identified.
  • Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1906)

    He suggested the existence of vitamins and concludes they are essesntial to health.
  • Marie Curie (1910)

    Marie Curie (1910)
    isolated Radium
  • Period: to

    World War 1 (Influenza 1918)

    This helped spread the virus of the Influenza aross the world and country (boats and soldiers coming to their home town) which made this a major epidemic for humans, which caused more deaths than usual and fear across the nation.
  • Obesity (1916)

    Obesity (1916)
    The first fast food resturant was A & W, which caused a high rise in obesity. Medical advancement of libosuction.
  • Influenza (1918)

    In the spring of 1918, as the nation mobilized for war, Private Albert Gitchell reporte to an Army hospital in Kansas. He was diagnosed with the flu, a disease doctors knew little about. Before the year was out, America would be ravaged by a flu epidemic that killed 675,000--more than in all the wars of this century combined--before disappearing as mysteriously as it began (burning of cow poop).
  • Sir Alexander Fleming (1928)

    Sir Alexander Fleming (1928)
    First anitbiotic drug, penicillin, discovered. This was considered one of the most important discoveries in the twentieth century.
  • Jonas Salk (1952)

    Jonas Salk (1952)
    First successful polio vaccine in 1952.
  • Birth Control (1960)

    Birth Control (1960)
    Birth control pill introduced.
  • Laser (1960)

    Laser (1960)
    Theodore Maiman made the first laser operate on 16 May 1960 at the Hughes Research Laboratory in California, by shining a high-power flash lamp on a ruby rod with silver-coated surfaces. This relate to medical advancement because of the use for laser eye surgery.
  • Christian Barnard (1968)

    Christian Barnard (1968)
    In 1967 he performed the world's first heart transplant surgery.
  • Microsurgeries (1970)

    The frist microsurgery was a rejoining of an amputated index finger by Professor Earl Owen from Sydney. Microsurgeries is surgery on minutes body structures or cells performed with the aid of a mciroscope and other specialized instruments, such as a micromanipulator.
  • Gene Mapping (1970s)

    Alfred Henry Sturtevant invented Gene Mapping. Gene mapping refers to the mapping of genes to specific locations on chromosomes. It is step in the understanding of genetic diseases.
  • Measles and Mumps Vaccine (1971)

    Developed by Maurice Hilleman in the late 1960's . The very first dose was in 1971.
  • Arthroscopy (1972)

    The advancement in Scope surgery. First arthorscopy surgery done on a 16 year old boy by J. Whit Ewing. The big advantage of this new techniques is that there is no need to make a large incision.
  • Cell Phones (Radiation) (1973)

    Cell Phones (Radiation) (1973)
    Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola invented the first cell phone, which increased the chances of radiation.
  • Chicken Pox Vaccine (1974)

    Created by Michiaki Takahashi in 1974.
  • Advanced Body Imaging (1977)

     Advanced Body Imaging (1977)
    The full body MRI was invented by Dr. Raymond V. Damadian. Advanced body imagining are diagnostic and screening medical procedures specifically developed to promote health and wellness.
  • Test-Tube Baby (1978)

    Test-Tube Baby (1978)
    First test-tube baby born in England, Louise Brown.
  • World Health Organization

    Announced smallpox is eradicated.
  • AIDs (1981)

    AIDS first recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventino (The first AIDS-like cases were identified more than a century earlier, in 1872)
  • Gene Therapy (1990)

    The first gene therapy occured in 1990. Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individual's cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary disease in particular.
  • Clone Sheep (1997)

    Clone Sheep (1997)
    Scientists clone sheep. Tissue cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original.
  • Stem Cells (1998)

    Scientists discover how to use human skin cells to create embryonic stem cells.